about courage education, it is impossible to avoid a question of heroism. What to do? So it was moved that education of boys in Russia always was not just courageous, but rather heroic. And therefore that we often had to be at war. And therefore what to survive in so severe climate as ours, only very hardy, firm people could.
to the Subject of a feat practically all Russian writers paid a tribute. It is possible to tell, it is one of the leading subjects of domestic literature. You remember how war heroes of 1812 meant to Pushkin`s contemporaries much? And what fame was won by young Tolstoy the stories about heroic defense of Sevastopol! In Russian there is even a word, analogs which are not present in many other languages. This word “self-sacrifice“ - a feat as a way of life, the life identical to a feat.to
From generation to generation transferred memory of heroism of our ancestors. And each generation left in the history the heroic mark. Times changed, some pages of the past were rewritten anew, but the general installation on heroism remained invariable. The brightest to that an example - installation on new heroes after revolution. How many verses on them were put how many movies are shot! Heroes and heroic cults were created, spread, supported.“ The place is sacred“ was never empty. What it was necessary for? - In - the first, acquaintance of children to feats of ancestors caused in them involuntary respect for seniors. And it significantly facilitated a task of tutors, the basis pedagogikizizhdtsya on the authority of adults. It is possible to equip classes with the latest computers, it is possible to develop highly scientific, effective techniques. But if pupils in a penny do not put teachers, to sense all the same will not be. What in recent years, alas, many parents could be convinced of. And in - the second, it is impossible to grow up the normal man if not to show him in the childhood and teenage age romantic examples of heroism. Look at kids of years of five - six. As they sunbathe eyes at the word “feat“! As they are happy if to call them daredevils. It would seem from where in them it? Now heroism not in honor. Now it is possible to hear much more often that it is unreasonable to risk himself for the sake of high ideals, at least. But in that is continually that such minutes turn on mechanisms of unconscious. In soul of each boy there lives the vague image of the real man. It is put by the nature, and it is necessary for boys for normal development that this image gradually became reality, finding the embodiment in specific people. And it is important that heroes were, easily recognizable, close. Then it is easier for boys to correlate them to itself, it is easier to equal on them.
Today, perhaps, for the first time in the Russian history, the generation which almost does not know heroes of the past grows up and does not know about heroes of the present at all. Not because they are not in the nature. Just adults suddenly decided that the heroics became outdated. Also tried to do without it. Now we reap the first fruits of “unheroic“ education and though the harvest yet not absolutely kept up, to us is over what to become thoughtful.
A few years ago we developed the questionnaire for teenagers devoted to heroism. Questions there simple, but very indicative. For example: Whether “Heroes are necessary?“, whether “You wanted to resemble some hero? If yes, that on whom?“, whether “You dreamed to make sometime a feat?“ Until recently most of boys answered in the affirmative. Now even more often write “no“. In the last teenage group with which we were engaged seven boys from nine (!) declared that heroes are not necessary, similar they on heroes do not want to be and do not dream of a feat. And here girls answered all three questions:“ Yes“. Even the schoolgirl of auxiliary school wrote that if the world remains without heroes, there will be nobody to rescue people. So at girls with ideas of heroism everything appeared as it should be. But this some cold comfort.with
the answer to the last question Especially impressed us. If you remember, at the beginning of 90 - x years in the Baltic Sea the ferry sank. And during accident the fifteen-year-old boy rescued the father. Then wrote about it much, and one of youth newspapers appealed to the boy to respond - they wanted to award to him a prize. The idea of receiving a prize for rescue of the father seemed to us so wild and immoral that we could not but react to it. Also included in the questionnaire a question of legitimacy of awarding of the person a prize for rescue of the father. Few years ago practically all teenagers wrote that, of course, no prize is necessary. And many explained:“ The biggest award - the fact that the father survived“. Now opinions are shared. In already mentioned teenage group of the girl again - answered adequately, and boys demanded awards. How to you such defenders of a family and fatherland?
on the other hand, youthful thirst for romanticism is ineradicable. It is an obligatory stage of formation of the personality. If it is not passed, the person cannot normally develop. And first of all, strangely enough, it affects intellectual development which sharply slows down. Loss of a romantic phase in general is characteristic of oligophrenic persons, for example, (one of the most famous psychiatrists prof. G. V. Vasilchenko wrote about it).
Having rejected the true heroism, many teenagers all the same look for it. But find only substitutes what growth of teenage crime incontestably testifies to. Having closed teenage clubs, we just forced out children in gates. And having cancelled game in “Summer lightning“, doomed them to much more harmful and sucking-in game in mafia which for many quickly becomes not game, and a habitual way of life. For quieter, “house“ children refusal of traditional orientation to heroism was fraught with growth of fears. So, and a low self-assessment, even little boys already understand that it is a shame to be the coward. And very painfully endure the cowardice though sometimes try to hide it behind a mask of affected indifference.
it is Very characteristic that the children denying necessity of heroism in questionnaires, on the one hand, in panic were afraid “abrupt“, and with another, imitated monocelled heroes of the American fighters. Also called among heroic traits of character cruelty, irreconcilability to the enemy and readiness to be ready to do anything for the sake of achievement of the purpose. Here also imagine what men will surround us if about ten more years so proceed.
Sometimes - the truth, it is quite rare - it is necessary to hear: “Well and that? Let will be any. If only survived“. But the man surely has to respect himself, otherwise life is not lovely to him. He without much can live, and without respect - no.
- Hurrah! - my seven-year-old son cried, having learned that at his elder sister the kid was born. - I was the smallest in our family, and now I am an uncle! At last I will be respected.Even to the fallen drunk it is the most important than
that he was respected. It, together with binge, he looks for in the company of drinking companions. And about what self-esteem can there be a speech if the man is not able to protect the family and the country? If any bandit able to shoot is able to dictate to him the terms, and girls will contemptuously call him the coward?“ Chastity, honesty and mercy without courage - virtues with reservations“, - the American writer K. Lewis told. And it is difficult not to agree with it.
- Well, well, - somebody will tell. - I agree, the boy has to be able to stand for himself. Let will be courageous, but moderately. And heroism what for?
But the person is so arranged that his development is impossible without aspiration to an ideal. As the sunflower reaches a head for the sun and droops in cloudy weather, and the person finds in himself more than forces for overcoming of difficulties when before it high aim. The ideal, of course, is unattainable, but, aspiring to it, the person becomes better. And if to underestimate a level, then and the aspiration to overcome itself will not arise. Why to strain when, in general, I and so at the purpose? When and so will descend?
What, for example, happens if not to aim the child in the first class at a calligraphy ideal - the calligraphical letter? If to allow it to write which - as, especially without trying? - As a matter of fact, we see results of such relation to the letter continually, at many schools quite so and arrived, having decided that there is nothing to spend half a year for development of copy-books, and it is better to train children in the continuous letter fast. As a result school students on the whole write in chicken-scratch, unlike their grandmothers and grandfathers who even after usual rural school had quite tolerable handwriting. whether
A can learn a foreign language if not to be guided by an ideal - to master language in perfection that it became the family? Actually this ideal is almost not achievable. Even highly professional translators all the same concede in something to the native speaker, absorbed it since the childhood. But if they did not strive for perfection, then from them and translators would not turn out. They would remain at the level of people who can speak barely in shop and that more by means of gestures.
Just the same history happens also to courage education. To become given by the hero not to everyone. But, initially underestimating a level, and even discrediting heroism in the opinion of the child, we will grow up the coward who will not be able to stand neither for himself, nor for the relatives. Moreover will bring ideological base under the cowardice: say, why to resist the evil when it is all the same invincible?
To the contrary, if “to appoint“ the little coward the hero, he gradually will begin to be brought up to justify this high rank. Examples it is possible to give a set, but I will be limited to only one. Vadik awfully was afraid of pricks. On approach to policlinic it rolled up a hysterics, and in an office of the doctor it had to be held together - three together - with such force it beat off the nurse. Neither arrangements, nor threats helped. Vadik promised houses anything, but at the sight of the syringe could not master himself any more. And once everything repeated again. With only that difference that the father meeting Vadik with mother on the street slowly told the wife:
- And give you to me you will tell that Vadik behaved heroically. Let`s look how it will react. - Give
, - mother agreed.
No sooner said than done. Having heard about the heroism, Vadik at first was taken aback, but then, having coped with amazement, agreed. And soon sincerely believed that he quietly allowed to give to himself an injection! Parents about themselves laughed, including it just amusing incident. But then saw that Vadik`s behavior in policlinic began to change. Next time he came into an office, and though began to cry, without having sustained pain, business did without shouts and fights. Well, and still through few times and it was succeeded to cope with tears. The fear of pricks was overcome. And if the father did not appoint the son the hero, and began to shame him, Vadik would be convinced of the pettiness once again, and at it hands absolutely fell.
One of the main sources of transfer of traditions in Russia still there are books. Even now, when children began to read less. Therefore any education including courage education, it is very important to make on the basis of the interesting, skillfully written books. Heroic literature - the sea, all not to count. I will call only some works. Boys of preschool and younger school age for certain will like “Emil`s adventures from Lenniberge“ A. Lindgren, “Chronicles of Narnia“ of K. Lewis, “Wind in willows“ of K. Graham. Names of the Soviet writers Olesha, Katayev, Rybakov, Kassil, etc. and so at all very famous. U L. Panteleeva is the whole cycle of stories about feats. And the Russian classics wholly paid a tribute to a subject of courage and male nobility. Besides, all our (and not only ours!) history abounds with examples of heroism. And examples can be picked up for every taste. It both lives of Saints, and biographies of great commanders, and stories about feats of soldiers, and stories of ordinary civilians, as the fates decree suddenly risen before need to protect the homeland from encroachment of enemies (for example Ivan Susanin`s feat). So material on which it is possible to bring up boys real men is. There would be a desire.