Rus Articles Journal

Trips without adults: new opportunities. Part II

the Beginning
the observer`s position to the child is good

In habitual situations and is familiar for a long time. Now and as the passenger he feels rather independent to direct closer attention to the world behind a window and to people in transport.

Novelty of an approximate phase is that nablyudatelsky interest of the child from uzkopraktichesky turns into research. The child not only how in this world occupies not an abyss, and and the world per se now - its device and events which are taking place there. Even the child already not just holds the ticket in hand, being afraid to lose, but considers figures on it, puts three first and three last to check: suddenly the sums will coincide, and there will be to it happiness.

In the world behind a window he begins to notice a lot of things: on what streets goes what else means of transport go to the same party and that interesting happens on the street. Houses it it is proud tells parents that he precisely knows the schedule of its bus which it checked on hours that today he managed to sit down quickly on other number and to reach almost to the school when its bus broke. Now from it it is often possible to hear stories about different street incidents and interesting cases.

If parents with the child in good contact and talk to it much, they can notice that than it becomes more senior, especially attentively watches people in the bus. Especially it is noticeable after nine years - age when motives of human acts begin to interest the child. Some children literally collect material for the peculiar “Human comedy“ which certain heads they with pleasure tell the interested adults at dinner or a dinner. Then it can turn out that the child fixedly studies different social types, it is aggravated it is attentive to all situations where people, significant for it (for example, parents with children) are characters, notices humiliated and oppressed, wants to discuss problems of justice, destiny, fight of good against the evil in the world of people.

the Adult finds out that trips in transport become the real school of life where before the city child, especially in our restless time, the whole kaleidoscope of persons and situations which part he sees fleetingly is developed, and systematically observes others for a long time - for example, constant passengers. If the adult is capable to become the benevolent and inspiring interlocutor, then in this talk, on the example of discussion of live situations, significant for the child, the adult can work psychologically together with it a set of important subjects. Unfortunately, parents often perceive vital impressions of the child as an idle talk to which there is no need to listen, or just as the amusing situations which are not making deep sense.

As the child becomes more senior than

, at early teenage age in his behavior new tendencies appear. There comes the third phase of development of transport which it is possible to call experimentally - creative. On this phase the passion to experimenting and unwillingness to be a slave to circumstances is obviously noticeable. It is possible to tell that the child is already rather adapted not to adapt any more.

It is a new step of its relationship with the world which is shown in different forms, but all of them have in themselves something the general - desire to be an active personality, inquisitive and thriftily disposing vehicles available to her in the purposes. Not - “where I will be carried“, and - “where I will go“.

This active and creative position can be shown by

in the real passion of the child to combine different types of transport and to choose all new and new ways from point “A“ to point “B“. So, as if for saving of time, the child goes by two buses and by trolleybus where it is possible to reach quietly on one type of transport. But he runs across from a stop on a stop, enjoying an opportunity to choose, the ability to combine a route and to make decisions. The school student is similar here to the kid who has in a box eight felt-tip pens, and he surely wants to draw each of them to feel that he is capable to use all means which were at its disposal.

Or, with delay having reached on a private lesson of English, joyfully tells the teacher what today found still new, already the third transport opportunity to arrive her home.

At this stage of development of the child transport becomes for it not just a vehicle in an urban environment, but also the tool of its knowledge. When the child was younger, for him it was important not to lose the one and only right way. Now he thinks essentially differently: not separate routes which as corridors are laid from one place to another - now he sees before himself the whole spatial field in which it is possible to choose different trajectories of the movement independently.

Emergence of such vision demonstrates that intellectually the child rose by a step above - it had intellectual “district maps“ giving understanding of a continuity of space of world around. It is interesting that the child realizes these intellectual opening not only in new nature of use of transport by it at once, but also in unexpectedly flashing love to drawing of various cards and schemes.

It can be the usual note of the twelve-year-old girl left for mother in the summer at the dacha with the indication of that to which of girlfriends it went on a visit and the appendix of site plan on which shooters specified a way to the house of this girlfriend.

It can be the map of the next fantastic country where in the imaginations the child, or the “Map of pirates“ with careful designation of the dug treasures attached to the real district periodically moves.

can be

A, drawing of own room, unexpected for parents, with the image of the objects which are in it in a projection “top view“.

Against such intellectual achievements of the child of early teenage age especially obvious. Let`s remember that children begin to think spatially, relying on category of the place. Various familiar “places“ are perceived by the child at first as islands known to it in the sea of life. But in consciousness of the small child there is no idea of the card as descriptions of an arrangement of these places relatively each other. That is it has no topological scheme of space. Here it is possible to remember that the mythological space of the world of the ancient person, as well as the world of subconsciousness of the person modern, is based on children`s logic and too consists of certain “places“ between which the filled emptiness gape nothing. Then between certain places for the child long corridors - the routes which are characterized by a course continuity are stretched. And only then, as we saw, there is an idea of a continuity of space which is described through intellectual “district maps“.

Such is sequence of stages of development of children`s ideas of space. However to teenage age not all children come to the level of intellectual spatial cards. Experience shows that many adults who spatially think as younger school students exist, through trajectories of routes known for it from one point to another, and partly as small children, understanding it as set of “places“.

the Level of development of representations of the adult (as well as the child) about space can be estimated according to his many statements and acts. In particular, how the person is capable to describe verbally to another how that can reach from one place another. The adult has to consider the level and opportunities in this plan when he tries as the tutor to help the child with difficult business of knowledge of structure of space of world around.

Fortunately, children in this regard and not a bast boards. Very often they combine the efforts. Their cognitive spatial interest is shown in research actions which they take together with friends. Equally both girls, and boys like to go by transport along all route - from a ring to a ring. Or sit down on some number to look where will bring. Or leave half-way and walk to investigate unfamiliar streets, to glance to the yards. And sometimes go to go out with the friends in distant park in other area to introduce new impressions in ordinary life and to feel the independence and ability to submit space. That is the children`s company uses public transport for the solution of a number of own psychological tasks.

Happens that parents with amazement and shudder of heart learn about these travel of the children. They need a lot of patience, a diplomatic step and at the same time hardness to come to the mutual agreement and to grope such opportunities of satisfaction of children`s passion to geographical and psychological discoveries and entertainments that the guarantee of their safety remained. Of course, for the child joint sorties with someone from parents when couple of researchers - big and small - consciously go towards to new adventures are also fruitful, getting into unfamiliar places, dream and strange places where it is possible to make unexpected discoveries, to dream up, to play together. It is very useful to consider at a leisure together with the child of 10 - 12 years the map of the district familiar to it, to find there the places surveyed on walks, streets.

an Opportunity to compare a direct image of those urban areas where the child himself was, and symbolical representation of the same landscape on the card, gives very valuable effect: in spatial representations of the child the intellectual volume and freedom of logical actions appears. It is reached due to simultaneous coexistence of the live, dvigatelno lived, visually representable image of the familiar spatial environment and its conditional (symbolical) scheme in the form of the card. When the same spatial information is described for the child and apprehended by him at once in two languages - in language of mental images and in znakovo - a symbolical form, - it has the real understanding of structure of space. If the child becomes capable to translate freely spatial information from language of live images on sign language of cards, plans, schemes (and vice versa), for it the way to all types of practical opens and it is intellectual - logical mastering space. Such ability is connected with a phase of intellectual development which the child enters at early teenage age. Actually children report to us about emergence of this ability when they begin to be fond of drawing of cards.

Business of the adult - to notice the intuitive step taken by the child by an intellectual maturity and to purposefully support him, having offered forms of work, fascinating for the child. It is good when the tutor feels in what the child is strong and where he does not gather additionally information, does not save up live experience of contacts with world around, does not decide on independent actions. The child can usually be helped in rather easy and natural ways within situations, habitual for it, which can be developed unexpected sides with filling of such gaps, having set the new tasks. But will pass years five - ten, and pedagogically started though already the adult will painfully solve the same children`s problems of contact with world around. However it is already much more difficult to receive the help to it. it is important to p to note

that phases of development of transport have quite certain sequence, but have no rigid binding to certain age periods of the childhood. Among our adult informants there were people who were distressed on the fact that they had “all too late in comparison with others“.

the Girl who arrived from the province both in teenage, and at youthful age continues to solve problems of the first, adaptation phase: learns not to hesitate, not to be afraid of people, to feel in transport “as all“.

the Young woman of 27 years with surprise reports

about the recently appeared desire to learn: “And where there is a bus further after I leave?“ - and the decision to be passed by this bus to a ring as it is done by children of years in ten - twelve.“ Why I know nothing that around me? Parents did not let me anywhere, and I was afraid of all unfamiliar“.

To the contrary, there are adults who as children, continue to develop creative approach in development of transport and urban environment and set to themselves new research tasks in compliance with the adult opportunities.

to One likes to drive different cars. It is carried away by process of “capture“ of the driver ready to bring, to interestingly learn character of the driver how it operates the vehicle. He tried almost all brands of cars and is proud of the fact that he went for work by a fuel truck, on “ambulance“, on the cash-in-transit vehicle, “gaishny“, “technical help“, grocery and only from superstition did not use services of funeral special transport.

Other person keeps boyish methods of inspection of space, but brings under them solid theoretical base. Such is there was one Danish businessman who arrived to Russia for construction of facilities of infrastructure: highway, bridges, airfields, etc. Trips on city transport were its favourite pastime in a leisure hours. He was proud that visited absolutely all metro stations and for few years passed from a ring to a ring along the main routes of land public transport. At the same time it was conducted not so much by professional interest, how many curiosity, pleasure from the process and conviction that only the person who saw everything not according to the card and everywhere passed not in own car, and together with ordinary citizens - passengers, can consider what knows the city in which lodged.

the Story about children`s ways of development and use of transport will be incomplete if not to mention one more feature of relationship of the child with vehicles.

of the Trip in our public transport is always driving in neznayemy: never it is impossible to be sure completely that you control a situation that you will reach to the destination, but you will not get stuck in way that on the road nothing happens. Besides, and in general the passenger is the person who is in an intermediate state. It already not here (from where left) and not there (where heads). Therefore he is inclined to think and even to guess of what is prepared for it by destiny when it reaches. If goes to such significant place as school, or from school with the diary full of different marks, goes home. It seems that for this reason in tradition of children`s subculture there is various fortune-telling in which children are engaged in transport.

We already mentioned

guessing under tickets for luck by folding and comparison of the sums of three first and three last numbers of booking number. It is also possible to pay attention and to number of the car in which you go. It is possible to guess according to rooms of cars on the street or to think of number of cars of a certain color which should be counted on the road that everything was good. Children guess even on buttons on a coat. As well as ancient people, children are inclined to resort to magic actions if it is necessary to affect object or a situation that they settled down in favor of the child. One of magic tasks which rises before the child almost daily consists in begging transport quickly to reach to the destination. The more unpleasant accidents can meet on the road, the more actively the child makes efforts on “clearing“ of a situation in own favor. Adult readers, perhaps, the fact that one of the most whimsical means of transport which absorbs many sincere forces of the child is the elevator will surprise. The child more often appears with him in private and inogdand it is forced to build difficult system of amicable contracts with the elevator not to get stuck between floors what children are afraid of.

For example, the girl of eight years lived in the house where there were two parallel elevators - “passenger“ and more capacious “cargo“. The girl had to go by one, by another. They periodically got stuck. Watching behavior of elevators, the girl came to a conclusion that you get stuck more often in that elevator in which before it did not go long ago, and there is it because the elevator becomes angry and takes offense at the passenger for what she neglected it. Therefore the girl took for the rule to approach at first that elevator on which she was not going to go. The girl bowed to it, welcomed and, having complied the elevator thus, with quiet soul went on another. Procedure was magically effective, but took a lot of time and sometimes drew attention of passersby. Therefore the girl simplified it: rose on one elevator, and about herself in parallel prayed to another, apologized at it for the fact that did not use it, and solemnly promised to pass on it in the next day of week. She always kept the promise and was sure that for this reason it never got stuck in the elevator, unlike other people.

As we already told

, the pagan relations with the natural and subject world in general are characteristic of children. Most often adults do not know even a little bit of that difficult system of interactions which is installed by the child with entities of things, significant for it.