Method of training in Nikolay Zaytsev`s reading. Part I
“Not to study, and to play!“ So briefly it is possible to characterize a technique of training in Nikolay Aleksandrovich Zaytsev`s reading. Perhaps, it is the most popular technique today. With its help advocates of early development learn to read, write, consider the crumbs and even to master foreign languages. And children not against such training. Everything that from them is required, - to play bright cubes and to sing songs.
As Zaytsev`s cubesappeared
Nikolay Zaytsev was born and grew up in a family of rural teachers and did not doubt the choice of specialty: after school arrived on philological faculty of pedagogical university of Herzen. On the fifth year it was sent by the translator to Indonesia. There Nikolay Aleksandrovich began to teach Russian as foreign. This event also became a starting point in creation of its unique system of training in reading and the letter. One of the most difficult languages of the world - to Russian - needed to teach in the shortest possible time. Adults, people who already weaned to study - officers were pupils. Such task seemed excessive, but Zaytsev coped brilliantly. He on the run invented new methods, thought out original tables, tried to get into a language essence that - according to Zaytsev - “to learn to transfer it to others“.
the Success inspired the young teacher on development of own system of teaching. System which considers psychological features of perception of Russian it is relieved of unnecessary conventions and bulky rules, is evident. Zaytsev began to test the method of training in Russian in middle classes of schools. The test result was depressing: Nikolay Aleksandrovich faced that pupils did not understand the native language at all, preferred to jag rules, but not to penetrate into them. Children, of course, were not guilty. They got used to study so.
Then Zaytsev addressed preschool children, including the smallest - children of one and a half years. Techniques were adapted for kids - training was reduced to games. And here the teacher was expected by success. Its invention - cubes - called “the ringing miracle“. The children hardly mastering the diploma began to read literally through several occupations. The technique so proved that a number of schools decided to pass to training in Zaytsev completely.to
to us does not need the alphabetto
Having observed children, how they comprehend the diploma, Nikolay Zaytsev came to the following conclusions.
- of to learn to read, not obligatory to know the name of letters.
Widespread phenomenon: mother bought the alphabet, the child learned letters, but cannot read. Words at it are not glued.
“The alphabet is harmful“, - Nikolay Aleksandrovich claims. In the alphabet on each letter the picture is given: And - a stork, B - a hippopotamus etc. The kid will remember both a letter, and the picture, but how then to explain to him that a zebra - a stork - a lizard - a heron, flashing in his consciousness, have to form the word “hare“. And even if the child learned letters not according to the alphabet that complicates storing of names of letters, it is all the same difficult to it to think at once that B and And turn into a syllable OH. For this reason teachers are forced to go on different tricks to show how two letters merge in a syllable. it is difficult to
In Russian can be a part of a syllable from 1 to 10 letters. Such surname as Pfeldrt or Mkrtchyan will occur in the text, - not at once you will read, and a syllable - that one. Of course, the kid does not need to read such compound words, but even the simple, consisting of one syllable word “splash“ will cause certain difficulties in the spelling child.
at first learns to write
- of People, and then to read. >
to the Child it is easier for em to go to reading through the letter. As well as to the adult when studying a modern language. Under a condition, of course, that as the letter we understand not “a shkryabaniye the handle in a notebook“, and transformation of sounds into signs, and as reading, respectively, transformation of signs into sounds. Therefore if you sometime tried to teach the child to learn the dearest words and wrote on asphalt or on paper “mother“, “father“, “grandmother“, “grandfather“, “Sasha“, and then asked: “Where father? And where grandmother? And where your name?“ the child did not read, namely wrote. Your sounds turned in you the written signs.
Alternative to syllables - warehouses
How then to teach the kid to read, time of a letter and syllables only confuse it and distance the reading development moment?
the Main unit of language at Zaytsev is not the sound, a letter or a syllable, but a warehouse.
the Warehouse is a couple from the concordant and a vowel, or from the concordant and a hard or soft sign, or even one letter. For example, WITH - OH - KA, PAS - RO - IN - 3, And - And - With - T etc. Skladova the principle of reading - a basis of a zaytsevsky method of training of children in reading.
“Everything that we say, is combinations from couple public - concordant, - Nikolay Aleksandrovich explains. - For concordant the vowel surely follows. It can not be designated on the letter, but it is“. Our ancestors felt it and put “yat“ at the end of the nouns terminating on concordant. Pronounce, for example, the word:“ about - and - zis“, holding a hand on a throat, and you will feel effort of sheaves before “about“ and before “and“, or on Zaytsev`s terminology - “muscular effort of organs of articulation“. This effort is also a warehouse.Warehouses on cubes
Warehouses the kid sees
not in the book, not on cards, and on cubes. It is the basic moment of system of Zaytsev.
Reading demands work of analytical thinking (letters - abstract badges; the brain will transform them to sounds from which synthesizes words) which begins to be formed only to school. Therefore - that we and our parents at this age began to learn to read.Absence of analytical thinking is compensated to
at the child by the aggravated perception of signals which deliver it sense organs. Therefore Nikolay Aleksandrovich Zaytsev relied on sight, hearing and tactile feelings. He wrote warehouses on sides of cubes. He made cubes various on color, the size and a sound which they make therefore every time at the address to them different channels of perception turn on. It helps children to feel, but not to understand a difference between public and concordant, ringing and soft.
Using these cubes, the child makes words and begins to read them. Zaytsev`s idea is simple: what it is good to show, it is not necessary to tell about that long (a picture is worth a thousand words). Children should show at first interestingly a studying subject, to allow to play it, and then already to bring definition. The sacred law of training is so observed: from specifically - figurative through visually - effective to verbally - logical.
Zaytsev`s Cubes. What cubes
In the Zaytsev`s Cubes set 52 cubes happen (seven of them repeat to build words PASES - PAS, MA - MA, DYa - DYa and similar which are closest to the child, especially at the beginning. Cubes share on big and small, unary and double, gold, iron - gold, derevyanno - gold. There is one white cube with punctuation marks. Also cubes differ on color.
Big are cubes with firm warehouses. Small - cubes with soft warehouses. However, “soft - firm“ Nikolay Aleksandrovich resolutely does not agree with definition: what here firm and soft? And here big and small is! Compare as the mouth when you tell BA or BYa reveals.
Big and small cubes happen different flowers and to different fillers.
Double are the cubes which are stuck together with each other, with concordants which are combined - “are on friendly terms“ - not with all vowels. For example, Zh(Zh) - ZhA - ZhO(ZhE) - ZhU - ZhI - ZhE. Such options as “zhy“, “shy“, “chya“, “shchya“, are simply excluded.
Iron - cubes with ringing warehouses. Wooden cubes - with muffled by warehouses. Gold - cubes with vowels. Iron - wooden - use for the warehouses having hard signs. Derevyanno - gold - for warehouses with soft signs. The white cube is used for designation of punctuation marks.
of the Letter on cubes are written in the different color: vowels - blue; concordants - blue; a hard and soft sign - green.such coloring confuses with
of Many teachers and parents, at school another is accepted absolutely: concordants of blue or green color, vowels - red. So, the kid should be retrained. However the author of a method claims that leaving from it is red - Xing - green combinations allows to avoid color “razodrannost“ of words and therefore children begin to read fluently, without halts at once.
we Prepare for occupations step by step. We glue cubes
Zaytsev`s Cubes happen three types: standard not collected, collected and plastic. Cubes from a standard (not collected) set include preparations of cubes which need to be stuck together independently. It is possible to be engaged in this fascinating business in the dead of night while the beloved child sleeps. But present what first action will be made by the small child who received a cube with some gremelka or shumelka inside? Correctly! It will break off it. And if to glue cubes together, such temptation will not arise, and it is so clear that inside.
think of strengthening of cubes In advance. For this purpose it is possible to insert in a cube one more, almost same by the size, cut out from a dense cardboard.
can Glue cubes Moment glue. If it is absent, then it is possible to use PVA glue. In the course of drying of glue pull together a cube with bank elastic bands that did not part.
Surely protect cubes - paste over with an adhesive tape from all directions. It is possible to laminate development before pasting or to wrap up a thermofilm, and after assembly also to glue an adhesive tape corners of sides.an adhesive tape or a thermofilm cubes can glare
After pasting at bright light, then it is necessary to watch every time that it was well visible to the child, having looked at a cube from his point of view - having literally sat down on its place.
we Hang out the tables
of the Table which are included in the package of cubes of Zaytsev it is desirable to cut off at first on the line represented at the edges. Then, having combined edges of parts of the table, to stick together them glue or an adhesive tape. If you hang up parts of the table, without sticking together, then in the course of occupations they can begin “to part“. > it is desirable for p to wrap up
of the Table a thermofilm too. Thanks to it they will not tear and will not be soiled in the course of use.to
In Zaytsev`s book and in the methodical grant attached to a set of cubes it is written that it is desirable to hang up tables highly, bottom edge at the level of the head of the adult or above. However these recommendations are based that Zaytsev`s cubes are generally used in group (the author of a technique worked only with groups of children). If to hang up tables low, children will block each other written. But if you are engaged on Zaytsev`s cubes of the house, then you have one listener - your child. Besides, in groups begin occupations in 3 - 4 years, and houses mother can be engaged also with two-year-old or even one-year-old kid. Such the baby will not be able just to make out something on highly hung up table. Therefore at home hang out tables so that the kid could reach the handle lifted up the upper edge of the table. When it grows up, lift the table - the child has to reach for it, but not bend.
I one more important note. For very small child the table is too big. To see several warehouses drawn in the different ends of the table it needs or to depart far (then it will not be able to show them), or to run to and fro along the table. It is the best of all if you have such opportunity, to hang up the table in a room corner, having bent it in half. Then the kid will be able, standing on one place, it is easy to reach a hand any edge of the table. >
it is desirable for p to Place tables in that place where the kid is most often, that is in his room. But if there is no place at all, then can place them in other room, in a corridor or even in kitchen.Wall tables are not less important
, than cubes, do not neglect them. The author of a technique - Nikolay Zaytsev - very much is proud of the fact that during the work on tables eyesight is not damaged, but sometimes even improves, the eyeball all the time is in the movement, finding warehouses.we Learn
needs to Learn them because you together with the child will not say the warehouses drawn on cubes, and to sing them. According to Nikolay Aleksandrovich to be trained in reading with singing much more effectively, more interestingly and more cheerfully, than without it. And some children at tender age differently also you will not teach to read.
we Recover cubes
It is played in cubes
in game Now the child enters. All cubes with warehouses are made available to the child at once and forever. Be not afraid that the kid will get confused. Exact systematization allows to catch quickly regularities of language, without littering the head of any child with “scientific character“. For a start let will choose a cube which attracted more than others. Take it and, turning to the child that side which you call, sing all warehouses. Now let the baby will choose a big wooden cube. Then small. Gold. Iron. When all types of the sizes and soundings are mastered, the kid can sing a column of warehouses according to the table and to suggest to find a cube with the same popevka. So he will master both warehouses, and their classification at the same time.
you Get up at the table, you take a pointer in hand and you begin to sing. Pay attention, it is necessary to articulate well warehouses, to show to the child that sounds different: big and small, ringing and rustling.
For descriptive reasons can move: to rise on tiptoe or to squat, make a helpless gesture etc.
Very important to inhale life in cubes. Think out to cubes names: here a big cube - the father of B - OH - BO - BU - - BE, and here a small cube - the child of B - BYa - BE - BYu - BI - BE. Double cubes are grandmothers and the grandfather.we Begin to write
farther, according to a technique, it is necessary to begin to write (to write, but not to read! - reading will come by itself).be not afraid of
if the child is not able to hold in hand the handle yet. It is necessary to write not with the handle on paper. The kid will drive a pointer or a finger according to the table, singing: “Oh - bo - bu - - be, Ma - sha, mo - lo - to“. He needs to understand how words are formed, to take them to pieces and again to collect. And, of course, it is necessary to write by means of cubes, making of them words.Begin to write
that is the most expensive to the child - from a name. By the way, it is possible to write TO - LYa, but it is better - - TO - LA - Y A - LE - To - SE - E - VI - H (the child will be glad to feel big). Then make names of toys, names of close people. Having collected in one end of the room the word MOTHER, on a table - the GRANDMOTHER of LIZA, and at a window - the UNCLE of PETYa, begin mobile game in words: “Run to the GRANDMOTHER rather! Watch who arrived to us, - the UNCLE of PETYa! Meet him! And now MOTHER calls you with herself!“ Thus it is possible to train in reading in the movement, without sacrificing literacy sight and a bearing. Pay attention, we do not teach the child to read or write by means of cubes, we simply play.lacks
a cube! What to do?
It is valid, for writing of these or those words there are not enough cubes which are in a set. For example, you will want to write the word BANANA, and we have in a set only one cube with warehouses ON and H (a cube WELL - BUT - ON - NE - NY - N) and at the same time it is impossible to turn it two sides. Often there are not enough cubes with warehouses on With, M, P, cubes with vowels. What to do? If you bought cubes, do not hurry to stick together them at once. At first to an otkserokopiruyta on the color copier of development of the most used cubes. Cut out a basis for them from a cardboard. If you do not want to make in addition anything, then those words which you cannot write cubes, write on a leaf to paper with felt-tip pens, highlighting with warehouses in the different colors, or write according to the table with a pointer.