Children`s infections at future mothers of
Krom of a SARS, trap the pregnant woman the infections not so characteristic of the adult. These are so-called children`s infections which consequences can be heavy for mother and the kid.
Children`s infections are a special group of infectious diseases which children are ill. These diseases are extremely infectious (contagious), and after their transferring resistant lifelong immunity is formed.
treat group of children`s infections: measles, rubella, chicken pox (chicken pox), epidemic parotitis (mumps) and some other. It will be a question of the most significant for future mother.
the Pregnant woman can get sick with a disease, uncharacteristic for her age, if she had no this or that infection in the childhood or was not imparted at the corresponding age. Causative agents of children`s infections (more often it is viruses) have high ability to cause a disease and are transferred vozdushno - a drop way from the sick person healthy during the sneezing, cough, breath.should note
At once that the risk of infection with children`s infections during pregnancy is not higher, than at not pregnant women. However manifestations of similar acute infectious diseases during pregnancy have a number of features: in - the first, in most cases they proceed is not specific that causes difficulties of diagnostics; in - the second, causative agents of children`s infections (viruses) get through a placenta into fruit blood therefore can break developments of fabrics and bodies, resulting in congenital defects of a fruit. The pregnancy term at the time of infection is less, the risk of development of congenital pathology of the newborn is higher.by
at the same time infection with viruses till 14 weeks of pregnancy or some days before childbirth is especially dangerous.by
In the first case break developments of bodies and fabrics of a fruit, in the second - in an organism of mother protective antibodies do not manage to be developed, the child can be born with display of a disease (for example, characteristic rash), is the carrier of a virus and can become an infection source for other newborns. Children in the period of a neonatality rather hard have children`s infections which caught vnutriutrobno.
One of the most adverse infectious diseases during pregnancy - a rubella. Its activator is transferred from the sick person vozdushno - a drop way.
Infection occurs at close contact with the patient (at joint stay in the room, care of the sick child). In spite of the fact that transmissibility of the causative agent of a rubella is less, than at measles and chicken pox, infection creates very serious threat for a fruit and danger of the birth of the child with malformations.by
infection with a rubella in the first trimester is Especially dangerous (to 14 - y weeks of pregnancy). It is considered that danger of defeat of a fruit in the third trimester (after 28 - y weeks of pregnancy) considerably decreases.
At penetration of a virus through a placenta the congenital rubella of a fruit develops. Thereof normal development of fabrics of a fruit, formation of bodies is broken that leads to death of an embryo on the early term of pregnancy, to a spontaneous abortion, premature birth, a still birth or by the child`s birth with congenital malformations.
Characteristic malformations of a fruit which are caused by a rubella virus are:
- cataract (cataract);
- congenital heart diseases;
- of a disease of the central nervous system (intellectual backwardness, children`s cerebral palsy, etc.) .
the Period from contact with the patient with a rubella before emergence of the first symptoms of an illness (the incubatory period) can last till 21 days.the rubella Begins
with increase in lymph nodes of occipital area and temperature increase of a body to 38 º With, cold and cough can develop, in 2 - 3 days characteristic rash develops - at first on a face, then on a trunk and extremities, melkotochechny, pink, not merging, the small itch can be observed. The period of rashes proceeds from several hours to 2 days. Rashes pass independently and completely. The diagnosis of a rubella is established on the basis of data of the anamnesis of the pregnant woman (contact with the sick person) and characteristic rash. > it is important to p to note
that the rubella at a half of pregnant women can proceed asymptomatically therefore if future mother came into contact with the person who had a rubella recently, or with the person who got sick in 2 - 3 days after a meeting (at the same time the woman did not take root from a rubella and was not ill it in the childhood), it is necessary to see a doctor urgently.
Importance in such situation is got by laboratory diagnostics. Infection with a rubella is demonstrated by emergence in serum of blood of the pregnant woman of immunoglobulins of a class M (IgM - protective specific antibodies which are formed in response to infection with a rubella and appear at the end of the period of rashes or after disappearance of rash). To confirm or disprove the fact of infection with a rubella, similar research is conducted twice with an interval of 14 days. At the same time consultation of the infectiologist is obligatory.
the Disease of a pregnant rubella in the first trimester (till 14 weeks of pregnancy) and the instruction on contact with the patient with a rubella during this period is the medical indication to pregnancy interruption.
If the disease of a rubella occurred in later terms (over 14 weeks), then the issue of preservation of pregnancy is resolved in an individual order by group of doctors, at the same time clinical data (pregnancy interruption threat signs), data of ultrasonic research are considered (fruit malformations in combination with signs of placentary insufficiency or infection of a placenta, there is a lot of - or lacks of water) and laboratory methods of research (detection of a virus or specific antibodies in blood serum).by
At detection of malformations of a fruit, signs of infection of the placenta expressed to a delay of pre-natal development of a fruit raises a question of interruption of pregnancy with the consent of the patient on any term.to prevent risk of infection with a rubella and dangerous complications during pregnancy, to all women of reproductive age vaccination against a rubella virus is necessary for
of the Inoculation from children`s infections. The minimum term from carrying out an inoculation before the planned pregnancy makes 3 months and is dictated by need of time for development of protective antibodies in the woman`s organism. As the probability of defeat of a fruit a virus which the vaccine contains purely theoretical, the fact of casual application of a vaccine during pregnancy is not the indication to its interruption.
in case of preservation of such pregnancy or at a disease of a rubella on term over 28 weeks future mother treats group of high risk on development of complications in labor and the postnatal period (can arise the dicoordinated patrimonial activity, bleeding, it is purulent - inflammatory complications) and complications from a fruit (asphyxia of the newborn).
the Child who was born from mother who had a rubella during pregnancy is the virus carrier. Such kid stays in the isolated chamber of observation office. The child who was born with suspicion on existence of a congenital rubella passes careful inspection already in maternity hospital and further is observed at the corresponding experts.Vaccination is not required to
in case of the postponed rubella (documented). In doubtful cases (for example when the woman does not know whether she had a rubella) the blood test for the purpose of identification of specific antibodies is conducted. Lack of antibodies to a virus of a rubella confirms need of vaccination.
If pregnancy came, and in blood specific antibodies against a rubella are not revealed, i.e. there is no immunity, it is necessary to avoid places of a mass congestion of people, communication in children`s collectives as during pregnancy vaccination is not carried out.
Measles are an acute infectious disease of the virus nature which distinctive feature is very high susceptibility of the person.
If the pregnant woman had no measles and was not imparted from this infection, then after contact with the patient infection occurs practically in 100% of cases.
the Virus of measles differs in very high volatility, is transmitted from the sick person vozdushno - a drop way. Duration of the incubatory period makes 9 - 11 days.
treat temperature increase of a body to 39 º initial displays of an illness; With, cough, cold, reddening of a mucous membrane of eyes, the expressed appetite loss. On 4 - y day from the beginning of a disease appears a characteristic symptom of a disease - small whitish specks on a mucous membrane of cheeks, a soft and hard palate, similar to semolina or bran, there is characteristic rash on a face and the head (especially behind ears) which extends on all body. Rash represents small red specks of various sizes, with a tendency to merge, the leaving behind dark stains, the remaining several days which disappear in the same sequence in which rash developed. The diagnosis is confirmed on the basis of characteristic symptoms of a disease and detection e blood of specific antibodies.
At infection of measles pregnant with a virus the risk of a spontaneous abortion and premature birth increases.
In spite of the fact that the virus of measles gets through a placenta, do not have accurate data on increase of risk of congenital defects of a fruit at infection of the pregnant woman in the first and second trimester today. In a case of measles of the pregnant woman before childbirth the child can be born with characteristic rash on mucous a mouth and on skin. Joint stay of mother and child in chamber of observation office and breastfeeding of the newborn is in that case recommended. In case of the fruit birth without symptoms of an infection the child is isolated from mother for the entire period of her illness.to
to All pregnant women who are in contact with patients with measles and not having this infection showed preventive introduction of protivokorevy immunoglobulin intramuscularly in a dose of 0,25 ml/kg of body weight of the patient within the first 72 hours from the contact moment.
to the Women who are planning pregnancy, earlier not having measles carry out immunization by a protivokorevy vaccine at least in 3 months prior to the planned pregnancy. Vaccination of pregnant women a protivokorevy vaccine is forbidden.
One more children`s infection which can constitute danger more to health of the pregnant woman than for a fruit, is an epidemic parotitis (mumps).
Epidemic parotitis - the high-infectious viral disease which is seldom found at pregnancy transferred vozdushno - a drop way and characterized by defeat of salivary glands.
the Typical symptom of this disease is pain in an ear, zaushny area, increase in parotid salivary glands. Also salivation strengthening, temperature increase of a body is characteristic of this disease (38 - 39 º C), headache and muscle pain.the Diagnosis is confirmed by
on typical display of a disease and detection in blood of the patient of specific antibodies to a parotitis virus.If the pregnant woman caught
a mumps, there is a risk of development of such complications as an inflammation of a pancreas (pancreatitis), mammary glands (mastitis), ovaries (oofarit), but this risk is not higher, than among the population in general.
Epidemic parotitis does not increase risk of development of congenital defects in a fruit.Prevention of epidemic parotitis is reduced by
to vaccination of girls against a virus of epidemic parotitis.
After immunization against a rubella, measles and epidemic parotitis protection remains 20 years and more. According to some information, the immunity created by means of vaccines against these infections remains for life. In a modern calendar of inoculations the last vaccination against parotitis and measles to girls in 6 years, from a rubella - in 13 years is supposed.
Chicken pox is an infectious disease of the virus nature (an infecting agent the virus of group herpes - viruses is). It is also characterized by high transmissibility and transferred vozdushno - a drop way.by
shows a disease till 21 days from contact with the patient with chicken pox. The illness begins with emergence of rash which at the beginning represents one or two reddish specks similar to a sting of a mosquito, most often the first elements of rash appear on face skin or a stomach, extend very quickly (new elements appear each several minutes or hours). Reddish specks take a form of the bubbles filled with transparent contents next day, the patient is disturbed by a severe itch, by the end of the first day of a disease the general health worsens, there is a headache, body temperature increases (it can reach 40 º Ń). Symptoms remain while new rashes develop. Weight of a condition of the pregnant woman depends on quantity of rashes. Bubbles every other day - two are opened with education yazvochek which then become covered by crusts. At the pregnant woman the risk of development of pneumonia is increased.
the Diagnosis is confirmed by existence of characteristic rash on the patient`s skin.
at infection the syndrome of congenital chicken pox can Seldom develop in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy at a fruit: the underdevelopment kostno - muscular system, leads defeat of the central nervous system, damage of eyes, sometimes infection after 20 weeks of pregnancy to development of heavy pre-natal infection of a fruit. In cases of chicken pox for the pregnant woman establish strict supervision, carry out lechebno - diagnostic actions and at identification at a fruit of defects of development (by means of ultrasonic research) resolve an issue of pregnancy interruption.
needs to be noted that specific therapy, that is the therapy directed against the concrete causative agent of a disease at children`s infections does not exist therefore carry out treatment of separate symptoms.
This complex of medical actions includes a bed rest, plentiful drink (mineral water, fruit drinks), at a headache, to the increased body temperature appoint anesthetics and febrifuges (for example, paracetamol), vitamin therapy, at dry persuasive cough - expectorant preparations.hygienic care of skin and a mucous membrane of eyes is obligatory for
At measles (in a conjunctival bag dig in 20% solution sulfatsit - sodium).
Treatment of skin displays of chicken pox consists in reduction of an itch and prevention of accession of a bacterial infection. Elements of rash grease with antiseptic solutions (water solution diamond green or permanganate of potassium), it is necessary to watch hygiene of an oral cavity (to rinse a mouth solutions of a hlorgeksidin, calendula, a camomile after each meal). For reduction of an itch inside appoint antihistaminic preparations (for example, suprastin). At the complicated course of this disease with the joined bacterial pneumonia appoint antibiotics.