Something with my memory became... Whether
Can be held about advanced years good in remembrance? Professor K. G. Umansky tells about the reasons leading to its deterioration, and, in particular, about Alzheimer`s disease.
it is frequent, especially from people of advanced age, it is possible to hear: “Again forgot. Damned sclerosis!“ Those who are younger usually tell it for fun. Aged people, as a rule, treat the forgetfulness anxiously. Where you will get to!
Really memory impairment - process inevitable? And what is a sclerosis?
to Whom does not know that over time vessels undergo age changes. And not only brain vessels, but also all other bodies and fabrics: their walls become rigid, lose elasticity. These changes are called sclerous. However does not come to none of our mind to make itself such diagnosis as a sclerosis of vessels of a liver, pancreas or other bodies.
Age violations of memory at healthy people often happen imaginary. They are almost always connected with emergence of absent-mindedness, decline in the ability to long concentration of attention. Certainly, any violations from - for narrowings of a gleam of a vessel, and even in the form of melkotochechny hemorrhages in different areas of a brain can appear with age. Influence of similar violations on memory in many respects depends on localization. But most often even such, sometimes quite rough, vascular defeats do not lead to memory impairment. Examples of that set. So, the most great scientist, the founder of microbiology, the author of great opening of the end of the 19th century Louis Pasteur who lived 73 years filled with continuous creativity, at early age owing to vascular defeat practically lost the whole hemisphere of a brain. However his memory and working capacity did not suffer from it.
to me happened to observe the young man with fine memory and intelligence who suddenly died from a cerebral hemorrhage. On opening it became clear that it had very rare congenital disease of vessels of a brain. They resembled on fragile as dry macaroni, tubules with a crunch breaking when bending.
various diseases, and not only a brain, but also other bodies, practically quite often lead any To decrease in function of memory. Here many factors caused by both exchange processes, and continuous concern in any suffering play a role. But there are also other destroyers of memory. For example, the Israeli biologist M. Aranson in 2001 published the results of researches demonstrating that hours-long viewings of telecasts worsen memory and strengthen a possibility of a disease of weak-mindedness. According to its data, besides effect also deafening music can bring.
Not so the specific diseases which are followed by amnesia - memory loss (from Greek a - denial, mneme - memory), partial or full, temporary or constant seldom meet. I will not stop on the psychogenic states and diseases leading sometimes to such violations. It is the sphere of the psychiatry observing similar violations at schizophrenia, epilepsy and other diseases of various origin, and also at some forms of senile dementia.are various
of Amnesia in the manifestations. In one cases of people remembers only what was to a disease, in others does not remember anything or partially remembers what preceded an illness, for example a trauma. The last type of amnesia is called retrograde and is one of the frequent signs defining weight of concussion, for example at a road accident. In other cases in memory well familiar facts and data are distorted. There is also one more hardest type of amnesia at which the patient suddenly forgets all the antecedents and who is he is, including passport data. Such states can arise after severe physical or mental injuries, intoxications and even for no apparent reason when the most careful inspection of a brain does not reveal any deviations. The mechanism of such pathology is unknown still. Treatment in these cases seldom yields favorable results. But sometimes suddenly there come as if spontaneous “enlightenment“ and the patient remembers practically everything.
other diseases at which loss of memory and intelligence is caused by special, specific processes owing to system damages of a brain Exist. The state designated by the generalized concept “progressing dementia“ is characteristic of them (from armor. dementia - madness). >
In this, eighth year of the 21st century it is useful to p to look back, especially in the middle of XIX, the beginning of the XX century, for the critical period of creative existence of mankind. At this particular time, when the globe was diligent entangled networks of the railroads and phone lines, invented radio and planes, tanks and the skorostrelny weapon, people learned about existence of bacteria, viruses and many other. Then there was a prompt development of medicine, and in particular neuropathology which improved methods of researches.
For the last one and a half centuries average life expectancy of the person considerably increased. Perhaps, it is worth dwelling upon it slightly.Life expectancy of the cave person did not exceed
20 years. People lived in Ancient Rome on average slightly longer than 25 years. To the middle of the 19th century the average life expectancy of people estimated for 80% of the population reached 37 years. Since then, for only one and a half centuries, it increased to our time in the developed countries till 70 years, that is almost doubled. And for this reason to the second half of the 19th century many diseases developing after 45 - 50 years were practically not observed. Not to find their descriptions not only at the great Greek doctor Hippocrates living in 400 years B.C. but also at not less great Avicenna living about 1000 years ago as well as at European Paracelsus living in the 16th century.
Only from the second half of the 19th century doctors began to reveal the diseases developing mainly at the advanced and advanced age. Then researchers added a number to a set of already known defeats of nervous system new, meeting very seldom at which on unknown still to the reasons certain parts of the nervous system suddenly begin to degenerate spontaneously, that is to collapse. On border of XIX - the XX centuries many are described similar clinically, but various morphologically, that is on the structure, diseases of nervous system with an inevitable tragic outcome. Them about two tens are known: Shilder`s illness - Fua, Pierre Mari, Kaltenbakh and others. They meet very seldom, about 1 - 10 patients on one million inhabitants.Alzheimer`s disease is Most known to
(see. “Science and life“ № 3, 1992) . It now most of all “very famous“. Let`s remember history of its first description. Nearly hundred years ago, in 1906, Alois Alzheimer for the first time described results of research of a brain 55 - the summer woman who died after five years of suffering the heavy accruing weak-mindedness.
Long time this illness quietly coexisted with a set of other progressing defeats of nervous system. Quantitatively Alzheimer`s disease makes only insignificant percent among similar diseases. Qualitatively - all of them are one of the main sources of the accruing medical and social problems. These patients without prospect of recovery form everything the increasing layer of the people oppressed by the state and the oppressing people around hopelessness and powerlessness of modern medicine. The truth should look in eyes, as in eyes of the patients expressing constant pain and hope and, without deceiving itself, already now to look for new approaches to prevention and treatment of this disease.
Alzheimer`s disease - heavy. Beginning imperceptibly, more often after 55 - 60 years, it quite often for the first time, as if gradually, is shown in elementary non-compliance with hygiene: the person ceases to wash, cut nails, to change linen. Rest is replaced with the extended divergence periods. Memory becomes gradually worse. Soon there is so-called aphasia - the patient ceases to understand the speech turned to him, answers inattentively or in general other subject. He as if does not hear a question. Gradually reading and the speech are more and more broken, handwriting changes. There are repeated rhythmical repetitions of the last word of the phrase. A bit later the patient ceases to learn people around, the movements become inexact. Hallucinations, any spasms can be observed, up to epileptic seizures, and even unstable paralyzes. The illness progresses usually during two - four years, rarely it is more. But it is necessary to tell that emergence of the first external symptoms of a disease - it is already far not the beginning, but continuation of process which imperceptibly lasted before at least several years. And it is simply impossible to catch its beginning by any most modern methods.
Ya gave not all, but many clinical details and symptoms of Alzheimer`s disease, pronounced that readers had less conjectures and alarms concerning own forgetfulness.And would remain
rare Alzheimer`s disease low-perceptible, one among other infrequently found defeats of nervous system entering into group of neurodegenerations if not a disease of the president Reagan and his the courageous, in fact farewell, address to the nation after statement of the diagnosis.Most of people only then learned
about its existence. It “very famous“ and at the doctors who became more nastorozhyonny, but not always rather informed. And from here and an avalanche of the diagnoses which fell upon society superfluous, often superficially made, inherently - unreasonable sentences. And still - a wave of threats to all mankind! So, for example, the Ukrainian professor Vladislav Mertsalov “counted“ that by 2050 the quantity having Alzheimer`s disease in the USA can increase even to 10 million people, and around the world, in his opinion, their number will reach 100 million!
From my point of view, the similar intimidating data are constructed on the prerequisites provoked more by emotions, than a phenomenon essence.Now the diagnosis “Alzheimer`s disease“ is made by
with amazing ease to many patients including to young people. In fact, almost any appearing gradual decrease in memory is frequent and unconditionally regarded as initial display of Alzheimer`s disease now. At least, I observe a similar tendency in the USA.
my personal experience, as well as experience of development of medical science in general, shows that except the real epidemics, infectious and other diseases there are epidemics having the psychogenic (inspired) origin (so-called yatrogeniya; the name it comes from the Greek words iatros - the doctor and genos - an origin), proceeding not so much from public perception of these or those events as, for example, came in connection with an illness of the president Reagan, how many from general tendency to the aggravated perception of “sensations“, especially in medicine. And still, probably, because any person, thinking of the old age, a possible infirmity and a certain not palatable prospect of emergence of senile changes of mentality, as if “tries on“ them on himself. Such “primerochka“ are inevitable, however, in my opinion, there are no bases for panic, as well as there is no sensational “silent epidemic“ of Alzheimer`s disease. For this statement at me enough fundamental bases. Studying questions of sharp and chronic pathology of nervous system of various origin for more than forty years, I constantly worked also on a problem of the progressing defeats of nervous system where so-called neurodegenerations were leaders in development of pathological process. Alzheimer`s disease takes among them very modest place.
What was shown by these long, comprehensive investigations which captured more than four hundred patients? First of all the factor was completely excluded exogenous, that is external, privkhodyashchy (virus, toxic, etc.) . It turned out also that any sharp diseases - for cold and an infection to a trauma or intoxication - are only the provocative moments revealing external displays of the illness which is already existing in the latent form. Besides, it is established that hereditary factors in most cases can play an essential role.
the main - noted strict coherence of a number of the defeats of nervous system in general caused by primary pathology of various endocrine educations - a hypophysis, thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands and other violations of their functions, the majority of which is prichinno caused by hereditary factors, is diverse realized at different stages of life. Exactly from here the mnogoformennost of defeats of nervous system results. Similar ideas expressed earlier, but had no accurate evidence.
the Answer is found by us in 1993 when it was for the first time accurately shown that the neurodegeneration is pathology neuroendocrine.to
In the last decades by science it is established that a brain of the person, besides 13 billion (!) nervous cages and the carrying-out ways connecting them in the form of the thinnest fibers, has own, intracerebral, very powerful neuroendocrine system. The last consists of a set of the knots providing normal activity of various parts of the nervous system. Malfunction of any such small knot can be the reason of a certain nervous disease. In particular, the most known of them are Parkinson`s illness and parkinsonism (their division is very conditional). They are caused by malfunction of the black substance of a brain producing neurohormone - dopamine. In works of the American researchers of the end 70 - x years of the last century it is established that violation of activity of other endocrine small knot of a brain (an unpaired kernel of Meynart), as a rule, leads to development of Alzheimer`s disease, death of cells of a cerebral cortex, an amiloidoz. It is strange that many forgot about it now.the question of the nature of such diseases in general Necessarily arises with
. May they be result of hereditary predisposition to neuroendocrine violations? Obviously, in the majority - can. Here it is necessary to make the small explanation that there was no confusion. Well-known endocrine diseases, such as pathology of a thyroid or parathyroid gland, diabetes and some other, are not connected with neurohormones at all. It is absolutely other endocrine system - somatic (“corporal“). > it was already said by
to p Above that most often emergence of such diseases as Alzheimer`s disease and similar to it is caused and stimulated with various revealing factors - infections, intoxications, injuries, etc. And only now it becomes clear that the starting mechanism of an illness, its “fuse“ has other reason. The leading applicants for this role - genetic, hormonal, more precisely, neurohormonal disorders.the First confirmations that the chosen direction of the conducted researches was correct are received by
more than fifteen years ago when in some cases use of some neurohormones and hormones in general at similar diseases showed a certain efficiency, in particular at treatment of Alzheimer`s disease and other neurodegenerations. Unfortunately, are still poorly studied hormonal system of a brain and the elements making it.
For now to medical science should be watched patiently emergence of the most fantastic offers and conjectures in overcoming of similar illnesses in general and Alzheimer`s disease in particular.
the offer to use the known adsorbent Unitiol (the BALL - the British anti-lewisite invented during World War I for treatment of consequences of gas attacks), made recently Ukrainian physicians considering for some reason that this preparation is created only in 1950 in Ukraine by a certain V. E. Petrunkin belongs To such attempts, for example... Or a vaccine (it is unknown to what activator), what reported the American mass media about.
Unfortunately, it will be possible to win against the diseases connected with age loss of memory at a distant day and not clearly - whether it will be possible in general, because as it was told, external displays of similar diseases are found usually gradually, through quite long period after initiation when the incident is already irreversible. Only hopes for prevention and, perhaps, on a suspension of disease process are perspective so far.
But, I will repeat, we have to understand that similar diseases - a big rarity, as well as cases of senile dementia. The reasons causing decrease in memory are in most cases much more diverse and not so heavy. They quite often well give in to modern, known ways of prevention and treatment.Should be told
also that in large part cases when patients complain of decrease in memory, to them there is absolutely other - the violation of attention so peculiar to age changes is most often noted. Weakening of attention leads to underestimation, a certain fugacity of perception of situations and quite habitual world around. To get rid of it sometimes quite difficult. The only means - training, permanent creative job, repetition about itself the most important points, fixing by records of necessary affairs, and is even better - maintaining the diary. Isn`t that so, the extreme situation is remembered always rather strongly at any age? But the main thing - not to forget to look in record.sudden forgetfulness should not be frightened by
I, even for fun calling it “sclerosis“ or “Alzheimer“. As the famous comic writer 20 - x years of the last century Arkady Averchenko liked to speak, repeating popular wisdom, “God forbid, it is possible to predict to the own harm!“ But it, perhaps, already from area of superstition...
Simple methods of training of memory
Storing. knows Long ago that cramming does not develop memory. And 80 - summer scientists remember special information better, than their young pupils. It is all about degree of structure of perception of information, but not in its chaotic proglatyvaniye.Read to
the text and try to understand its main moments. You can emphasize, write out them, repeat about yourself.Read to
the text once again, already paying attention to subtleties. Try to connect them with the main ideas. Repeat about yourself the main ideas and understand their communication with minor. To deepen understanding of the text, it is important to raise questions to the main provisions.Many times to read to
the same text without storing of the main ideas it is useless. Repeat the text several times about yourself or tell somebody. By the way, quite so, repeating about itself the main theses, professionals prepare for important performances and the presentations.
being Even going to talk in a family with relatives about something important, speak the speech about yourself. The main thing - establish final thought of which you want to inform. Do not get off on a trifle then your opponents will be forced to speak to the point.
Method of associations. It is very important method. Example. Names and surnames which you easily remembered earlier often “go“ out of brains. Try to connect the “got stuck“ surname with a subject or image. Let`s tell, the famous diplomat Gorchakov - connect his surname with bitterness, mustard. The tremendous Russian writer Leskov - before eyes will get up young Liski (it is possible to repeat an image several times).
Being going to shop, do not write the list, and count how many objects it is necessary to buy. You can connect everyone with figure: 1 - milk, 2 - bread etc. Leaving shop, check result. You went to buy 6 positions - how many at you in a bag?
Make active the oral account. Start doing mental arithmetic over again. Postpone the calculator for large figures. Ponder how many money is necessary on the simplest purchases, divide the budget into expenses - and all in mind.
Organize life not to experience continuous panic. Such simple thing - the locks in the doorway which are closed outside. And you will not appear on a staircase with the only opportunity to enter the apartment, having caused the Ministry of Emergency Situations (it seems, it costs several thousands of rubles).
Before an exit from the apartment or departure from giving hang up the list of what you have to have with yourself: money, a social card or the travel card, points, medicine which you always take, the handle. It is better to put the passport in the pocket which is closed on a lightning. The mobile phone should be held always in the same place. More than once it was necessary to see how the person, especially women, in panic searches for the calling phone in a bag. If there is no mobile phone, then the notebook is required - suddenly it is necessary to call on the automatic machine.
Mnemonic receptions. Several phones, we will tell an office number of the husband, it is better to remember by heart; now long - segment numbers - 8 - 495 - 926 - 15 - 33. Repeat about yourself, and you remember it. Apply mnemonic receptions: let`s tell, 926 - in 1926 the father, 15 - game was born in “tag“, 33 - the movie with Leonov about 33 teeth - it is long, but helps.
Storage of documents. Usually documents which over the years become more and more keep in big boxes or old portfolios, and in search of one you shovel all box. Use transparent thin folders with buttons: they are on sale in office shops; from plastic folders - “corners“ of paper easily jump out, they are inconvenient. Well a marker (a fat indelible pencil) to write on each folder: “Apartment“, “Dacha“, “Inheritance“, “Taxes“, “Medicine“ - it very much will facilitate life by search of the necessary paper.write down Nothing
on pieces of paper if you have no special board to which they easily fasten. The usual alphabetic book or the daily log will simplify your life. There write down recipes, birthdays, necessary affairs, we will tell: “In half a year it is necessary to come into the Tax inspection“ etc.