Rus Articles Journal

Early berry

the Most pleasant work in a garden, of course, gathering berries, especially, very first. In June, in some years even at the beginning of a month, before garden wild strawberry the honeysuckle ripens.

the Honeysuckle blue with edible fruits promptly wins the place among winter-hardy berry bushes. The plant is unpretentious, annually fructifies, decoratively, it is considered a good melliferous herb. The quantity of grades increases from year to year, now them there are already more than one hundred - the most different in maturing terms, to taste and size of berries.

honeysuckle Fruits thanks to the vitamins C which are contained in them (to 80 mg of %), P (to 1400 mg of %) and P - to active connections are especially appreciated as the means improving durability and permeability of capillaries. First of all they are necessary suffering warmly - vascular diseases, atherosclerosis, a hypertension and living in the areas polluted by radionuclides.

From sugars in fruits prevail glucose (to 54%) and fructose (to 26%), to a lesser extent - the galactose (5,3%), sucrose (2,3%), are revealed also dietary substances: sorbite (15%) and inositol (4%).

How not to make the wrong choice of a grade

the Greatest distribution in culture was gained by grades of a honeysuckle of scientific research institute of gardening of Siberia of M. A. Lisavenko. Among them there is a Bluebird of happiness and the Blue Spindle. They are steady against winter fluctuations of temperature and have pleasant turned sour - sweet fruits weighing about 0,87 g, however, of grade berry the Blue Spindle sometimes taste bitter, especially at cultivation of plants without watering. Productivity - 1,5 kg from a bush.

the First grades of a honeysuckle of selection of the Bakcharsky strong point of the same institute located in the Tomsk region ripen in the Moscow region. Among them: Resident of Tomsk, Vasyuganskaya, Bakcharskaya, Narymskaya, Siberian, Memory Gidzyuka. Unfortunately, the ripened fruits can quickly be showered from branches. Good productivity (to 3 kg from a bush) also turned sour - the Siberian grades the Cinderella and Berel (NPO Sady Sibiri, Barnaul) differ in the sweet fruits which almost are not showered. More than 3 - 4 kg from a bush collect also from such Siberian grades as Selena, Ogenny Fell down, Sirius, the Illiada (NPO Sady Sibiri), but berries taste bitter, they are suitable for processing and receiving resistant is dark more likely - blue food dye - an antotsian. Grades with the largest fruits (weight more than 1 g) are received at the all-union scientific research institute Pavlovsk station of plant growing of N. I. Vavilov (Leningrad region). This is Lebedushka, the Omega, Nympha, the Violet. The same large fruits turned sour - sweet taste at Sineglazk`s grades, the Magician, Bazhovskaya, Lenita Yuzhno - the Ural scientific research institute of fruit growing and potato growing (Chelyabinsk). Can long hang on bushes in a midland of Russia, without being showered, fruits of a honeysuckle of the grades tested on North - the West: Nightingale, Altair, Omega. The Leningrad grades are recognized as the most sweet: Pavlovsk, Dessert, Violet, Amphora, Altair, Bullfinch, Slav, Souvenir. Content of sugars in their fruits reaches 7 - 8%, a thin skin thick that allows them to be stored and not to be rumpled longer in transit. Average productivity - 1,7 - 2,5 kg from a bush. The grades received in the Nonchernozem zone of Russia, in particular Nizhny Novgorod Early and the Gourmand (selection of the Nizhny Novgorod SHI) differ in compact, spherical shape of a bush (up to 1,4 m high). Berries tasty, it is sweetish - sour, weighing 0,75 - 1,2 g. Grades of selection of the VIRA Far East station: The summer lightning, the Thaw, Dawn, Delphine, Golubink - again blossom in Moscow area at the end of a season, it reduces their winter hardiness and productivity. Well grow in a midland of Russia and differ turned sour - sweet taste of fruits with a gentle thin skin of a grade of a honeysuckle, received in the Main botanical garden of N. W. Zizina RAHN (Moscow): Moscow 23, Titmouse and Fortuna. Fruits contain 52 - 82 mg of % of vitamin C, 5 - 7% of sugars and 2,9 - 4% of organic acids. Unfortunately, they do not hang more than a week on bushes and long are not stored after collecting. Average productivity - 1,6 - 1,9 kg from a bush.

Landing of a honeysuckle

it is simple to p to Grow up a blue honeysuckle, the agrotechnology is in many respects similar to cultivation of traditional berry cultures. The honeysuckle well grows on any soils, but develops on friable and better trained. For landing too dry places and the low closed hollows are considered unsuitable. To poor soils add organic fertilizer, bring sand and peat in loams. The place is chosen open and solar. In a penumbra the honeysuckle will not die, but will fructify much more weakly. In a garden it is more convenient to place bushes in the form of a green hedge on edge of a site, leaving between them 1 - 1,5 m. As a honeysuckle - it is cross - the pollinated plant, put not less than three - five grades. The end of summer is considered the optimum term of landing (August) and fall (to the middle of October). Autumn landing as the honeysuckle differs in high winter hardiness is more preferable. Landing is less desirable in the spring: it is necessary to do it very much early, before blossoming, and the honeysuckle in April blossoms, earlier, than the soil in a midland of Russia completely will thaw.

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For landing choose two - three-year saplings. The landing hole is dug with a diameter of 25 cm, 25 - 30 cm in depth

Care of landings

Loosen with

the soil and delete weeds only under young bushes. At bushes is more senior than five-year age roots settle down superficially, and when loosening there is a danger of their damage.

the Honeysuckle - the culture hygrophilous also needs watering, especially in the first half of summer when its escapes intensively grow. At cultivation without watering, especially on heavy clay soils, in fruits the bitterness even at dessert grades is felt.

For top dressing organic fertilizer is better to use

, bring its once in three years (5 - 7 kg under a bush). Mineral fertilizers apply carefully not to cause zagushcheny kroner. In the fall bushes potash and phosphoric fertilizers recommend to feed up (on 15 g on 1 m 2 ).

Saplings begin to fructify already on the second - the third year after landing, and on the fourth - the fifth at good leaving they reach the maximum productivity.

Cutting is carried out in the fall (after a leaf fall) or in the early spring (in March). Everyone two - three years thin out the growing old part of krone. In a bush leave no more than five powerful branches. Delete the small dried-up branches. It is not recommended to cut off tops of escapes as the maximum quantity of floral kidneys is concentrated on them.

At bushes is more senior than six - seven-year age the patients who are broken off and the dried-up branches delete. Cut out also branches of the lower tier which polegat on the soil and prevent care of bushes.

For old bushes the strong rejuvenating cutting “on a stub“ is possible

, carry out it at the height of 0,5 m from soil level. The bush is restored due to young poroslevy escapes.

Reproduction of a honeysuckle

Make multiple copies a honeysuckle most often shanks and layers. The most effectively green cherenkovaniye. Shanks cut from strong one-year growth escapes of the current year. Escapes are ready for a cherenkovaniye when they when bending do not bend, and break with a characteristic crunch. Time of their cutting coincides with emergence of green fruits. Use a middle part of escape, it is desirable with two knots (two couples of leaves) and one interstice, 7 - 12 cm long, with a diameter of 4 - 5 mm. Implant in the soil mix consisting of peat and sand in the ratio 1:3. Put obliquely at an angle the 45th hail, placing according to the scheme 7 × 5 cm. Necessary condition for rooting - high humidity of a substratum and air (to 85%) at a temperature of 20 - 25 ° C. It is easy to create such conditions in the film and glazed greenhouses at regular watering and spraying to 6 - 7 times a day, especially in hot weather.

For increase of an ukorenyaemost (to 90%) are used by growth factors: kornevin, indolit - oleic acid (0,01%), heteroauxin (0,05%). Roots appear in 15 - 20 days. If rooting of shanks happens in the film greenhouse, in September the film is removed, and shanks leave for the winter, having covered with fir twigs. Especially well shanks of fast-growing grades the Resident of Tomsk, Vasyuganskaya develop. By three years of a plant already begin to blossom and fructify.

Odrevesnevshy shanks cut

after subsidence of leaves (at the end of September or the beginning of October) and dig in in sawdust or sand, previously having wrapped up a damp sacking. Store in the cool room, and land for rooting in the spring. Only 10 - 18% of shanks, at a grade the Titmouse - gets accustomed much more.

Young, three - four-year bushes of a honeysuckle it is easy to multiply vertical and horizontal layers. In the spring around a bush fill a friable fertile soil (a layer of 10 - 15 cm), powder with it the bent-down one-year escapes of the lower tier or just pin escapes to the earth, by fall they take roots. In the spring of the next year, it is even better in a year, the taken roots layers cut off secateurs and replace to the constant place.

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in recent years in Moscow, in the Main botanical garden, conducted researches on mikroklonal to Nome to reproduction of a honeysuckle of grades the Titmouse, Moscow 23, Fortuna, Nympha and Amfora. It turned out that from one kidney it is possible to receive one - two thousand healthy plants. It is simple to multiply a honeysuckle blue and seeds. For extraction of seeds the ripened fruits press on thin, it is better filtering, paper. After drying the leaf with seeds is displaced and left in such look before crops. Seeds keep high viability in room conditions till two years, after four - five years of storage viability falls to 10 - 15%, and after seven - ten years seeds do not sprout. Fresh-gathered seeds do not need preseeding processing. The best term of their crops - March - April. Before crops seeds presoak in water and sow in the wooden boxes or flowerpots filled with the easy fertile soil consisting of equal parts of humus, peat and river sand. At crops they are buried at 0,5 - 0,7 cm, the top layer of earth is powdered with a sand layer (1 cm). From above capacity is covered with glass or a transparent film. For successful germination indoors maintain temperature 20 - 24 ° With, the soil is regularly humidified. Water carefully, trying not to wash up seeds. Shoots appear in 30 - 35 days. The grown-up seedlings are steady against conditions of cultivation and differ in well created root system.