Rus Articles Journal

Celery and
fennel

In a celery root odorous huge force is hidden,
That to young men the heat adds and to aged men burns down loins with fire.
Tsely Apitsy. About culinary art (the III-IV centuries AD)

vegetable plants at the mention of which before eyes hardly, but there is their habitual image Are. Or recur knowledge that one can be eaten crude to the memory, it is better to put others in soup, and from the third to prepare medical infusion. It fully belongs to fennel and a celery. When we hear the word “celery“ then we connect it with a fragrant bunch of greens - rather frequent guest in our kitchen. Having read the name of a plant fennel, sometimes we remember that its fruits something treat, and we find it difficult to answer a question at once - it is edible or not? But life does not stand still, and, having come to shop, under the price tag “celery“ we instead of a bunch of greens find something, reminding beet on appearance, and under the price tag “fennel“ we see something, similar to whitish onions.

Uniform in three types

the celery Homeland - the Mediterranean where it meets in a wild look. Inhabitants of Ancient Hellas considered refined a specific smell and a peculiar taste of a celery and believed that it excites sensuality and lyubostrasty. The powerful favourite of the loveful French king Louis XV Zhanna Antoinette Poisson of the marquis de Pompadour claimed that helped to keep good shape during intimate communication with ventsenosets to it chocolate and salad from a grated celery, apples and walnuts.

In Renaissance the description of several exaggerated medicinal properties of a celery took a place of honor in all medical treatises. In the same time in Italy by long selection removed a petiolar and root vegetable celery. Within a short period of time these vegetable cultures became popular in all Europe, and their tastes were by all means mentioned in recipe-books.

In Russia the celery occasionally occurs in a wild look at the coast of the Black and Azov seas, and in the XVI-XVII centuries it began to be grown up in pharmaceutical kitchen gardens at first as a herb, and then as the fragrant seasoning considerably improving a smell and taste of food which was cooked, as a rule, from not the freshest products.

are distinguished Now by three kinds of a celery: rhizocarpous, petiolar and sheet. In Russia the greatest distribution has a sheet celery, is more rare - rhizocarpous, and petiolar began to appear only in recent years.

pectinaceous substances, amino acids, organic acids, flavonoids, vitamins A, groups B, C, P, PP, E and the balanced complex macro - and minerals contain Korneklubni`s

and leaves of a celery sugar.

all parts of this plant contain the essential oil of difficult structure possessing a strong specific smell, but in sheet it is ten times more, than in root or petiolar. Essential oil of a celery increases appetite, stimulates secretion of gastric juice and improves digestion, promotes an otkhozhdeniye of gases and depletion of intestines.

Biologically active agents which are contained in all parts of a celery in bigger or smaller quantity exert

beneficial influence on a metabolism in an organism, improve vodno - salt balance, normalize function warmly - vascular and nervous systems, increase physical and intellectual working capacity, improve health.

Contrary to widespread recommendations should not trouble itself unpromising work on getting of juice from a celery. In - the first, it is not enough, in there - the second, it is necessary to drink it only freshly cooked, in - the third, this labor-consuming and expensive occupation and medicinal properties of juice very moderate. It is better to get into the good habit more often to add a root, petiolar or sheet celery to the most various dishes.

Since 19th century in traditional cuisines of Germany, Italy, Russia are used also by fruits (seeds) of a celery - for aromatization of marinades, vegetable dishes, salad gas stations, soups, tomato sauces. Already presently celery salt which represents mix of ground seeds or the dried and crushed roots of a celery and salt began to enjoy wide popularity. It is excellent seasoning to vegetables, fish and meat dishes. In France with it drink tomato juice.

Infusion of seeds of a celery is recommended to drink as a prophylactic for prevention of an exacerbation of an urolithic illness. For infusion preparation the teaspoon of dry seeds is poured out in a teapot, filled in with a glass of boiled water, maintained 15 minutes, filtered and drink warm, fragrant and nice to the taste infusion after food.

It is removed by the Italian gardeners in the 17th century and as appears from the name, it is grown up for the sake of the roundish root crops having a diameter of 10 - 20 cm and representing a root thickening.

the Most often rhizocarpous celery are used by culinary specialists of the European countries. In Russia it is grown up, unfortunately, and eat unfairly a little whereas it can and has to take the same place, as well as carrots in food.

root crops of a celery go On sale all the year round. This vegetable during the period from November to April when the majority of the fresh green plants containing biologically active agents necessary for a human body are practically absent is especially useful. The distinctive, not estimated fully yet feature of this culture is that at storage in it well remain characteristic tart aroma, spicy is sweetish - bitter taste and all biologically active agents.

the Rhizocarpous celery can be recommended to

as a dietary product at gipatsidny gastritises and stomach ulcer of a stomach and a duodenum against the normal and lowered secretion, and also at violation vodno - a salt exchange and for prevention of gipovitaminoz. It is recommended to include in a diet to people with the excess weight caused by a metabolic disorder and at the hypostases arising owing to deterioration in function it is warm - vascular system.

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Upon purchase choose the least knotty root crops having a smooth thin skin that allows to clean them with the smallest losses. The green vershoks decorating some root crops can be used for decoration of ready dishes or to add to soups - they possess a specific smell and can serve as seasoning.

are Stored by root crops in the refrigerator, previously densely having fitted food wrap. In food it is desirable to use them within a week.

begin to Clean a celery from trimming of a top and the basis, then cut it on four parts and clear a peel from each part separately, as required. When cleaning surely delete spongy tasteless parts. Root crops should not be digested as they quickly become soft. In soups they are added to the last turn, shortly before the end of preparation.

is Grown up for receiving the long, juicy and dense scapes possessing delicate pleasant aroma. Unlike scapes sheet and a root - a fetal celery they have no in emptiness.

are Distinguished by grades of a petiolar celery with light “white“ and is pale - green scapes. Grades with green scapes specially bleach for what them for two - three weeks before cleaning (usually at the beginning of September) hill or turn in lightproof material.

Gentle scapes eat

crude and boiled. In salads they are perfectly combined with apples or seafood. Use them for preparation of vegetable stews or sauces.

the Petiolar celery - a useful dietary product which it is desirable for people to use with an excess weight, at dysfunction of kidneys, a chronic lock, a meteorizm, a depression, weakening of sexual desire.

Forms the sheet socket in which there can be about 100 leaves with thin hollow scapes.

Leaves juicy, gentle, possess saturated, pleasant aroma and is sweetish - bitterish taste. They are well combined with vegetables, meat, fish and give to dishes refined tartness, and serve as excellent seasoning to vegetable soups, sauces, cutlets and stewed meat in a dried look.

in the Early spring the sheet celery helps our organism to fill with

a lack of vitamins and mineral substances and to prevent development of the increased permeability of vascular walls and fragility of blood vessels.

In a pot on a window sill a sheet celery can be grown up all the year round: it is enough to put backs which are cut just off from a fresh bunch of greens to the earth.

“Voloshsky fennel“ - tasty and medical

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the Homeland of fennel ordinary the countries of the Mediterranean, in particular consider Italy where it, since antique times, was grown up as a herb, and then and as vegetable culture. Tells about the Italian origin of fennel also its remained still ancient Russian name “voloshsky fennel“ which happens from Old Russian “volokh“ - the general name of the Romance people. Russia began to part fennel since the 17th century as a herb.

two kinds of this plant - fennel ordinary, or pharmaceutical, voloshsky fennel Exist; and Italian (Florentine), or vegetable, fennel, sweet anise.

is Grown up in Russia, in France, in Italy, Israel, Iran and Japan for the sake of its seeds which still use as medicine.

In all medical treatises, since the early Middle Ages and to Renaissance inclusive fennel acted as the universal remedy capable to counteract any poison, to cure eye diseases, to relieve of hypostases, diseases of a liver, kidneys, a bladder, an urolithic illness. It was claimed that it is capable to give abundance of milk to the wet nurse, youth to aged men and of course “induces to direct to love“.

B times closer to us essential oil of fruits of fennel was included into the well-known “drops of the Danish king“ used against cough and representing no other than solution of essential oil in water with addition of a liquorice and sal ammoniac. Fennel fruits under the name “seeds of meetings“ replaced to our great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers chewing gum - to hide an unpleasant smell from a mouth. And at the Indian restaurants still after a lunch give the simple or rolled in sugar seeds as a dessert or a freshener of breath.

In modern therapy infusion of seeds of fennel is applied at diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path, followed by intestines spasms, a meteorizm, dyspepsia, pains in intestines of spastic character. This means is appointed also for improvement of appetite, increase of secretion of gastric and pancreatic juice and a zhelcheotdeleniye. Infusion can be used at diseases of the top airways which are followed by dry cough for fluidifying of a phlegm and its otkharkivaniye.

At the cold and flu which are followed by painful dry cough is advised to fill a teaspoon of seeds of fennel in a teapot, to add a pinch of ground ginger and to fill in with a glass of boiled water. In 5 minutes to pour in a mug, to add a spoon of honey and at once to drink.

Biologically active agents which are contained in seeds have spazmolitichesky effect and koronarorasshiryayushchy effect, calm the central nervous system. Therefore infusion of seeds is recommended to use at easy forms of coronary insufficiency and initial stages of a hypertensive illness. For preparation of infusion it is enough to buy fennel seeds in a drugstore, to fill a tablespoon them in a porcelain mug, to fill in 200 ml of boiled water, to close a cover and to insist 15 - 20 minutes. Then to filter and drink infusion in a warm look. The feeding mothers for increase of a lactation can use the same infusion.

prepare for

From essential oil of fruits of fennel the well-known dill water which is given to chest babies at a meteorizm. The value of this means is not only that with its help successfully cope with a painful abdominal distension at babies, but also that it is a good and harmless demulcent for kids.

Fruits of fennel use in production of liqueurs, confectionery, mainly cookies, pies and puddings. They give special aroma to sauerkraut and salty tomatoes, marinated vegetables (in particular to cucumbers and apples) and to cold appetizers. Them to an aromatizir yut tea and compotes. Before using fennel seeds as spice, for strengthening of taste they are slightly roasted. Crushed in powder, they increase taste of fish soups, sauces, bread, sausages, roast.

Fruits of fennel are a part of the Chinese mix “five spices“ and the French mix “Provence herbs“ which are on sale in finished form.

“Five spices“ - the fragrant seasoning representing mix from a cassia (cassia cinnamon), anisetree fruits (a star-shaped anise), fennel, Sichuan pepper and a carnation. With growth of popularity of Chinese cuisine this seasoning became quite famous in world cookery.

“Provence herbs“ - the mix of herbs consisting of rosemary, a basil, a thyme, a sage, a peppermint, a chaber garden, an oregano (marjoram) and a marjoram. Except the listed components add bay leaf, seeds and dried greens of fennel, and also a dried peel of orange and dry flowers of a lavender to it.

Mix possesses unique aroma and many culinary and medical advantages. It is recommended for giving of taste and a smell to the fresh dietary dishes used at a diet without salt. It is widely applied as an additive to soups, sauces and salads. It is irreplaceable at preparation of roast, mincemeat, stuffings and fish dishes to which gives the spicy, but very balanced taste and magnificent aroma. Differs from ordinary in more powerful high bush and fleshy scapes of the lower leaves forming whitish, slightly flat juicy kochanchik weighing from 150 to 300 g. This vegetable is appreciated the content of biologically active agents especially necessary for our organism in the winter, and also availability of vitamins A, groups B, by C, D, PP, K, macro - and minerals, flavonoids and benzopyrones. He can be considered as the dietary product stimulating digestion and rendering weak zhelchegonny, diuretic and spazmolitichesky action.

Fennel vegetable - a fine dietary and delicious product with a delicate peculiar anisic perfume and sweetish taste - should be used more often to the people having the problems caused by bad digestion, chronic coronary insufficiency and a hypertension. It can be used in various salads fresh or boiled and also as an independent dish. Stewed or baked fennel serves as a refined garnish for meat or fish. To fennel, considering its own sweetish taste, lemon juice, black pepper and olive oil well approach.

On sale vegetable fennel happens almost all the year round, but it is especially useful to our organism in winter time. Kochanchik of white color with small light-green leaves are considered the best. Densely fitted by food wrap or wrapped in damp fabric, they can be stored in the refrigerator within a week. Before the use at kochanchik cut off roots, plumose leaves with scapes, delete an external layer of leaves or remove a thin skin. Cut them only lengthways, usually on four parts, at desire cut out a green core.

For quite some time now was available for sale pass - fennel, its fresh kochanchik use as a garnish entirely or having cut lengthways on two parts.

fennel Leaves with delicate anisic aroma can be used for decoration of dishes and also as seasoning or a garnish. They excellently shade taste of meat.

Curative vegetables on your table

Leaves, scapes, the celery root crops, seeds and kochanchik of fennel possessing a delicate perfume and gentle taste give to

a big scope for the culinary imagination and help to do more tasty dietary food for those people to whom on this or that to the reason doctors recommend to avoid the use of spices and hot spices.

Salad from a rhizocarpous celery with apples and walnuts (the recipe of the marchioness de Pompadour)

to Clear a small root crop of a celery and apples (at apples to take out a core). To rub them on a large grater and to mix with walnuts. To add lemon juice and sugar to taste.

On 1 root crop of a celery - 2 apples, 2 tablespoons of small cut and fried walnuts.

Salad from a rhizocarpous celery and carrots

Root crops of a celery and carrots to clear, rub on a large grater and to mix. To add salt, sugar, the pounded nuts and to fill with sour cream mix with lemon juice. To decorate ready salad with greens.

On 200 g of a rhizocarpous celery - 300 g of carrots, 100 g of sour cream, 100 g of walnuts, 4 h a spoon of lemon juice, sugar, salt, celery greens.

Salad from a sheet celery

Greens of a celery to wash up

, to small chop, add the onions grated on a small grater and small cut lemon without dried peel, to mix everything and to salt. To lay out in a salad bowl and to fill with sour cream.

On a bunch of a sheet celery - 1 average bulb, 1 lemon, celery salt, sour cream.

Soup potato with a rhizocarpous celery

Small chopped onions cut by straws a celery and sliced champignons to roast

on oil, at the end of frying to water with lemon juice, to fill in with broth and to add potatoes cut in cubes. When potatoes cook, to strew soup with the chopped celery greens. To soup to serve slightly fried white loaf.

On 250 g of a rhizocarpous celery - 250 g of potatoes, 50 g of onions, 2 champignons, vegetable oil, salt, several drops of lemon juice, a sheet celery, 1,5 l of rather weak meat or chicken broth.

Mashed potatoes with a celery

to Cut with

a celery and potatoes, to put in a pan and to fill in with cold water. To bring to boiling, then, having reduced fire, to cook 15 - 20 more min. To merge water, to add milk, oil, salt and to make mashed potatoes.

On 300 g of a rhizocarpous celery - 500 g of potatoes, 50 ml of milk, 15 g of butter, salt.

the Celery with mustard sauce

to Make for

mustard, vegetable oil and lemon juice or vinegar sauce. Gradually to pour in oil at continuous stirring in mustard, to add lemon juice or vinegar, salt, pepper, once again carefully to mix. To slice a root crop of a celery thin and with pleasure is, dipping in sauce. It will be required by

to p: 2 h spoon of mustard, 0,5 glasses of vegetable oil, 1 glass of lemon juice or vinegar.