Trips without adults: new opportunities. Part I
Usually the beginning of independent trips of the city child in public transport is connected with need to reach school. Not always parents, and quite often already in the first class can accompany it (that is years) it begins to go to seven.
From the second - the third class independent trips to school or to a circle become norm though adults try to see off the child and to meet him on the way back. To this age at the child rather wide experience of driving in public transport, but - together with the adult attendant who is felt as protection, a safety guarantee, a support at a difficult moment is saved already up.
the Trip alone - absolutely other business. Any person knows, subjective difficulty when for the first time you do something completely independently, without mentor nearby how strongly increases. In simple and, apparently, habitual actions unforeseen difficulties are found at once.
to Travel alone - always risky. In a way of people it is open in relation to any accidents and at the same time deprived of support of a habitual environment. A saying “Houses and walls help“ is psychologically exact. Houses or in well familiar, constantly repeating situations human “I“ materialize myself in various forms that gives to the personality feeling of a set of the external support telling her stability (see the article Development of Space of the House: materialization “I). Here ours “I“ become similar to an octopus which stretched in different directions the feelers, having fixed on stones and ledges of a seabed, and successfully resists to a current.
the Traveller - the passenger, on the contrary, comes off from familiar and steady, it appears in a situation where everything is changeable around, is fluid, is changeable: types behind transport windows flash, there are strangers around. The etymology of the word “passenger“ says that it is the person moving through and by what steadily and stands still not movably.
By and large the most reliable and stable element of changeable situations around the passenger is he, its own “I“. It is present constantly and can be a support and a firm reference point in the changing system of coordinates of the outside world. As the passenger moves in space of this world, it “I“ psychologically is not sprayed among elements of a habitual habitat any more, and, on the contrary, is more collected within its own corporal borders. Thanks to it “I“ become more concentrated, grouped in itself. Thus, the role of the passenger forces the person to realize more distinctly the egoism against the alien changing environment.
If to look at a problem more widely yes to take scale more largely, we will find additional confirmations to these reasonings.For example, from time immemorial at youthful age travel, in particular trips for study out of limits of the native land were considered as
as an important element of education of the person. They were undertaken not only for enrichment of informative experience, but also for personal growth. Youth is that period of formation of the personality when the young man has to learn to feel internal constancy most, to look for more support in itself, but not outside, to open idea of own self-identity (see E. Eriksson “The childhood and society“). Having got in alien and furthermore in the foreign, foreign culture environment, having been not similar on people around, the person begins to note distinctions and to notice in itself many properties which absolutely were not realized earlier by him. Then that, having started on a journey to see the world around, the traveler at the same time looks for the road to most.
Adults, already created people often seek to leave the house, to go to travel to come off all habitual, to collect the thoughts, fuller to feel and understand itself, to return to itself.to Someone comparison of distant travel of the adult and an independent trip of the child - the first grader in school can seem to
excessively courageous, incomparable on scale. But in the world of the mental phenomena not the external scale of events, but their internal substantial similarity is important. In this case and that, and other situation forces the person to feel the separateness, the integrity, to accept responsibility for herself and to solve the important problems connected with abilities to be guided in physical and social space of world around.
the Analysis of stories of children of younger school and teenage age how they learned to go in city transport, allows to allocate three phases in this process, each of which has own psychological tasks.the First phase of independent development by children of public transport can call by
adaptation . It is a phase of accustoming, adaptation, a prilazhivaniye of to requirements of a new situation.
At this stage the task of the child consists in that it is correct to make everything and without adventures to reach to the destination. It means: it is correct to choose number of the bus, trolleybus or tram, not to stumble, not to fall, not to lose at the road of the things, not to be the crumpled flow of adults and to leave at the necessary stop. The child knows that it is necessary to remember a set of rules: it is necessary to punch the coupon, to buy the ticket or to show a travel card, when crossing the street somewhere it is necessary to look on the left, and somewhere to the right (though often unsteadily remembers, where the right, and where left) etc.
Ability is correct to play a role of the passenger and to feel at the same time surely and quietly demands development of a set of skills which have to be brought to automatism. If we list at least the most important psychological tasks with which the young passenger has to cope, then we will be surprised to their abundance and complexity.the First group of tasks is connected by
with the fact that transport continuously moves in space in the own mode of speeds to which the passenger has to be fitted. Therefore it should keep in the field of attention necessary information on movement of transport all the time.
In land transport he has to watch what is visible from a window. Where we go? When to me to leave? If it is a constant route of trips of the child (as usual and happens), then he has to remember and be able to identify characteristic signs behind a window - intersections, at home, signs, advertizing, - on which he can be guided, in advance prepare for an exit. Sometimes children therein in addition consider stops.
In the subway the passenger tries to listen attentively to the announcement of the name of the next station. Besides, it has a couple of seconds to identify an individual decor of station when the train already stops. A great difficulty for the child is the continuity of such tracking. Children are tired by need to be constantly included in the changing spatial situation - it is very difficult for them. But terribly and to pass the stop. It seems to many younger children that they will be taken away goodness knows where and from there will be not to find the road back.
If the adult loses reference points in way, then usually it is the simplest to it to ask neighbors: what was or there will be a stop where to leave if it is necessary there - that? For most of children it is almost impossible. Here they face the second group of tasks - socially - psychological, - which the passenger has to solve too. >
it is very terrible to p to Address foreign adult in transport. It is sometimes easier to begin to cry and to so draw to itself attention of potential assistants. The people surrounding the child seem to it omnipotent, powerful, unclear, dangerously unpredictable in the actions. In comparison with them the child feels weak, small, deprived of civil rights, subordinated - as a mouse before the mountain. Often nobody hears its shy muffled voice when it quietly asks a lawful question: “You leave now?“, “I can pass?“ . But usually younger children are afraid to address adults in transport. They are frightened by idea to initiate contact - all the same that to let out the genie from a bottle or to tickle a spear of a giant: it is unknown what will be.
When the child goes one, without friends - the peers giving to bravery in public it aggravates all personal problems: he is afraid to make something not that, to draw upon himself anger of adults or just their close attention, from - for what is capable to get confused even that he well knows and is able to do. The feeling of the weakness and fear of contact, and also not formation of skills which are usually developed during trips with parents sometimes lead to the fact that the child not only cannot force the way through to an exit the word (remarks like “Allow to pass“), but also is afraid even to squeeze between bodies of other people to leave at the necessary stop if in advance it did not manage to appear at an exit.
Usually corresponding social skills are acquired with experience: there will pass some time - and the child will look absolutely in a different way. But there are cases when similar problems of an adaptation phase remain also in youth, and even later. It occurs at socially unadapted people, for some reasons who kept not resolved problems children`s “I“ which does not know what it is possible to lean in itself on, and is afraid of the difficult world around.
the Normal adult can endure anew some problems of an adaptation phase and feel on himself many difficulties of the child - the passenger if it appears in public transport where - nibud abroad, in prudish England or exotic Dhaka, in others country which language knows insufficiently and does not know household rules.we Will try to answer with
a question now: what concrete skills are formed at the child on the first phase of independent development of transport?
In - the first, it is a complex of the abilities providing a psychological inclusiveness in a situation and ability to keep a set of the environment parameters which are continuously changing in own mode under control of attention: a landscape behind windows, people around itself, pushes and fluctuations of the car, messages of the driver, etc.
In - the second, installation on contact with surrounding objects and people is developed and becomes stronger, skills of such contact appear: it is possible to touch, keep, sit down, independently to take place where it is convenient to you and where you do not disturb others, it is possible to ask people around certain questions and requests, etc.
B - the third, the knowledge of social rules to which people in transport situations submit is formed: that the passenger has the right to do and that is not present as people usually arrive in these or those situations.
B - the fourth, a certain level of understanding of appears: possibility of the answer to itself (and not just to other people as it was in the early childhood) on the question “who do I am?“ in its different options. The child begins to realize at least to some extent himself as independent corporal, social, psychological essence and does not lose contact with himself in the current situation. And it happens not only to children. For example, the young man costs at the door in the car of the subway and does not notice that he holds this door with a leg, without allowing it to be closed. Three times the voice on radio asks to release doors as the train cannot start. The young man does not carry it to himself. At last the angry passengers speak to it: why a door you hold with a leg? The young man is surprised, confused and right there takes away a leg.
Without feeling of own stability and integrity, reality of the presence at a social situation, the status in it, the rights and opportunities will not be that base of the personality which provides approach of two following phases.As we already noted
, children usually gain all these skills gradually, by practical consideration - life teaches them. But the thoughtful tutor, and in special cases - the psychologist, having observed the child, can give him essential help if pays attention to those aspects of its experience which were insufficiently lived by the child. And two will be the fundamental moments: understanding of and positive installation on contact with world around.the Children living an adaptation phase, only beginning to go in transport independently are usually strongly concentrated by
on themselves and the actions and are more disturbing. However the more quietly and more surely the child as the passenger feels, the it is more, having disconnected from problems with own “I“, he begins to observe the events around. So the second phase of acquisition by the child of experience of the passenger which it is possible to call approximate begins .Continuation