Young workaholics of
In effect, absolutely until recently was considered that children should not earn money, and have to study, study and study moreover thank only party and the government for the happy childhood. However economic and political changes of the last decades led to prompt increase in number of the Russian teenagers earning to themselves a living by independent work.
of the Gas station and car wash, shops and snackbars, sale of newspapers and flowers delivery, and also a set of other works - all this for the last fifteen was mastered years by domestic teenagers and even at all young children. About operation of children, about violation of their rights in the sphere of work constantly blow the international and government organizations, labor unions diligently reveal exploiters, and labor inspectorates ruthlessly make those responsible. At the same time often the teenager even does not guess the rights and privileges in the sphere of work and therefore it is reconciled with a scanty salary, the hours-long working day without breaks, lack of holiday and other abuses of unfair employers. How protects the law of the teenager from an arbitrariness of employers? What requirements the employer involving the child has to observe? About the Russian and foreign practice it will be rather interesting to learn to both teenagers, and their parents.
According to the labor legislation of the Russian Federation if the teenager was 16 years old, can already sign the employment contract with it. It is authorized to fifteen-year-old teenager to work, only if he already got the main general education (that is ended 9 classes). The organization can employ also the school students who reached 14 - summer age, but only in case the teenager submits the written consent to it from one of parents (the trustee, the trustee) or body of guardianship and guardianship.Teenagers till 16 years can work with
only in non-study time. And work should not do harm to health of the young worker. At an execution of an employment agreement with the persons which did not reach age of 18 years preliminary medical examination is obligatory. At the same time if medical examination paid, then it is paid by the employer.the trial period cannot be established to
For minors. Except the employment contract, the organization makes out for the first time to the teenager going to work the service record and the insurance evidence of the state pension insurance.by
On duration of working hours of teenagers set restrictions. For example, duration of the working day of the teenager should not exceed aged from 15 till 16 years - 5 hours; from 16 to 18 years - 7 hours. For the pupils combining within academic year study with work, duration of change makes aged from 14 till 16 years - 2,5 hours; aged from 16 till 18 years - 3,5 hours.cannot attract
of Minors to work on a hard work and works with harmful or dangerous working conditions. It is also forbidden to send teenagers to official journeys, to involve in overtime work, work at night, during week-end and non-working holidays.
According to the statement of the teenager leave to it are granted before the expiration of six months of continuous work. And it is necessary to release the minor on rest, as well as to recall him from holiday. Moreover, the teenager cannot replace holiday with monetary compensation. Duration of annual vacation for workers aged till 18 years makes 31 calendar days. And it is necessary to provide it in time, convenient for them.to
limits dismissal of workers more young than 18 years at the initiative of administration - it is necessary to get permission of the regional (city) commission on affairs of minors for it.
A what western laws and rules regulating work of minors? In general, in the West treat child labor ambiguously. On the one hand, persistent work from the most tender age - an integral part of the well-known Protestant ethics thanks to which far not least there was also perhaps present western wellbeing. But on the other hand, the western society well understands: the childhood is the childhood, and the earning on livelihood should not be the main maintenance of this period of human life at all.
By way of illustration how the general rules of hiring of the minor in the West are embodied, can give the USA, Great Britain, Australia and Canada where laws are very similar. In these countries the businessman who employed the minor is obliged to satisfy the following conditions:the teenager should not work with
- when at school there are lessons; day employment cannot exceed
- 3 hours in usual school day, and in a week - 18 hours;
- in days when at school there are no occupations, for example on days off, the teenager works no more than 8 hours; during vacation - is no more than 40 have some of
- in a week; change of the teenager begins
- not earlier than 7 o`clock in the morning, and comes to an end not later than 19 hours.
Approximately the same norms with small quantitative differences exist also in legislations of the majority of other countries. For example, with the consent of parents the teenagers who reached 13 years can help no more than 3 hours a day with Germany on harvesting, 2 hours to carry newspapers or to collect balls on a tennis court. In 15 years work is allowed four weeks in a row already, but only during vacation.the Growing-up Germans carry to
newspapers, sing lullabies to babies, work at buildings. So about 45% of the German school students and schoolgirls aged from 13 till 16 years spend a free time.
Young people have the right for labor holiday which duration depends on age of the worker. So, 15 - summer workers have the right for holiday lasting 30 working days, 16 - summer - 27 working days, and 17 - summer - 25 working days.the Health certificate of results of inspection of the teenager has to be transferred by
to the employer no later than in 14 months after the beginning of work, otherwise the teenager cannot continue to perform work. Further it is recommended to repeat medical examination every year. All inspections are paid with the state without attraction of financial resources of the employer.are considered by
of Violation by the employer of the labor legislation in Germany either as disorderly conduct, or as criminal acts and lead to payment of a penalty at the rate to 15 thousand euros. The employer who was sentenced three times to payment of a penalty for violations of this law loses the right to employ teenagers.
also children in the USA have the Right for work. At the same time in each staff the laws regulating rules of hiring of minors are adopted. The Ministry of Labour of the USA defined what types of works minor Americans can carry out. Till 13 years - delivery of newspapers, baby sitting, work in business which own or in which his parents are engaged. Since 14 years - office work on phone, delivery of products (for example, bread) by orders, draft work in shop, catering establishments (cleaning, arrangement of goods on shelves and so forth) sale of tickets at movie theaters.to
Besides, the ministry rigidly limits the number of working hours for minor sloggers. At all described “advantages“ of the organization of child labor in America it has “labor children`s paradise“ and dark sides. So, the American children not always have the right to dispose of the earned money. Parents and trustees can or just take away a salary from children and wards, or to put them on a special savings account before achievement of majority by the child.Child labor is also very popular
also in Great Britain where all protection is guaranteed to teenagers. The legislation allows to employ persons not more young than 12 years. At the same time makes a reservation that they have no right to work more than three hours a day and cannot be used on harmful productions, in night shifts or in changes which would complicate visit of school.
the Most popular place of work for minor British - small local little shop or cafe. Most often teenagers do not pay taxes. The salary them usually is not lower than the minimum taxable. Social assignments and municipal taxes pay only full age.by
in Great Britain registered Today three million working teenagers - the figure which is obviously letting know, work and as the relation of adults to this phenomenon is positive how is attractive to teenagers. The authorities in every possible way promote employment of teenagers. The only thing that out of competence of the authorities, - a minimum wage. This problem is entirely given on the agreement between the worker and the employer.