Silence - gold?
the First year for parents the most joyful, but also the most disturbing. The kid sneezed - parents worry, at the baby temperature rose - all night long do not sleep, and if the child does not sit down in any way or does not begin to creep - adults in panic! And wait for the first word of mother how god-send! Doctors repeat that today more and more children suffer from delays of speech development. When normal the kid has to start talking and whether it is worth worrying if in a year and a half he does not pronounce the word? The children`s neurologist of Scientific Center of Mental Health of the Russian Academy of Medical Science Galina Nikolaevna Shimonova tells about it.
children pass several stages In mental development, and they pass them differently. Someone creeps till one and a half years, and someone does not creep at all, at some kids teeth are cut through in three - four months, and at others the first zubik arises only by a year. Though, of course, certain norms of development exist, and on them pediatricians and neuropathologists estimate a condition and development of the kid. According to these norms “babble“ has to appear in the speech of the child in 6 - 7 months, and by a year the kid has to repeat several words. However development of the child is influenced by many factors: pregnancy, childbirth, way of life and even floor. For example, boys, as a rule, begin to speak after girls - coevals. Besides, at boys problems with the speech meet more often. It is caused by genetic factors. Heredity plays an important role too: if one of parents late started talking, then at the child, most likely, the speech delay will be observed. And all this norm options.
the Parents who are watching closely development of the child have to see a doctor if at the age of 1,5 years the kid does not understand simple words (the name and names of surrounding objects), at the age of 2 - x years - do not try to repeat words. Inability of children to make phrases of two words in 2,5 years and inability to say simple sentences in 3 years have to cause serious concern in parents also. Delays of speech development are registered at 2 - 4% of children.
But if after 3 - x years the kid does not tell even simple sentences, it is possible to forget about option of norm. However, experts do not advise to wait to 2 - 3 - x years and suggest to begin occupations with the child already at chest age, months in 7 - 8 when the kid begins to understand the speech turned to it.
Some mothers rejoice that their children very much early (about 1 - 1,5 years) begin to tell the correct offers, using quite extensive lexicon. However the similar phenomena quite often lead to failure of nervous system. Rest, walks in the fresh air, a minimum of impressions and moderate talk is necessary for such children.
Why he is silent?I can be
of the Reason of a delay of the speech different. One of the most common causes of a delay - defeat of hearing. So, if the kid does not respond on the name, tells nothing - it has to excite parents and induce them to consult with the pediatrician and the ENT SPECIALIST. Quite often problems with hearing arise from - for inflammations of a middle ear in combination with a sulfuric stopper (otitis). In this case the doctor will write out antibiotics and kortikoida which the child has to accept within several weeks.
the Second reason - features of biological maturing of nervous system when at the child the general arrest of development, not only speech is observed. It often happens at premature children.
Third reason more serious: the delay of the speech is only a consequence of the general disorder of development, for example, of easy degree of intellectual backwardness or mental retardation.
the Fourth reason - absence of motivation. Usually similar picture develops in families where to be assigned to the child the central part. At “detotsentrizm“ mother with the father, grandmothers and grandfathers determine by the main vital task performance of all whims of the child when on his first shout or even a look adults precisely catch that is wanted by the child, and right there rush to the aid. The child does not even need to ask about anything! As in the known joke when the child to 3 - x was silent years as he fish, and started talking only when it was given unsweetened tea. “How?! - parents were surprised, - you are able to speak?! Why you were silent earlier?!“.“ So earlier everything was normal“, - the kid unperturbably answered.
the Fifth reason - pedagogical neglect and an emotional dissatisfaction when are engaged in the child a little, do not pay due attention. These are, as a rule, children from dysfunctional families. Getting to normal conditions, such kids quickly make up for lost time and begin to speak according to age norm.
the Sixth reason - a psychological trauma. First of all, it is possible to carry an early separation from mother to those. For example, mother seriously got sick, went to hospital, and the kid some time remained far from mother. Or, on the contrary, the baby was hospitalized (even if mother was near, for the child it is blow to mentality). Or mother was forced to leave and leave for several days the kid on care of relatives. For the child about one year it can become serious test. Therefore it is necessary to report to the neuropathologist for identification of the true reason of a delay of the speech and establishment of the correct diagnosis about similar things.Experts do not advise
the Seventh reason - deficiency of personal contact. Quite often mothers are so rolled up with restless children that prefer to seat them in an arena or in front of the TV and to go about the own business. And the working fathers strongly are tired after work, and, coming home, dream only of nourishingly to have supper and distract from daily cares, having plunged into the “television“ world, and talk to the child avaricious terse offers. As a result the kid hears the human speech a little, and to him it is simple there is nobody to learn to speak!
Besides, some parents mistakenly believe that the TV can help with training in speech skills in the child. It`s not true. Researches show that the child has to hear and see the speech not on the screen, and “alive“. The matter is that when the person pronounces words, speech process joins all his body, making certain micromovements. And the listener`s body during conversation makes just the same movements with small delay in 40 - 50 milliseconds. It occurs unconsciously, and the movements are not visible to an eye. That is, to pronounce one word, we involve all body.
Being involved by all being (in literal and figurative sense) in communication, the child learns to speak also at the level of consciousness, making various imitative sounds: agukanye, gurgle, grunting. Before pronouncing the first word, the kid trains the whole year muscles of a body and the person, learns to coordinate more than one hundred muscles involved in an articulation, being guided by adults. And when the child hears the speech from loudspeakers of the TV or the radio receiver, his body does not react to sounds in any way.Than we can help
the Help depends, first of all, on the delay reason. If it is deficiency of communication - it is necessary to talk more to the child, to read it books, to sing songs, poteshka. But at the same time it is not necessary “to jump“ around the child and all the time to entertain him, to rush to carry out any his desires - it is necessary to create situations when the child is forced to ask you about something. One mother constantly went on to the daughter:“ Tell that you want, I do not understand you“, trying to obtain thereby that the girl did not low, specifying regarding, and spoke “give“. Certainly, here it is not necessary to go too far and make the child cry, you remember that the first words are with great difficulty pledged to the kid.
I, certainly, surely show the kid to the otolaryngologist and the neuropathologist. Only the expert will be able to define existence and degree of gravity of a disease or to appoint the correct treatment. If the kid has no problems with hearing, then the neuropathologist will be engaged in the child. At treatment of delays of speech development besides correctional occupations various nootropic preparations, such as korteksin, entsefabol are usually used, nootropit. These preparations positively influence the highest integrative functions of a brain, improving process of training and memory.with
Sometimes at a delay of the speech involve also the logopedist, but, unfortunately, the vast majority of logopedists do not work with kids to 3 - 4 - x years, and it is necessary to begin work with the child sometimes much earlier.
Scientific Institute of a brain of the person of the Russian Academy of Sciences developed a new way of treatment of delays of speech development in children which allows to reduce manifestations of immaturity of a brain. It happens to the help of medical impact of direct electric current of small force on brain tissues. Influencing thus the child`s brain, scientists manage to make active speech zones of the child.House lessons
parents can Be engaged in
with the kid and independently. But it has to become addition to occupations with the neuropathologist, but not alternative. First of all mother has to develop small motility of the child. Long ago it is proved that speech areas are formed under the influence of impulses from fingers of hands. That is, massage and training of children`s fingers accelerate development of the speech. And significantly accelerate - for 2,5 months! Therefore it is very useful to do, since chest age, a light massage of brushes of the baby. It is possible to play with the kid the games “Forty - a Beloboka“, “Fingers and Cams“, “Pat-a-cake“. Under supervision of adults the child can touch small objects: buttons, pebbles, cockleshells, nuts, haricot, peas. First of all mother has to develop small motility of the child. Long ago it is proved that speech areas are formed under the influence of impulses from fingers of hands.
Also should be trained in a game form of the child in various words. It is possible to get or make a series of cards with the image of objects: transport, animals, birds, insects, people. Pictures have to be bright, but simple on the execution and clear to the child. Several times a day the kid can give them to consider. To the child it is possible not only to call objects, but also to represent as the plane hoots or the cat mews, stimulating with that an onomatopoeia.
can begin to ask the kid questions over time: “Who is it?“ “What is it?“ “As the horse jumps?“ “As the dog barks?“ and then and to tell that “The car goes“, “The cat licks lips“, “The boy goes to school“ and so on. And it is not obligatory to wait so far the child at all itself will begin to answer your questions! The main thing - that the kid heard and saw how you tell it. Gradually he will begin to imitate you and itself will start talking.
praise the kid For any attempt! Also be not afraid to overpraise, then the child will have an important incentive - mother`s approval and pride. Tell members of household about progress of the kid, and surely do it in the presence of the child (even if it seems to you that the kid understands nothing). Children feel intonation of parents and perfectly catch when speak about them.
Whatever, parents have to help the baby to overcome difficulties. Talk to the kid more, read to him aloud, sing. What more child will plunge into language and music of words, the better and quicker he will start talking. Before pronouncing the word, the child has to hear it many times. Also you remember your monologues - it is not conversation in emptiness, the child hears you and will surely start talking.