What is Kara - Dag
Mountain group Kara - Dag - surprising as the fairy tale, a corner of east Crimea. Hardly anyone will be left indifferent by its fantastic landscapes, power and greatness of unapproachable rocks, mysterious grottoes and small bays on which creation so long and diligently the nature worked.
On the earth the Mesozoic Era, the Jurassic Period was em>. The land and water huge reptiles undividedly owned; warmer, than presently, the seas inhabited corals and various ammonites - cephalopod mollusks; among the flying pangolins the first birds appeared. The magnificent tropical vegetation covered the continents and islands disseminated in the World Ocean.
of the Crimean peninsula in those days did not exist yet; on its place there was a group of the islands separated from each other by narrow passages. Some of them rose massive crests, others hardly towered over water. These islands put by friable breeds easily collapsed; fragments communicated to shallow passages, encumbered with shapeless blocks coast.
Extremely mobile crust caved in in one places, distended in others, was rumpled in folds, broke up huge cracks. The melted magma hidden in an earth subsoil directed up, but, without having managed to break through kilometer a rock mass, stiffened underground. However the time of fire-spitting elements possible to escape from the imprisonment - and then there is nobody and there was nothing to stop its revelry. Magma streamed at the same time in the sea and on the land. Rolling down slopes, it burned tree ferns and horsetails, melted sedimentary breeds, poisoned with gases the sea. A continuous veil of steam from the beginning to boil water, the smoke and ashes mixed in one day and night, spheres of a lava shone in this darkness fantastic round dances. The dense air sated with electricity was dissected by grandiose lightnings, and the water vapor which accumulated in clouds burst, at last, in violent heavy rain.
But here gradually outpouring of a lava stopped; it was less allocated from the cooling-down cracks of a smoke and gases. Through several million years (hours in the geological account of Earth!) the volcano shuddered in the next paroxysm again, then more and more, but eventually stood already for a long time, a huge polyconic block looking out of the sea covering it.“ The birth“ it occurred 150 - 160 million years ago, during the sredneyursky period.
However orogenic forces also did not think to calm down: after top Yura they set crust in motion again, “having in own way reshuffled“ stone layers, With a roar multimeter lava thicknesses were torn apart; huge cracks were dissected by rocks, and water, raging, directed down. The whole mountains failed in suddenly opened chasms, others stuck out them on change. Invisible huge hands rumpled in folds, twisted in knot, split up for pieces the strong, only - only the stone which settled in a relative order...
there Passed millions more of years; mesozoic came to an end, the Cenozoic Era began. By this time instead of group of certain islands there was already one big island though water and its covers over and over again, leaving behind layers of limestones, slates, clays. However each next “approach“ occupied the lesser territory, constantly filling in only plains. And over them, already inaccessible to sea waves, the extended rocky island Taurian mountains proudly rose.
A then, during an era of an average Pliocene, the mountain Crimea was rassechen the powerful dumping which left the ambassador of the steep stone wall of the present Southern coast rising then on height in 3000 meters. It was the full rejuvenation of the ancient highland which transformed a flat height of mesozoic ridge to the modern Crimean Mountains. Kara - Dag was also not spared by this dumping: its most part broke away and forever went to the sea abyss.
On naked magmatic breeds their powerful enemies immediately snatched: rain and hail, heat and cold, wind and sea waves. But ancient crystal massifs, though disturbed by a recent shake-up with firmness reflected their attacks. And as the mentioned dumping happened rather recently - about ten million years ago, Kara managed - to Dag to keep all features of the geological structure up to now.
A Kara - Dag - “the black mountain“ - people long since called an ancient volcanic array. And when you float on the boat from Feodosiya in the Pike perch, and by slowly pass cracked as if the stone giants who are melted off by underground fire, you understand - and you accept - it is the short, expressive name.“ Terrible“, “gloomy“, “devil`s“, “black“ - such epithets are on the tip of the tongue. And when the last comes to an end to a volcano the belonging range, and from - it is supported by the light calcareous ridges which were placed at some distance to the North, the thought involuntarily comes that also by this contrast could call so frowned bulk.
, however, also other opinions Are. Some scientists consider that the term “penalty“ (“black“) could have not color, but derivative value: the mountain without snow cover in the summer. Others are inclined to connect “penalty“ with Kazakh “kyr, a kyra“ and interpret this word as “hill“. But, anyway, in our consciousness Kara - Dag remains “the black mountain“...We tell
:“ volcano“, “mountain“, but Kara - Dag not one mountain, but the whole volcanic massif, or as geologists speak, “volcanic area of polygenic character“. Numerous eruptions came not from one central muzzle here - a crater, and from several. Formed by lavas, tufa and tufobrekchiya of a height, united under the name of Kara - Dag, have the, independent names.
the Total area of Karadagsky mountain group - about 10 square kilometers; all it accommodates on a coastline ledge between the mouth of the Otuzsky valley in the West and the Koktebelsky valley (in which there is a settlement of Planerskoye) on North - the East. However with North - the West these volcanic educations are adjoined by a number of younger calcareous ridges which usually also join in the area Kara - Dag; with them its area makes over 20 square kilometers. From the North and the West all this coastal site is limited to the sudaksky highway.to
To scientists Kara - Dag is interesting first of all as the most powerful center of ancient volcanic activity in the Crimea. Already the academician P. S. Pallas, one of the first researchers of Taurida traveling around the peninsula in 1793 - 1794 paid attention to it “the conic rocks having similarity of the sugar head“, And in 1891 A. Prozorovsky`s note - Golitsyno, caused a new wave of interest to Kara - to Dag appeared: until then in the Crimea the remains of land volcanic educations were not known. Since then - more than eighty years - there is also a studying of a “black“ volcano.at the same time should note
that work on Kara - Dag was not only to geologists. Also its plants among which several rare is revealed, endemic are of a great interest; both fauna, and a peculiar, distinguishing it from nearby places microclimate. Therefore - that was also decided to declare Kara - Dag the reserve, having forbidden destruction of its plants, animals, minerals.
But still. This Hugo sheltered on fruitless capes and hills - east Crimea strikes a corner wild - severe and majestic - beauty. It would be possible to make the whole book of the enthusiastic dithyrambs devoted to it. In some pages of this of yet not aggregated book it is worth glancing.
Here opinion of the prominent Russian scientist, academician A. Pavlov: “Original forms of a relief and landscape beauty Kara - Dag can argue with the most remarkable corners of the well-known Yellowstone national park in the USA“. Other geologist - professor A. Sludsky, the first manager of the Karadagsky biological research station - wrote: “Nearby time when specially on Kara - Dag there come tourists not only from all Russia, but also from Western Europe and America...“ Compared greatness to “a show of the Sahara, the immeasurable rivers raging oceans of enormous falls of the world“ Kara - Dag K. Paustovsky.
In what the reason of so strong influence Kara - Dag on the person?
is struck First of all by a bolt from the blue of emergence of this stone miracle among the sloping bared hills, on border of the burned saline steppe. When from the pass on the road from Feodosiya the view of a bluish wall of its ridges and tops suddenly opens, takes the breath away from feeling of grandness, unreasonable force majeure and strict, almost architectural harmony of its silhouette. And when you cross a threshold of this bewitched kingdom, and before you as if enticing deep into, rise all new, landscapes are more majestic than one another, - there are not enough words to express the feeling which captured you. Gloomy failures of caves - and a gentle grass in stone clefts; the heated taluses - and the round dances of shady bosks concealing danger of death breaks of rocks - and tender splash of waves at their bottom... All nearby, everything is mixed, continually the most unexpected combinations, but because - is so fine Kara - Dag, because - he all “as the fairy tale“...
Not one scientists and writers pay an admiration tribute to this original corner of the Crimea - artists do not lag behind them also.
For the first time Kara - Dag got on a cloth in the middle of the last century, imprinted by I. K. Ayvazovsky`s brush. But it served only as a background of a sea landscape. A theatrical scenery Kara - Dag in A. Fessler`s picture and on numerous Views of G. Kalmykov looks. The artist and the poet M. A. Voloshin (1877 - 1932) who managed to transfer in the water colors and verses “soul“ of Gothic ruins Kara - Dag was real “pioneer“ of an ancient volcano. The worthy embodiment its severe rocks found K. F in compositions of the feodosiysky artist. Bogayevsky (1872 - 1943). Kara - Dag inspired N. Piskarev, L. Bruni, I. Bilibin, B. Ioganson, A. Ostroumova - Lebedeva, L. Rudnev, E. Govorova... Today many artists also - everyone in own way - create penetrating, impressive images of “the black mountain“.And still neither words, nor paints have not enough
to tell about Kara - Dag, it should be seen most. And not only to see, but also to feel: the palms of the hands clinging to a rough stone, stupnyam, sliding on a talus, face skin and cheeks, wet from the flowing-down sweat, the nostrils which are sucking in began to smell heated herbs and sea salt. “All have to visit the Kara Dag!“ - the famous researcher of the Black Sea V. P. Zenkovich exclaims. And his enthusiasm can quite be understood...to
for the aid to those who will want to get acquainted with Kara - Dag wrote the guide. In it the description of two routes is given: lying on its tops along Coastal ridge and the sea, on the coast. The first begins from Karadagsky biological station to which by bus from Shchebetovki only ten minutes, and come to an end in Planerskom. The second goes in the opposite direction: from Planersky to a biological research station. It should be overcome on foot, by swimming through bays. Each of routes is calculated on one day.
needs to be noticed that the guide - even detailed - cannot relieve of mistakes at independent definition of these or those valleys, rocks, ridges. In some measure the indexes about three years ago established by mine rescuers at the main tops and passes can help with it. However it is the best of all for that who gets acquainted with Kara - Dag for the first time to pass for a start on foot according to him from one of the excursions organized by Feodosiysky travel agency and excursions (two booths of this bureau are on the embankment of the resort of Planerskoye). The route of such excursion generally coincides with the first of brought here.
Good preparation for the second - sea - to a route will be walk lengthways Kara - Dag by motor ship, on two - three times a day departing from Planersky`s mooring. Such walks will be organized also from the territory of Crimean Seaside boarding house and from Feodosiya.
after that, already having general idea about Kara - Dag, it is possible to travel around it independently, slowly, opening new and new corners. However to go to the mountains one all - is unsafe, it is better together or group, as a last resort someone from remaining in the settlement surely has to know when and in what direction you left.
should not Burden itself with load: each excursion is calculated on only one day. The best footwear - gym shoes or slippers on a rubber sole (only not on skin!); the headdress is obligatory. Together with food it is necessary to take waters: in its mountains it can not appear. Well, and to remind of the camera or a videkamer, obviously, excessively; in any case, left them at home more than once then will regret about it.