Is to clear up where at liberty!
Constructed a redoubt“.
M. Yu. Lermontov “Borodino“
Russian field. If not the numerous memorable signs standing today on all its foreseeable space, this place - at all appeal of a Central Russian landscape with the small river winding among green steep coast, with white tserkovka and rural lodges - thousands same in Russia would not seem to more remarkable, than.But the name of one of villages - Borodino - and a usual landscape is worth saying
at once as if changes before our eyes. Events and people about whom we read so much and heard recur to the memory; the imagination draws a terrible picture of great fight, cruel opposition of huge mass of the armed people, the shouts and groans muffled by a thunder of hundreds of tools, fire, a smoke, the pitted, deformed earth, the blood-stained heap of dead ph.
Borodino - the great fight of invincible Napoleon which became for it fatal. Borodino - the great testimony of strength of mind of the Russian people able to stand to death a minute of terrible danger to the Homeland.
Borodino Field - this field of our great love and grief, the field of the undying Russian glory bought by big blood. This field is memorable for us not only 1812. 130 years later the Russian regiments reflected other invasion here, also, without feeling sorry for forces and life, covered with themselves Russia. Among monuments of Borodino Field there are also those that stand on later, but not less esteemed graves.Borodino Field is located
in 12 km to the West from Mozhaisk on the highway - the former New Smolensk post path. As much and by rail to station Borodino. Apparently, somewhere near the present railroad there passed once old Smolenskaya Road with turn to Hugo - will sink down from the village of Utitsa to Yelnya. The main events of the Borodino battle on August 26 (on September 7), 1812 took place generally between two of these Smolensk roads. Exactly here the major military facilities with forever the remembered names are located: Shevardinsky redoubt, Bagrationova (Semenovskiye) flash, Rajevski battery... About the Borodino battle many books are written. The numerous participants and eyewitnesses of this event who were at war in both armies also wrote about it, military historians in the next years wrote. Among these authors a specific place is held by the great book of L. N. Tolstoy “War and peace“ where events of this grandiose fight are described with a big art force and historical accuracy, with feeling of high national pride and love to the Fatherland. Here its assessment of this event:“ Causeless flight of Napoleon from Moscow was a direct consequence of the Borodino battle... death of five hundred thousand invasions and death of Napoleonic France on which for the first time under Borodin the hand of the most strong in spirit opponent was imposed“.
of the Page of history
Why Napoleon attacked Russia? Historians attentively investigated this question from all points of view, without losing sight of either the general situation of that time, or separate, rather small reasons, or Napoleon`s statements, or an assessment of his character...
If to try to state shortly one of versions based, by the way, in words the emperor, then his grandiose plan was is as follows: to quickly crush obviously weaker Russian army, to achieve from the Russian tsar of the humiliated request for the world, after the conclusion of the world favorable to it to attach the Russian troops (it is similar to many other) to the great and invincible army, and, having quickly established a new order in the won country, to go hiking to the Himalayas, to India. At the same time “his brother“ (as he called him) emperor Alexander I remains the Russian tsar, Russia joins a close-knit family of the people of Europe operated by Napoleon there comes the great grace for all, and all these people amicably shout: “Vive l Empereur!“
on June 24, 1812 the “dvunadesyatiyazyky“ army of Napoleon headed by the emperor crossed the border of Russia. The quantity and a condition of the Russian troops which the senseless mushtra of Paul I affected really conceded to enemy. Besides lack of talent of Alexander I of a military leader, cruel conflicts between Barclay de Tolly and Bagration and other generals and theft of quartermasters created additional difficulties.
But also the people, both army, and the tsar who realized that after defeat near Austerlits and the Gilziysky world honor of the power is shaken, were uniform in unwillingness to go for any peace negotiations while at least one enemy soldier is in Russia. It could not be implemented in any way and the main clause of the Napoleonic plan - quickly to break the Russian army. The army avoided decisive battle, exhausting the opponent in persistent rearguard actions and destroying for itself everything. Hoping for rest and full life in the won cities, French met only the desert captured by fire.
This strategy of preservation of army, sacrificing the space, carried out at first by Barclay, then Kutuzov who replaced it is temporary, was compelled. Before commanders constantly there was a need of the choice: “... from two inevitable evils it was necessary to choose the easiest, to lose for a while part, than forever whole“. At the same time Kutuzov perfectly understood that not to do without decisive battle.all were eager for
of Big real fight - both soldiers, and generals. Hatred to aggressors and the offended national dignity of citizens of the great country rallied all.“ The lots were cast. The Russian army stopped and turned facing the coming Napoleon“.
the First, in two days prior to decisive battle, defenders of the Shevardinsky redoubt created originally as strengthenings of the left flank of the Russian army assumed blow. Already then the lasting whole day on August 24 (on September 5) heavy fighting with much superior forces of the opponent showed desperate determination of Russians to fight, without going back a step,“... fight, so unequal that French could not understand how it could continue so long“.
in the Morning on August 26 (on September 7) Napoleon was on the taken Shevardinsky redoubt. Having seen the sun rising in the east behind the Russian camp, he exclaimed “Here Austerlits`s sun!“
according to the participant and the historian of events of 1812 Klauzevich (serving at a staff of the Russian army), the ratio of forces before the Borodino battle was is as follows: Russians - 112 thousand of army and 640 tools; French - 130 thousand and 587 tools. Battle began with attack on the village of Borodino from where at the price of big losses French managed to beat out our huntsmen, but the main events from 5 o`clock in the morning were developed on the left flank of our army where the Semenovsky ravine had Bagration. Protection “Bagrationov fleshy“ was such furious that within more than six hours all attacks of French beat off with the losses terrifying for them. Fight was the most bloody. Flesha several times passed from hand to hand, they were entirely covered with corpses of people and horses. Napoleon directed 400 tools, more than two thirds of all the artillery there. Bayonet attacks and counterattacks followed one by one, kernels, bullets, case-shots mowed also defenders and attackers.Does not know to
, than fight for a flash would come to an end if not a mortal wound of Bagration. “The soul as though flew away from all left flank after death of this person“ - the eyewitness said. And in official reports capture by French of fleshy is explained by Bagration`s death.
Not less fierce also. At hours-long protection of this kurganny battery from the Russian soldiers and generals such dedication and contempt for death, more than ever till this day were shown. Terrible slaughter of huge mass of attackers and defenders at the last storm of the battery of Rajevski when did not take prisoners and was pinned up bayonets survived, was the last big action of the Borodino fight. Guns continued to rattle, there were separate cavalry skirmishes, declined great battle. How to estimate a result? Neither Napoleon, nor his marshals knew the answer to this question.“ The speech was not only about flight of the Russian army, but even about its retreat, despite strongly thinned ranks“.Kutuzov directing battle from the hill at Gorky`s village considered by
a result victorious for the Russian army. There was a moment when thought even that Kutuzov will make the decision next day to come. But the next morning the terrifying picture of huge losses - 58 thousand people became clear, a half of army, including is a lot of officers and generals. French lost more than 50 thousand and 47 generals.
we quote L. N. Tolstoy Again: “Not one Napoleon., but all generals... all soldiers of the French army... had identical feeling of horror before that enemy who, having lost a half of army, stood also terribly at the end, as well as at the beginning of battle“.
A here that Napoleon spoke shortly before the death:“ The most terrible of all my battles is that which I gave near Moscow. French in it proved to be worthy to win a victory, and Russians appeared worthy to be invincible“.
Acquaintance to Borodino Field can be begun with
of Sight with its general survey from a high barrow behind Gorky`s village. On this barrow there was in day of fight an observation post of Kutuzov. It is noted by an obelisk with an eagle above. Said that on this place at the beginning of battle over Kutuzov the eagle whom the commander welcomed flew, having taken off a hat as a victory sign. This obelisk and 34 more monuments standing on hills, on slopes of ravines and on coast of streams are delivered to
here in 1912 in commemoration 100 - summer anniversary of great fight. The majority of monuments is constructed on donations of soldiers and officers of those military units which names were inherited from battling at Borodino Field. They stand on those places where during terrible fight their glorified brother-soldiers died in the last ditch.
Near these monuments are nowadays cost also by memorable signs on mass graves of the nice descendants protecting Moscow in 1941 - 1942.to
B 1962, in a year 150 - the anniversaries of the Borodino fight, delivered a monument on Rajevski battery. Here - a simple black gravestone over a grave of nice Bagration whose ashes according to the petition of the hero of 1812 Denis Davydov were transferred here in 1839.to
Near the well-known Shevardinsky redoubt, on the place of the command post of Napoleon, in 1912 delivered the only French monument with an inscription:“ Dead of great army“.
In the center of an arrangement of that time of our troops, near Rajevski battery, the building Borodino voyenno - the historical museum with the exposition which is in detail telling about events of the well-known battle is. Surely visit him. On the Borodino flesha in 1839 - 1859 Spaso - the Borodino monastery in which hotel worked as fall of 1865 on the novel “War and peace“ of L. N. Tolstaya is constructed. In the monastery there is beautiful Church of the Saviour - Tuchkov` tomb. It is put in 1820 by the widow of the general A. A. Tuchkov killed on this spot in day of the Borodino battle.
In the village of Borodino the Nativity Church of construction of 1697 - 1701 witnessing that great fight, its huge bitter losses, unprecedented heroism and powerful strength of mind remained... She as if speaks to us, present, after M. Yu. Lermontov: “To you not to see such battles!.“