Hour of a fun: the Russian game and toys of
From the numerous phenomena of culture and life of the Russian people is considerably allocated game. The concept of game of national culture is wider and diverse, than in the present. Game called such, apparently, different and far from each other phenomena as dancings, dances, circulation under songs, round dances, pranks, entertainments, outdoor games, festivities of youth and even intimate relations.by
With game in wide value connected first of all concept of a holiday, fun, rest. Holidays were arranged in certain calendar terms, and their contents was rather traditional: masked on the Christmas-tide, driving on horses and from ice slopes for Maslenitsa, a swing for Easter, a twisting of wreaths and round dances for the Trinity. But there was also other concept of game: in value of a children`s entertainment with a toy in the house, with brothers and sisters, with peers, and sometimes and with parents.archeologists find
On the place of settlements and ancient settlements where there lived Slavs and their ancestors, household and cult objects, products of handicraftsmen and artists of bygone times including toys in a large number. The most ancient of them are found in Slavic burials of the VI-VIII centuries. Only clay remained generally, is more rare from a bone.the centers of production of toys are Since ancient times known to
- it is a clay toy in Vyatka, Kargopole, the Arkhangelsk and Tula areas, crafts of a wooden toy in Nizhny Novgorod. The largest center of a toy - Sergiyev Posad the Moscow region.
the Famous writer I. S. Shmelyov who visited still the child a bogomolya in the Trinity - Sergiyevy monastery, remembered:“ ... Then we go in a toy row, at walls, under Monastery. Eyes run up to look. The toy nest at the Trinity, from the Reverend was moved: and then with rebyatyonka were flown down. Big - from the Saint pleasure, and to silly little chaps - an igrushechka, to everyone the pleasure. Any here wooden turning: cows and lambs, cut lesochka and izbas; both the forging smiths and kubarik, and a bear with the man, and fine-molded persons, dozen in one: all multi-colored, enclosed the friend in the friend, with red small pea in the last - is no more than pine nut. And winged melnichka - revolving objects, and tops - puzanka from a tree on a high leg; and tops clockwork on a spring, with a head - a small screw, painted under a rainbow, singing, both penny whistles, and tin cockerels, and pipes tin, rose trees the lips painted, scratching behind specks, and the barabanchik in a gilded tin which are joyfully smelling of glue and strong paint, both any horses and carts, and dolls, and sanochka bast and... And Monastery - the Trinity, a high belltower, with all tserkva, walls, towers, - folding... We buy the trifles: a tin cockerel - a penny whistle, a penny whistle - knutik, a harmonica and a belfry with conventuals on a full ring...“
the Craft of a toy developed here not one century. Its sources - in local cultural traditions even the XV-XVI centuries connected with art processing of a tree, with art of school of carvers of Trinity Monastery. The legend remained that the first wooden toys were done by the founder of Trinity Monastery Sergey of Radonezh and personally presented with them children.
of the Toy long since were most often house hand-made articles. They were made between times of what was had near at hand: rags, straw, clay, tree. It turned out no wonder, but always with common sense. So, clay toys were made everywhere where was available pottery or a pottery. There was a clay lump with the master, on a jug or a cup it is not enough, and on a birdie - a penny whistle just right and a doggie it is possible to stick together. To the master fun, and to kids pleasure. The molded and burned toy usually was painted. Long ago the arisen trade in the Vyatka Dymkovo settlement gained the world fame. Worthless trifles did not occur among the toys intentionally made adults for children. Everyone, even at all a primitive poteshka (so called a toy in the people), had quite certain appointment, existed not just in itself, and was one of chain links where toys alternated, replaced each other during the necessary time of the childhood.
With the child`s birth the toy became the indispensable satellite of children`s life. The smallest funs what could draw attention intended and appease, help the first movements - various rattles, graggerses, crackers, noisy suspension brackets with bright coloring. They were sharpened from a tree, molded from clay, spun from rods and a bast, and inside put stones or peas. Different “trinkets“, color rags, hand bells, pieces of copper gave short weight usually children`s cradle. As the child grew up, toys changed and became complicated. Now they helped it to learn to go, master space. For this purpose different floor wheelchairs and wheelchairs on a stick served. The toy was usually painted a bright color pattern. The rhythm of rotation and a sound literally bewitched the child, entraining it - and the kid learned to go. When there were at it a stability and confidence, it was possible to play with other wheelchair - on a string. Most often it was the horse on castors. It, obedient to will of the little owner, followed it close, and the child endured the first feelings of the force and superiority. So the toy developed the child physically and brought up spiritually.
the Most different educational functions carried out also other toys. Approximately since two years the country child disposed of them quite independently. Its game set was usually rather poor, but differed in a practicality. Toys for throwing and firing - swords, onions, prashch trained in it accuracy and dexterity. Tops, kubar, hummers revealed secrets of mechanics, imparted technical skills. Pipes, sopilka, pipes, penny whistles entertained and acquainted with a folk music. Toy a plow, harrows, axes, carts acquainted the child with daily rural work.
But in general. They were replaced by household goods: bast shoes, spoons, wooden colored eggs.
From memoirs of the old peasant:“ Different played games: in a siskin played, in a kradena a stick, in a hide-and-seek, in solyono meat; - let`s gather torn bast shoes, we will thrust a stake, to a stake driving sits down, and around a stake we will spread out bast shoes, and driving has to watch that nobody dragged off bast shoes. Played holes - drove balls into a pole, and driving opposed to it“.
C of five - six years children did toys, their ingenuity was inexhaustible. Imitating adults, children early learned to own the simple tool, changing in a hand-made article for game material which was found right there, near the house, in the yard, behind the village, in the next wood, the field, at the river. Constructed tents from rods, bent onions and self-arrows, did ships and boats of wood bark. Collected pebbles, rags, bright crocks, fragments of glass. Flowers, leaves, fruits were used, from them curtailed dolls for “small fry“, did doll ware, from fibers of a nettle spun threads on a doll dowry. Stalks of herbs and bushes cut off on pipes, bryuzgalka, svistushka. One hand-made articles appeared and right there disappeared as minute joy, others lived longer - as result of considerable work and patience.
buffoons with a psaltery, beeps, pipes, graggerses, horns Often got into the village. They sang cheerful songs, dancings and round dances. Near the buffoon rural children always turned, they were attracted by beauty of skomoroshy games. And a lot of things were to close children`s poteshka, teasers, game pripevka, chastushkas. By an example of “igrets“ children and the musical instruments, mainly wind instruments which were made during a season of natural material - various kinds of penny whistles, pipes, graggerses made. Children also “on a derevyanka“ - a hollow tree trunk or on a glade played. Simple musical instruments were very attractive to children and, despite the seeming simplicity, developed at them ear for music, accustomed to national melodies.
Childish sports had the calendar. Special entertainments fell on each season and big holidays. On spring built dams, started up ships, with amusing humourous catchphrases put mills.
In March of a zaklikala “spring - a krasna“. For this ceremony which is going back to far antiquity specially prepared birds: sandpipers and larks. Sometimes they were baked of the test - decorated with special vychura. Made birds also of rags and paper, molded from clay and put on a branch of trees or just threw, representing bird`s flight. To them children turned the zaklichka with a request somewhat quicker to bring spring, ran and straw danced on kitchen gardens at haystacks, sang “vesnyanka“.
Favourite entertainments were also in the winter: games in snowballs, noisy drivings on the sledge, carol-singing in a Christmas-tide, participation in Christmas ceremonies. There came the turn for summer, and then and autumn entertainments: played in a siskin, stilts, a hide-and-seek. And every year all game cycle was again and again repeated. During the same time children strung a beads from a red mountain ash, twisted curls from a bitter stalk of a dandelion, threw “who farther“ hard green bells of deflowered potatoes. And again waited for pleasures of traditional rural holidays, winter Christmas merrymakings with masked, cheerful maslyanichny festivities, Easter rich with ceremonies, fruitful and wedding autumn celebrations.
For Easter in villages could roll colored eggs on an inclined trench and if it concerned the rival`s egg, then the player took away it to himself. The player who was left without eggs had to redeem to himself new from a game.
the Most beloved and oldest game of Russians. The grandma is bones of the lower part of forward extremities of cows, sheep, goats. Played them in the Russian villages nearly every day, especially boys, and for Christmas, Maslenitsa, “A red hill“ - everything, young and old. This game is quite simple. A bat throw (the same grandma in whom lead is hammered) it is necessary to beat out from line, a board or from a hole the figure made of several grandmas. All beaten-out grandmas the successful player took away to himself.
Pyotr the I, first Russian emperor, very much loved purely country game towns, or ryukh. Also the commander A. V. Suvorov was fond of the same game. He left for memory to posterity a comment about this entertainment, in a military way accurate and short:“ Towns develop an eye estimation, speed, an impact“.
In this game on a game which was called “city“ or “gorodets“ in a certain order were put by short kruglyash, chocks or Chushka Spit, doing of them different figures, and a bat - a long stick - a shvyrok beat out them. In Smolensk and Moscow provinces as V. I. Dahl in “Dictionary“ describes, played differently. Stuck a sukovaty stick to the earth, each knot was given the name of the cities and settlements, and the top knot was called Moscow. Then “konatsya“, that is played as it is described above. Each beaten-out Chushka Spit - the name of the city or settlement. The one who reached a top quicker - Moscow won.to
In childish sports lost“ almost all ceremonial festivals of the village. The wedding - a solemn and beautiful national ceremony was especially often beaten. On games gathered groups in a log hut, for povet, in a barn, in the summer on the street. Each girl brought with herself a korobeyka with dolls. In their game was to 20 and more: groom, bride, parents, bride`s girlfriends, matchmaker, friends... everything as it is necessary. A scene courtship, adjustment to bogomolyyu, sit-round gathering, a bath, a hen night were offstage developed... To a doll - the bride unplaited the kudelny hair, after wedding by it braided two braids and stacked on - woman`s, put at a prince table, at last, left young people together. The doll wedding came to an end. Hostesses sorted the dolls and went home before the following game.
It is remarkable that peasants to childish sports treated with special attention, did not destroy game constructions, did not throw out toys. Also it is explained by traditions of national pedagogics, national culture. The matter is that far back in the past by means of toys in games - exercises trained children in work, from the senior generation to younger passed on the saved-up labor experience. In the ancient time childish sports and toys were allocated with magic force. Was considered that childish sports can cause a harvest, wealth, happy marriage or, on the contrary, to bring misfortune. In the people noticed: when children there is a lot of and diligent play dolls - there will be in a family a profit. If carelessly handle toys - to be in the house to trouble. Believed that toys protect children`s rest and a dream and as “preserved“ put them in a zybka near the child.to Give to
toys - a folk custom. Especially on holidays new “fun“ pleased children: a penny whistle from a fair, a painted korobeyka for doll good or sweet gingerbread. In the people was considered that the toy - a gift - will bring to the child health and wellbeing. In national life the doll was the most widespread toy. It was in each country family, in their other log huts was to one hundred! And it is unsurprising - rag dolls children began “to twirl“ since five years. Curtailed into “rolling pin“ (tubule) a piece of fabric, a white rag fitted a face, tied up a linen thread - here and the elementary doll is ready. Now it can be “ryadit“. Surely sewed to a doll a kudelny or hair braid. Dressed up a doll with big diligence, knew that on it judge taste and skill of needlework of future hostess. The most beautiful rags of a chintz, a bright red bunting, a kitayka were protected on a doll suit. Also it was sewed as the real clothes. Even headdresses of dolls reminded the presents. They were embroidered a lace, decorated with silk color tapes, spangles, beads. But it is interesting that at the most careful execution of clothes of a doll remained faceless. Why? Impersonality is traces of an ancient “oberyozhny“ role of a doll when the toy was afraid to be assimilated to the person completely. On national beliefs, the doll with the person as if found soul and became dangerous to the child, and faceless was considered as an inanimate object and could not damage to it.
Interesting dolls turned out from straw - will twist zhgutik golden straw, will quickly twist hands kositsy - here and a doll. Will decorate with a motley apron, will tie a bright print kerchief - at all beauty! Lungs, rustling “strigushka“, having rested an abrupt pretzel of a hand in a side as if are ready to break into a dance. The toy came to life: as will begin to shake it on a tray or to swing on shaky floor boards of a floor, and the doll will go - the zabavnitsa to dance yes to be turned on a log hut by all on fun. And despite employment and weight of work, always parents had a minute on a childish fun.
In toys since paganism images of a bear, deer, the woman, a horse, the rider, a bird existed. We meet these images in various works of folk art: in fairy tales, songs, architecture and household items. Wooden horses, birds, deer crowned roofs of log huts, these images were present at a carving and a list of furniture and utensils, a bright shity and woven pattern laid down on festive towels.
It is modest and plain “poteshka“ of country children of old times look. It seems what clumsy homemade products, primitive dolls from chocks, rags and straw, usual clay penny whistles could teach to? >
It appears p, to very much that future peasant or the city dweller needed to know and be able. Means of national pedagogics were wise then. They were checked by life and experience of many generations of people. In songs, fairy tales, were transferred to the child of concept about world around in toys, about the good and evil, about happiness and beauty. About all that is saved up by popular wisdom and it is fixed in national pedagogics where work, the respect for seniors, their honoring, preservation of honor and advantage, conscientiousness and patience traditionally were considered as the main virtues of the person.