Breathes? Does not breathe?
Young mothers often and long listen to breath of the baby in a dream to be convinced that is with it everything is all right. Fortunately, sudden respiratory standstill at children of the first months of life occurs very seldom - on average at 1 child from 1000. Let`s try to understand features of breath of babies.
Respiratory organs of the kid
Breath of any person is operated by the respiratory center - small department of a brain. Respiratory center at increase of concentration of carbon dioxide sends teams to respiratory muscles to blood, forcing muscles to be reduced, inflating a thorax. Impulses of nervous cages of the respiratory center set depth, a rhythm, minute volume of breath. The center is under the influence of impulses from the specific receptors, for example, perceiving concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. Besides, many nonspecific incentives are capable to make active a brain in general and the respiratory center - in particular (for this reason at the time of delivery if the first breath of the kid is late, he is slapped slightly on a bottom: this nonspecific painful irritant from skin receptors causes process of excitement in the respiratory center which gives a signal to the beginning of breath).
At the newborn child who only - was only born practically all functions of an organism differ in some immaturity, it still should develop and improve them. It can fully be carried also to breath. It is known that breath of the child of the first months of life is quite spasmodic, sometimes even at the healthy kid breath delays, or apnoe, lasting up to 15 - 20 seconds are noted. As a rule, such pauses in breath are not followed by either an urezheniye of a warm rhythm, or cyanosis (cyanosis) and do not involve harm for health of the baby. However if cyanosis (posineniye) of a nosogubny triangle develops in time apnoe, and delays exceed 20 seconds or occur too often, it is better to consult with the expert - neonatology.
Vigilance of parents of the whole world causes the syndrome of sudden death of babies (SSDB). Other names of this state are “the sudden children`s death“, “death in a cradle“. A syndrome of sudden death of babies call the death of children of chest age which occurred without any visible reasons, most often at night or early morning hours. Any deviations capable to explain this death, do not find. Frequency of SVSM fluctuates in the different countries from 0,5 to 2,3 - 3 cases on 1000 children who were born live.
Despite a set of the researches conducted worldwide, it was not succeeded to establish the reliable reasons of SVSM so far. But scientists considerably progressed in determination of risk factors of this state. Treat them:
- insufficient education of the father and mother;
- bad socially - living conditions of a family;
- adverse akushersko - the gynecologic anamnesis of mother (chronic gynecologic diseases, the previous abortions, still births, an interval between childbirth less than 14 months, at early age (less than 17 years) swear, SVSM cases in a family);
- of complication of pregnancy (gestoza, anemia, pre-natal hypoxia of a fruit, delay of pre-natal development);
- smoking, alcohol intake or drugs mother during pregnancy;
- polycarpous pregnancy;
- of complication of childbirth (prompt childbirth, childbirth by Cesarean section, stimulation of childbirth by oxytocin, prematurity, a perenoshennost, small (less than 2,5 kg and especially less than 2 kg) weight at the birth, a large fruit).
signs of morfofunktsionalny immaturity of the newborn, a low mark on a scale Apgar belong To the adverse factors noted after the birth; systematic overheating of the baby; use in a crib of soft mattresses, down a perinok, pillows, heavy blankets, plush toys; smoking of the nursing mother and in general smoking in the apartment where there is a kid; artificial feeding; rickets. Here it is possible to carry a joint dream in a parental bed in cases of the use by mother of alcohol, narcotic substances or somnolent preparations. Certainly, kids at whom the frequent and long periods apnoe or cyanosis attacks are noted have to be subject to especially careful supervision.the Analysis of risk factors of SVSM allows to make by
the following generalization: all that breaks development is dangerous, weakens an infantile organism, raises a susceptibility it to various adverse effects - whether it be inside - or the extra uterine period of life of the baby.by
make various hypotheses for the description of the mechanism of development of SVSM, Assume that refusal of the respiratory center as a result of a hypoxia can be one of the main reasons. On the one hand, in response to decrease in concentration of oxygen and increase of concentration of CO 2 in blood the respiratory center has to intensify the movements of respiratory muscles. With another, he on himself is department of a brain which requirement at babies for oxygen is much bigger in comparison with a brain of the adult. Even the minimum changes of nature of breath, a chemical composition of blood and blood supply are capable to influence functions of a brain. The healthy child has a protective reaction to a breath delay - awakening and short wind (breath increase) with the subsequent restoration. At some children protective reactions do not work, and the delay of breath can be transformed to its stop.
But would be wrong to believe that in a syndrome of sudden death only breath violation is guilty. Many researches succeeded to establish that at most of children who were comprehended by SVSM, violations from outside warmly - vascular system - cardiac arrhythmias, deviations on an electrocardiogram were noted. Besides, it is known that the children entering into risk group on SVSM have a certain pathology of a dream: they have no periodic alternation of the periods of a deep and REM sleep, and the structure of a dream is very chaotic. It can break ability to adaptation to various irritants. Some scientists believe that the psychoemotional stress of the baby which he endures if he does not feel sufficient love of people around can even become the reason of sudden death.Stay near mother leads
to establishment of more rhythmical breath and heartbeat at the baby.by
In some researches it was suggested that situation on a stomach during a dream increases risk of development of SVSM. However now the majority of neonatolog agree that not the pose is defining during a dream, and the correct organization of the place for the baby`s dream: the mattress has to be obligatory orthopedic, rigid or semifixed, any pillows, down perinka, heavy and volume blankets, and also large plush toys - that is all that can cause suffocation are inadmissible. It is better to cover the baby with an easy plaid - woolen or synthetic, its upper edge should not come higher than the level of shoulders. Temperature in the room where the kid sleeps, should not rise higher than 24 º With; it is better if it is in the range of 18 - 21 º C. The matter is that temperature increase sharply increases need of a brain for oxygen and its susceptibility to a hypoxia, it is impossible to smoke At all in the room where the child sleeps.
Contrary to expectations, the joint dream of the kid with parents does not increase risk of SVSM (if alcoholic libations and reception of strong preparations, of course, are excluded), and even lowers it. The matter is that the infantile organism possesses ability to synchronize some parameters with external similar indicators. So, stay near mother leads to establishment of more rhythmical breath and heartbeat at the baby. Apparently, evolutionarily put features do not assume existence of the baby separately from mother. Breastfeeding without night interval (that usually also happens at the organization of feeding on demand) also is an important factor of prevention of SVSM.by
Besides measures of prevention of this terrible state, assumed the nature, by means of achievements of science and technology developed the special devices helping to monitor breath and a warm rhythm of the baby and warning parents in case of danger. Home monitors - the breath monitor (its sensor settles down under a mattress of a bed and fixes the movements of respiratory muscles of the kid) and the cardiorespiratory monitor concern to those. The last device is capable to fix at the same time not only breath, but a warm rhythm of the baby. Both devices are supplied with the warning system which works in cases long apnoe, and the cardiorespiratory monitor - also at the expressed bradycardia (an urezheniye of a warm rhythm) and arrhythmia (spasmodic warm reductions). In these cases, as a rule, happens to wake enough the kid, to take him on hands, to make a light massage pyatochek - that is to apply nonspecific stimulation. It is possible to recommend use of these devices at the children belonging to group of high risk on development of SVSM.