the Goldfish - one of the most widespread and known aquarian fishes. Presently it can be seen in any pet-shop. And here in pre-revolutionary Russia, in 70 - 80 - x years of the 19th century, with goldfishes only rich people could brag of an aquarium or the pool.
A little history
Inhabitants of medieval Europe knew these fishes only on drawings on the vases, fans and caskets brought by merchants from the East on the Great silk way. Was considered that images of bright, big-eyed and pyshnokhvosty creations the same fruit of the imagination of the artist, as well as images of dragons. The famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo was the first of Europeans who told to the fellow citizens at the end of the 13th century of a fancy small fish.
there Passed many centuries before reservoirs with goldfishes stopped being some kind of “state secret“, “confidential objects“ hidden from eyes of foreigners behind high walls of the Chinese and Japanese palaces. Alfred Brem wrote that the first goldfishes were delivered to Europe in 1611. According to other data, it occurred later. Goldfishes got to Russia as an exotic gift to Peter I`s father - to the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich Romanov, the big fan of animals and plants. From - for wrong keeping of a small fish soon died. Was considered, for example, that they eat water...
In those days goldfishes were surrounded with an aura of the legends attributing to these beings the heavenly, supernatural beginning. However the true story of an origin of a goldfish is not less interesting. Having carefully studied ancient literature, having investigated a structure of fishes and having made experiments, ichthyologists found out that an ancestor of the aquarian beauty are the Chinese subspecies of a silver crucian extended in the small, well warmed up by the sun reservoirs of China, Korea and Japan. - to fishers of our country other subspecies of a silver crucian living in the territory from a river basin the Cupid to the western border of Russia are well familiar to fans. These fishes should not be confused to a gold crucian (he ordinary, or shirokotely) who is not connected with a goldfish any related bonds.
From time to time in posterity serebristo - gray Chinese crucians appear yellow and oranzhevo - red mutants. Such individual is also an ordinary goldfish (with the extended trunk and a normal structure of fins). It differs from a crucian only in congenital insufficiency of a dark pigment in body covers. The goldfishes caught in the rivers of the southern provinces of China, people placed in pools and in every possible way sought to multiply. Mentions of such surprising pets occur in the Chinese manuscripts of 618 - 960 of our era. During an era of the early Middle Ages people learned to receive posterity from unusually painted crucians. Apparently, Korean ryborazvodchik for the first time used variability of a crucian in coloring and a shape of a body and selections of goldfishes began to make the first attempts. Original development - in a set of breeds and versions - the goldfish reached in China which is considered her homeland.
of Breed and color variations among fishes of individuals with any uglinesses in a structure of a trunk, eyes and fins, the Korean, Chinese and Japanese selectors achieved that they turned these deviations into constant signs of breeds. Removal of each breed of goldfishes demanded long-term, patient work of several generations. Change of coloring and a shape of a body of fishes and emergence directly - fantastic creations became a result of purposeful artificial selection, looking at whom it is difficult to believe that there were they from an ordinary crucian.
Today more than hundred twenty color variations and breeds of a goldfish are. In the Chinese fish farms there are breeds, still unknown in Europe. Korotkotely goldfishes are most popular with the Russian fans: vualekhvost, telescope, oranda, lvinogolovka; are less widespread dlinnotely a comet, shubunkin and an ordinary goldfish.the Goldfish in a form of fins and bodies is very similar
to a crucian, but is painted differently. Most often golden meets and it is reddish - an orange variation, is frequent - two-color (gold with black or serebristo - white spots) and print (it is red - it is white - black). The comet has more graceful, than at an ordinary goldfish, a body and extended (at the best copies - in the form of two tapes) a tail fin. Shubunkin differs in motley, very different coloring and transparent scales why it seems scaleless. Usually it is print. Small fishes at whom on a bluish background are scattered darkly - red, black, brown and yellow specks are the most rare. Fins of a shubunkin are longer than fins of a goldfish. All these breeds tail and anal fins unary, and at similar to an ordinary goldfish of a veerokhvost they have double. Veerokhvost it is considered the ancestor of korotkotely breeds of a goldfish.
of Vualekhvost and the telescope - fishes with a short ovoid trunk and strongly extended fins. The tail fin at them is doubled and hangs down like a veil. Its length quite often exceeds body length. Eyes of telescopes are increased, have an appearance of spheres or cylinders. Than the body of a vualekhvost and the telescope and than more their fins is shorter, that the small fish is more valuable to the aquarian. Oranda - the type of a vualekhvost differing in skin outgrowths on the head and branchiate covers. Also short fins and total absence of a back fin are characteristic of a lvinogolovka except strongly developed outgrowths.
the Short body with the blown-up stomach and softly falling down double long tail do not allow vualekhvosta and oranda to float quickly and to operate well the movements. The shape of a body received by artificial selection led to constraint and a curvature of internals of fishes. Vualekhvosta and similar him breeds are more subject to various diseases, and the term of their life is much shorter, than representatives of dlinnotely breeds.
In aquariums hybrids and transitional forms between all described breeds, for example vualekhvost meet an unary tail fin or veerokhvost coloring of a shubunkin. All of them can serve as decoration of an aquarium, but such fishes cannot be used in cultivation of this or that breed. The wrong selection of producers for reproduction leads to the fact that “classical“ vualekhvosta, comets and shubunkina become the real rarity.
the Big aquarium with goldfishes of different breeds looks very elegantly and serves as the real decoration of the room. Bothers to watch these original creations never. Some aquarians “do not respect“ goldfishes for gluttony and the large sizes, for unnaturally elaborate appearance and for typically karasiny habit to dig in aquarium sand, leading to a zamutneniye of water and damage of plants. At the same time goldfishes - the grateful pupils who are well reacting to the people who are looking after them. They become manual, take a forage from the owner`s fingers, allow to iron themselves and even swim away on a palm. All this does goldfishes by ideal pets for children to whom insufficiently simple supervision and care of living creatures. > Important conditions of the correct contents
of Goldfishes it is the best of all for p to contain
separately from other species of fish, especially small and fast which can intercept the most part of a forage, and pugnacious, such as the makropoda, tsikhlazoma and barbusa capable to injure big eyes and fins of the slow, harmless neighbors. The small vessels containing a water bucket (10 - 12 liters) quite will be suitable for couple two - three-centimetric whitebaits. However the more an aquarium, the small fishes feel better and the simpler to look after them. If in a four-bucket aquarium of a vualekhvosta or telescopes grow in length up to 10 - 12 centimeters and can breed, then in a bucket aquarium they forever will remain dwarfs. >
to Goldfishes it is harmful to p to be in a round aquarium: they have not enough place for swimming there, oxygen for breath does not suffice, besides convex glass they can go blind from abnormal light refraction. In a round aquarium it is difficult to place the filter and a spray of air, without having spoiled decorative shape of a vessel. Small fishes feel much better and are ill less in a spacious rectangular aquarium which is simple for decorating with smooth stones and water plants.
Good aeration (a purge air) and a water filtration - important conditions of the correct keeping of goldfishes. 1 / 3 total amounts of water follow, irrespective of operation of the aerator (microcompressor) and the filter, to change weekly for fresh. (With a sheet of water no more than 30 centimeters) it is possible to support 6 - 8 small fishes at continuous blowing off of water in an aquarium of 40 - 50 liters air. As the main saturation of water oxygen happens through its surface, it is expedient to calculate the surface area falling on each small fish. On body length decimeter korotkotely breeds require not less than two square decimeters of a water surface, and for dlinnotely - not less than one and a half square decimeters. If there is no purge, but water is daily partially substituted fresh, this norm has to be doubled and if water does not change at all - is trebled. The norm concerning a water surface should be considered as approximate as it depends on quantity of plants, water temperatures, etc.
If fishes float, having raised mouths to a surface, trying to take air, so water is insufficiently oxygenated. It is necessary to increase a purge or to replace part of water with fresh. > Partial substitution of water in an aquarium it is better for p to make
the tap water which settled within a day in separate ware. At the big not blown aquarium and small quantity of small fishes (if about 15 liters are the share of everyone) it is recommended to replace daily about 1/10 volumes with the water taken directly from a water supply system.The water is more cool than
, the more oxygen can be dissolved in it. Therefore in hot weather of a small fish can experience oxygen starvation. The best water temperature for them - 15 - 20 °C. The large role in water supply with oxygen in an aquarium without purge is played by plants. However the surface of their leaves becomes soiled the parts of garbage weighed in water, and gentle plants are simply eaten by goldfishes. Plants with rigid leaves and good root system are suitable for an aquarium: a vallisneriya, a sagittariya Japanese, anubias - or the most hardy, for example elodeya. As soil for plants it is better to use small (about a pea) gravel or pebble which almost do not throw away small fishes. > the Aquarium with goldfishes it is better for p to put
near a solar window: without sufficient lighting bright coloring of small fishes grows dull, plants wither. Natural lighting can be replaced electric.
needs to Feed goldfishes with various food. Plants also have to enter a diet: small cut salad, a richchiya, a volfiya, a duckweed. The best forage - a crank, an earthworm (too large copies cut on part), the water flea. The live forage can be replaced with the skobleny or turned via the meat grinder meat which is stuck together in half with white loaf in small balls. It is admissible to feed the fishes who are abruptly welded, the friable, washed-out in fresh water porridge: buckwheat, oat, millet. In pet-shops import forages for fishes, in particular and for gold are on sale. When feeding small fishes a lifeless forage water quickly spoils therefore it cannot be held in an aquarium long. In 10 - 15 minutes the uneaten remains should be cleaned. It is undesirable that the live crank was dug in in soil; for this forage on a bottom of an aquarium it is possible to put a small pan. At a temperature of 15 °C small fishes should be fed once a day, at higher (to 24 °C) - in the morning and in the evening, at lower (10 - 12 °C) - every other day.
How to distinguish a sick small fish from healthy
Buying goldfishes, it is important to pay attention to their appearance. Damages of fins and eyes, rash and a muddy raid on scales, symptoms of exhaustion are inadmissible. Important line of shape of a healthy small fish - lifted (but not pressed to a back) a back fin. Small fishes have to float actively and rush greedy on food. Males can be distinguished from females only during the marriage period. The polovozrely male on branchiate covers has small white borodavochka, sometimes at him the first beam of a chest fin is thickened and covered with white hillocks.
Dlinnotely breeds of goldfishes can live in good conditions 20 - 35 years, and korotkotely - up to 15 years.