Gooseberry: from the past in the present of
Probably, any gardener would like to put at himself on a site the gooseberry giving large sweet berries. Old European grades differ in such berries, but they are insufficiently winter-hardy, susceptible to mealy dew, is too prickly, yield a harvest only on the third - the fourth year after landing, besides suffer from a drought.to
Descendants of the American types are not subject to mushroom diseases, but have small and not really tasty berries. Modern grades of a gooseberry combine a krupnoplodnost and pleasant taste of fruits with productivity, a weak shipovatost of branches and mealy dew resistance.
at the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX century the gooseberry in Russia occupied the much bigger spaces, than blackcurrant cultivars. Appreciated it “nourishing“ berries, used fresh and for preparation of delicacies.at
Near Moscow large-fruited grades most often grew: English yellow, Brazilian, Warsaw, Lemon giant, Bochonochny, Green bottle. In the Nizhny Novgorod province in some villages grew up a large-fruited grade Date (he is Goliath, № 8, Date green) also carried it in baskets - the stolbushka fitted by a sacking on fairs of the Volga region. In suburbs of St. Petersburg at summer residents and in the city markets the grade Avenarius with fruits of dessert taste was in great demand.
at the beginning of the XX century to Russia from the Western European nurseries together with saplings got and the mushroom disease - the American mealy dew, or a sferoteka extended. Chemical means of fight were ineffective as the Western European grades were received from the natural look unstable to this illness.
at the end of XIX and in 20 - 30 - x years of the XX century selectors of Canada and the USA removed gooseberry grades, steady against mealy dew, Houghton, Oregon, Kaptivator, Carry. There were they and in Russia: Mysovsky 17, Mysovsky 37, the Five-years period and others, and in 1933 the candidate of agricultural sciences M. N. Simonova as a result of numerous crossings received a grade Change which also until now is a standard of high productivity and a sferoustoychivost.However further crossings between the small-fruited North American grades which are not ill mealy dew and not winter-hardy large-fruited Western European turned out
insufficiently effective: hybrid seedlings were not winter-hardy, and escapes entirely covered thorns. And only in 1934 - 1959 the first appeared domestic grades, large-fruited, winter-hardy, rather steady against a sferoteka: Pink - 2, Lada, the Spring.Creation of grades of a gooseberry with besshipny or slaboshipovaty escapes was carried out by
in 1960 - 1988 in Scientifically - research zone institute of gardening of the Nonchernozem strip (on former Moscow plodovo - berry experimental station). During the long-term selection program it was selected on signs of a shipovatost of escapes, winter - firmness, mealy dew resistance and a drought, and also on quality of fruits more than 400 seed posterities received from trans-species and interhigh-quality hybridization, self-pollination and free pollination of a gooseberry of three types, nineteen grades and twelve elite forms (including a natural type of a gooseberry snow). The posterity on signs of high winter hardiness, resistance to a sferoteka, productivity, krupnoplodnost was exposed to repeated check within several years.
the First grades with slaboshipovaty escapes - Kolobok, the Eaglet and Tender - appeared at the first stage of selection. In 80 - e years to them increased the new grades which kept a slaboshipovatost or a besshipnost, but differing in higher productivity and a krupnoplodnost. Among them there are krasnoplodny grades Nice, the Wreath, Bittsevsky, zelenoplodny Snezhana and Zeleny a rain, black-fruited Grushenka and the Charm and others.
All grades of a gooseberry quickly enter a fructification time - in a year after landing in a garden of two-year saplings. The Skoroplodnost is formed at the expense of strong, branched root system, branchy escapes, the main fructification on one - two-year branches and the pulled together interstices. Grades Snezhana, the Charm, Nice, the Spring have compact krone, strong branchy escapes, strong root system, plentifully fructify under optimum conditions of cultivation on one place over 10 years. Grades Kolobok, Grushenka, the Wreath quickly increase a harvest thanks to the numerous branching escapes and dense placement of berries on branches with the pulled together interstices. The main harvest is yielded one - two-year branches. In order that berries always remained large, such plants need the regular thinning-out cutting. Otherwise zagushchenny bushes quickly grow old, and they should be replaced new.grades Kolobok and Grushenka differ in
in the Wide, sprawling bush. Srednerosly polurask disty bushes at grades the Wreath, the Bittsevsky, Green rain.
of Slaboshipovatost of escapes it is characteristic of grades the Wreath, the Charm, Tender. Have no thorns of a grade of Grushenk, Nice, Bittsevsky.
of the Condition of cultivation
the Gooseberry - a plant, photophilous and exacting to cultivation conditions. But and very grateful. It is not recommended to put it on the low-lying, rehumidified sites, and also in the places shaded from South side by a dense fence, high trees or constructions. It is impossible that on the chosen place currant or a gooseberry grew earlier: young bushes can catch a steklyannitsa, shchitovky and other wreckers. As predecessors vegetable cultures are especially good: onions, garlic, bean, carrots, beet. The soil is cleared of a wheat grass, a sow-thistle, a dandelion, a wood louse, a sporysh. It is better to put in the fall, since second decade of September as gooseberry kidneys are dismissed very much early in the spring. Size of landing holes: diameter is 40 - 60 cm, depth is not less than 40 cm. Approximate doses of application of fertilizers in a hole: humus - 1,5 buckets, compost - 1,5 - 2 buckets, peat - 2 buckets, superphosphate - 200 g, wood ashes - 400 g; on sour soils 100 - 200 of dolomite powder or chalk will be required. Fertilizers mix. A water consumption when landing in droughty weather - two buckets with the subsequent mulchirovaniye of the soil humus or a dry lawn grass.Saplings place
ranks or groups at distance of 1,5 m between plants and 2 m between ranks.
Care of the fructifying bushes consists of systematic removal of weeds, loosening of the soil, podkormok, watering and cutting of bushes. The root system of a gooseberry is located superficially, and moderate humidity of the soil therefore plants are recommended to be watered is necessary for it for the good growth and fructification, especially at dry weather, early in the spring during growth of ovaries and in the fall after harvesting.
in Annually early spring, even before blooming of kidneys, under bushes introduce nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 20 - 30 g on 1 m 2 . Organic and fosforno - potash fertilizers with a good growth can be used in a year, in the fall, at the rate of 1 - 1,5 bucket of organic chemistry, 45 g of superphosphate, 15 g of chloride potassium and 100 - 120 of wood ashes on 1 m 2 .
Cutting of bushes is carried out in the early spring to blooming of kidneys. At new grades the most fruitful branches - odno_trekhletny. The patients who dried up, old (8 - 10 - summer), the intertwining branches, and also small, zagushchayushchy delete a bush young growth. Branches cut out at the basis at the level of the soil, wide cuts cover with the garden thief. Cutting of bushes is repeated at least in two years, otherwise they strongly grow, and in them small berries grow.That branches of bushes were raised by
from the earth and did not prevent leaving, and berries did not become soiled, it is recommended to put props. Without support it is possible to grow up gooseberry grades Nice, Tender, Snezhana, the Charm, the Green rain.
Reproduction of a gooseberry
about a gooseberry bush with sprawling krone are dug in the Early spring by superficial grooves and in them stack long one-year escapes, pinning them to the earth hooks from an aluminum wire or a tree. From above layers powder with the earth or humus and well water. During the season the soil in the place of rooting has to be constantly friable and damp. At careful leaving through one - two years at horizontal layers are formed powerful root system; at this time they are separated and replaced to the constant place.
Besides horizontal layers are used by layers vertical. Three - four-year bushes with a vertical gabitus of krone (a grade the Charm, Snezhana, Tender, Nice, etc.) intended for reproduction, prepare in advance: before blooming of kidneys in krone delete short weak radical escapes, dig over the soil in a pristvolny circle a garden pitchfork and bring two buckets of compost and waters. On perimeter of krone and in a bush form “pillow“ 30 cm high of humus and the mulching materials: a lawn grass, the crushed green leaves of weeds, cut straw. In May - June bushes feed up the week infusion of a feltwort diluted in the ratio 1:10. In droughty weather water.Layers separate
in the fall, in the period of a leaf fall. At the end of September bushes are not more senior than four - five years it is possible to divide. For this purpose they are dug out, shake the earth from roots and sharp secateurs divided into several parts. At elevated part cut out the fructifying branches. Leave young escapes, shortening them to 20 - 30 cm
in the middle of June in film greenhouses with tumanoobrazuyushchy installations make multiple copies a gooseberry green shanks.