Inhabitants of mountains - chinchillas of
“You only look! Yes here here! Saw what rabbits were already brought!“ - I heard somehow, passing by a cage with a chinchilla in the Poultry market. Honestly, to the person never seeing this small animal, the first that comes to mind: before it the dwarfish rabbit or a small usual krolchonok
Growth of chinchillas from 19,6 to 37 centimeters, weigh they from 400 to 700 grams, hind legs at them are much longer and stronger than lobbies. The ears which are rounded off also do not happen more than 6 centimeters in length.“ Moustaches“ - vibrissa, on the contrary, grow sometimes even to 10 centimeters. The tail reminds squirrel, at some chinchillas it reaches the whole 17 centimeters.
of the Chinchilla from time immemorial lived in South America, in mountains, in the mountain deserts of Peru, Bolivia and Chile. In rocks, among stony scatterings, in their colonies totaled hundreds of small animals. In small caves, in different crevices, niches which are formed among the heated-up stones, small animals escape from the enemies and bad weather. And if chinchillas appear in such place where there are no emptiness, they will make to themselves houses: will dig out holes.in mountains small animals are adapted by
For life perfectly. Unlike the close and far relatives, the skeleton at them clenches when it is necessary, not from top to down, and from sides. Thanks to it chinchillas can quietly make the way through narrow vertical cracks in rocks. Rocks and taluses are not terrible to small animals and therefore that they enough strongly developed such department of a brain as a cerebellum which coordinates the movement and balance.
of the Chinchilla are left by the houses in twilight. Surely long vibrissa help to feel like in the dark him: them they feel everything that meets on the way, including a forage. They eat cereals, bean and other plants, even cactuses and lichens. Chinchillas can not drink: they have enough the moisture which is contained in the eaten plants and dew.
of the Mountain from 1000 to 6000 meters high above sea level - not the best residence for small small animals: temperature here sharply fluctuates. However chinchillas never freeze, fur coats at them unusually warm. Down hair slightly wavy, thin, thickness of everything are navsy 12 - 16 microns, and covering - only twice more thickly and only on 4 - 8 millimeters is longer. On 1 square centimeter of their skin over 25 thousand find room: it is much more, than at other animals.
of the Fur coat of chinchillas not only dense, soft, strong, but also very beautiful. The lower part of their hair almost black or bluish, average - white, top - black. On bends of a body game of tones results. These fine fur coats cost life to a great number of small animals.
the Word “chinchilla“, or “chynchyla“, has a direct bearing most on the name of one of mountain Indian tribes - “chynch“ which was destroyed by Inca and which representatives wore clothes from fur of small animals. Centuries later, soon after a gain of South America Europeans, Guecsilaso de la Vega belonging to the most notable family of Inca wrote “History of the state of Inca“ where it is possible to read about hair of chinchillas: “At the time of kings of Inca and many years later (so even I found) they used a hair of animals and did of it a yarn to diversify colors of clothes which they wore...“ This hair “was very much highly appreciated among Indians, it was used only for clothes of the nobility“. However at Indians, as well as at all primitive tribes, hunting was strictly regulated, and chinchillas were widespread in the western part of South America. With arrival of conquerors universal destruction of small animals who were not afraid of people began. So, only in 1894 and only from Chile about 400 thousand skins of chinchillas were taken out. As a result to the middle of the XX century in enormous territories there is no small animal left.
Inca not only hunted chinchillas. They were the first who began to keep in house conditions of these nice, clean small animals. After a chinchilla lived in apartments of Chileans who even tried to part them. In 1920 the Argentina engineer M. F. Chapmen by means of Indians with huge work caught twelve small animals. He managed to accustom chinchillas to life on the plain, and the new type of cellular fur animals soon appeared. Now for people of the most different countries including to ours, chinchillas became pets. A back at the small animals living both in natural habitats, and in apartments usually light-gray or it is dark - gray with a bluish shade, and the paunch - white or is bluish - white. However there are already also such chinchillas who have fur coats purely white, golden or other color.
the House for two small animals, a female and a male. But it is better if its sizes such: 91õ91õ46 centimeters. The cage is cleaned every day. That on cleaning less time left, the floor of a cage and the pallet do sliding. A floor has to be plastic or from the metal gauze with cells no more than 7 millimeters. The pallet in the form of a baking sheet is manufactured of plastic or galvanized iron. In it fill sawdust. On one of walls of a cage strengthen a plate 10 centimeters wide. On it small animals with pleasure will sleep.
of the Chinchilla well feel at relative humidity of air in from 50 to 60% and at a temperature from +14 to + 18C. Their organism is much more sensitive to a heat, than to cold.
In a cage put a feeding trough, glass or ceramic, 5 - 6 centimeters high and with a diameter of bottom of 7 - 8 centimeters, it is better that it was a little narrowed up. Except a feeding trough the drinking bowl is necessary, it is strengthened above.“bathtub“ is Extremely necessary for
. In natural habitats of a chinchilla “bathe“ in volcanic ashes, small dust-like sand that their thin wool which is well absorbing moisture did not become wet and, from a fur coat dropped out were depilated. Where there live chinchillas, humidity of air does not happen more than 30 percent. At us it is higher, and if small animals do not take a bath, they can catch a cold. For bathing of chinchillas very small sand or dust-like loam which is well sifted and calcinated is used. Sand can be not thrown out long, but in that case it should be sifted and calcinated at least once in two weeks. It is necessary to add talc to it, it is not less than 10 percent. That small animals did not scatter sand, put it in a metal, glass or ceramic tray in the form of the truncated cone. Height of such tray 27, diameter of a bottom 25, “throats“ - 17 centimeters. Trays put in a cage every day in the evening for one or one and a half hours.As the cage is good
, it is nevertheless a cage. Constant life in it influences both on physical, and mental health of small animals. Therefore from time to time it is necessary to let out chinchillas to take a walk, at the worst to give them the chance to use a running wheel. In a cage of chinchillas all the year round there has to be a hay. It, as well as I skin a grass, put in wire feeding troughs. The best hay that which consists of bean plants: lucernes, Wicky, clover etc. Also cereal hay, especially is well acquired if in it there is a meadow grass meadow, a herd grass, a hedgehog the national team, a fescue meadow. However to any hay intended for chinchillas ferns, horsetails, large sedge, a bulrush, and also poisonous plants should not get: vorony eye, henbane, dope, buttercup poisonous, chemeritsa white and others.
That in hay, bean plants are mown when there are buds, cereals - during a kolosheniye. In hay many vitamins remain if it is dried in a shadow, in tents, on lattices, in a shed. It is necessary to store it under a canopy, on an attic, in a shed.
All warm season to chinchillas are given a fresh grass. Begin with a small amount, gradually increasing a dose. Except bean and meadow plants of a chinchilla eat leaves of a dandelion, a plantain, a burdock, strawberry, wild strawberry, a yarrow, a horse sorrel, a young nettle. Chinchillas have to have all year also a so-called additional forage: leaves and branches of a birch, fresh and dried, branches of an oak and acorns, leaves and branches of different types of willows, leaves, bark and young escapes of an aspen, needles of a pine in which especially there is a lot of vitamin C. Small animals are given spring young escapes of a pine. All the year round chinchillas and seeds of a pine, other trees, bushes, herbs which it is necessary to prepare for the future, seeds of cultural plants eat. From vegetables chinchillas are given the carrots which are well washed up and peeled. Mineral top dressing: pieces of rock salt, bone meal, on 0,3 grams a day on one small animal. Though chinchillas are carried to the real vegetarians, they eat large insects: saranchovy, cockchafers, various butterflies.
of Chinchillas cannot be carried to fans to eat in any way. It is necessary for four small animals as much food how many to one rabbit. Here one of options of daily diets of an adult small animal (winter and summer respectively): hay - 25 - 40/15 - 20, a green grass - 0/40, carrots - 4/6, grits - 2/2, barley grits - 2/2, whaet groats - 1/1, sunflower seeds - 1/1, crackers - 2/2, milk - 20 / 10 grams. As small animals belong to group of rodents, they have to gnaw something constantly. Branches of a willow, an oak, an aspen will be suitable for this purpose.
If to create normal conditions, chinchillas will live 20 years.