If you were bitten. The help at stings of insects, snakes, animals of
Leaving on the nature, it is necessary to remember that the majority of animals and insects attack the person only if he intruded in their zone of dwelling and itself provokes them to attack. If unpleasant incident nevertheless happened, it is necessary to give the victim first aid.
Stings of insects
Stings of insects can be divided by
into two big groups: stings of Hymenoptera (mosquitoes, bees, wasps, hornets, gadflies, etc.) and arachnoid (tarantulas, scorpions, ticks). The human body answers a sting of an insect with three types of reactions. Local reaction - reddening, hypostasis, pain, an itch or strong burning in a sting zone, local increase in lymph nodes. All-toxic reaction arises usually at multiple stings - a fever, temperature increase of a body, nausea and vomiting, a headache, joint pains. Allergic reaction can arise also on single stings at the people predisposed to such reactions. Allergic reactions proceed as the small tortoiseshell, Quincke`s hypostasis or even anaphylactic shock.
Stings of Hymenoptera
Mosquitoes, midges, gadflies have no poisonous glands, at a sting they enter the special substance interfering fibrillation into a wound. Reaction to their stings, as a rule, only local. The person is capable to transfer multiple stings of these insects (to 100 and more) without violation of the general state. For reduction of local manifestations try to use the following means. Dipping a finger alternately in water and in dry soda, rub this finger of the place of stings; it is possible to smear also with strong solution of soda. It is considered that soda reduces hypostasis and an itch a little. Menovazin possesses good anesthetic and protivozudny action, but people cannot use him with hypersensibility to novocaine. Reduce an inflammation and an itch ortofenovy and butadionovy ointments. Someone is well helped by asterisk balm. There is a special OFF cream after stings. For prevention of infection of places of stings they can be greased with brilliant green. From folk remedies recommend to use grated young potato, gruel from pounded onions or garlic, juice of leaves of parsley. It is possible to drive away insects special means: creams and lotions (“Moskitol“, “OFF“, “Taiga“, etc.) which are applied on skin and clothes, aerosols - repellents, the smoking spirals, etc. Remember that all these means are toxic, and do not recommend to use them to children to 3 - x years and to pregnant women.with
Poisonous stings bees, bumblebees (bite only once in life then perish), wasps and hornets “award“ us (can sting several times). Local reaction to stings of these insects is, as a rule, very expressed. Development of considerable hypostasis which, though is local reaction is characteristic, can be dangerous if settles down on a face, especially in lips or in a mouth. Allergic reactions to stings of these insects meet quite often. The small tortoiseshell represents the rash of the blisters merging among themselves against reddening of skin which is followed by a severe itch. Can settle down on any sites of skin. Quincke (“the huge small tortoiseshell“) who - is quickly accruing, the delimited hypostasis of skin or mucous swelled. Can arise not only directly in the place of a sting, but also in any other. Its “favourite“ localization - a face, a mucous membrane of an oral cavity, a soft palate, extremities, genitals. Allergic hypostasis of a throat is especially dangerous. Rare, but very dangerous reaction - anaphylactic shock. Within several minutes at the victim short wind, a strong fever, fear of death develop, heartbeat becomes frequent, arterial pressure sharply falls and there comes the coma. Locally at the same time - a blister, quickly accruing hypostasis, hemorrhage.
the Help to the victim
Attentively examine the place of a sting. The left sting needs to be removed. At the same time try not to squeeze it that the remains of poison did not get to a wound. Apply cold to the place of a sting. For reduction of hypostasis and a local inflammation it is possible to use gidrokortizonovy or prednizolonovy ointments. It is better for the persons predisposed to allergic reactions to give an antihistaminic preparation at once. It needs to be made also at “dangerous“ localizations of a sting (the person and, especially, a mouth). In not hard cases of allergic reactions it is also enough to accept antihistamine inside. Klaritin is given on 1 tablet (10 mg) or 2 h l. syrup to children with body weight more than 30 kg and the adult, on 0,5 tablets (5 mg) or 1 h l. to children is more senior than syrup 2 - x years with body weight to 30 kg, on 0,5 h l. syrup to children to 2 - x years. The preparation is accepted once a day. Tavegil appoint to adults and children 12 years on 1 tablet (1 mg), children of 6 - 12 years - on 0,5 - 1 tablet, children of 3 - 6 years - on 0,5 tablets 2 times a day are more senior. At the heavy course of allergic reactions (the widespread small tortoiseshell with violation of the general state, nausea, vomiting, belly-aches; quickly extending swelled Quincke) intramuscular introduction of antihistaminic preparations is necessary. Tavegil (ampoules on 2 ml / 2 mg) two times a day, to children - in a daily dose of 0,025 mg/kg enter the adult 2 ml (2 mg), dividing it into two injections. Suprastin (ampoules on 1 ml / 20 mg) 10 mg (0,5 ml) - to children of 2 - 6 years, 10 - 20 mg (0,5 - 1 ml) - to children of 7 - 14 years, 20 mg (1 ml) - to teenagers and adults enter in a dose 5 mg (0,25 ml) to children about one year. Frequency rate of introduction - to 3 - 4 times a day, but the daily dose should not exceed 2 mg/kg. At allergic hypostasis of a throat with breath violation Prednisolonum is entered intravenously slowly (in 2 - 3 minutes), and at impossibility - intramuscularly in a dose of 2 mg/kg (within a day perhaps repeated single introduction in the same dose).
At anaphylactic shock of the victim needs to be laid on a back with the raised foot end if there is vomiting or there is no consciousness, the person is stacked sideways. It is necessary to provide passability of airways, to try to warm the victim. Above a sting of an insect impose a plait, and to the place of a sting - cold.
Immediately to cause medical care. The first medical assistance consists in hypodermic introduction of 0,1% of solution of adrenaline in a dose of 0,25 - 0,5 ml (for children a dose of 0,01 ml/kg) directly to the place of a sting and to the free area of a body over a plait, injections of a suprastin in a dose of 2 mg/kg. In the absence of effect adrenaline is entered intravenously slowly (2 - 3 minutes) in the form of 0,01% of solution (1 ml of 0,1% of adrenaline part in 10 ml of physical solution) in a dose of 0,1 ml/kg. Prednisolonum to a dose of 3 - 4 mg/kg is at the same time intravenously slowly entered. At disorders of breath intravenously enter 2,4% solution of an eufillin (5 - 7 mg/kg into 20 ml of physical solution). Transportation is possible only after at the victim arterial pressure exceeds 70 mm Hg.
Stings of arachnoid meet much less often, but are followed by more expressed local and general reaction.
Stings of a tarantula (the poisonous spider meeting in desert areas widespread in Central Asia, from the steppes of Ukraine adjacent to the Black Sea, on the East to borders with Mongolia), seldom cause the expressed intoxication. Usually local changes in a type of pain, hyperaemia, hypostasis, hemorrhage prevail. The general reaction in the form of drowsiness, apathy is possible. Help: cold to the place of a sting, antihistamines. Hospitalization is most often not necessary.the Sting of a scorpion is much more dangerous by
. In the place of a sting there is intolerable pain, hypostasis, tension of fabrics. At the victim fever, all body pain, perspiration, dacryagogue develop. There are severe pains in a stomach and after them spasms. Breath violation is characteristic. First aid consists in providing an immovability of an extremity, imposing of a plait places of a sting are higher. The victim needs to be provided with plentiful drink, to give anesthetic. Urgent hospitalization is necessary.
the Sting of a karakurt (the spider of black color with red specks on a paunch, is widespread on Lower Volga area, the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia, in the Crimea, in the south of Moldova, the most poisonous of the spiders meeting in the territory of the former USSR) rather low-painful. There is no local reaction to it, as a rule. The expressed general reaction arising in 20 - 40 minutes after a sting in the form of painful muscular pains, weakness, fever, a salivation, violation of swallowing of nausea and vomiting is characteristic. Poison of a karakurt collapses at high temperature therefore it is possible to reduce intensity of its influence if immediately prizhech the place of a sting a flame of the burning match. The victim needs to provide rest, plentiful drink. Anesthesia and immediate hospitalization is necessary for introduction of specific serum.
Stings of snakes
Stings of snakes can be poisonous and nonpoisonous. The majority of the snakes meeting in Russia, nonpoisonous. The most widespread of venomous snakes (on materials of article of Bespalova E. N. in the Vologodchina`s Health magazine for July, 2002):
the Viper ordinary - its length of 50 - 60 cm, gray color (meet red, red and black coloring) with dark zigzag drawing on a back. Lives in the woods and bogs. The sting is very painful, but is not deadly.
the Viper Caucasian - its length of 40 - 50 cm, oranzhevo - yellow or it is bright - red color with zigzag dark drawing on a back. Snakes of black color meet (or the black head). It is widespread on all Caucasus. The sting is life-threatening.
of Gyurz - a large snake darkly - gray or it is dirty - gray color with cross darkly - brown strips on all back. It is widespread in the southern regions of the country. It is coward, the first does not attack the person, but its sting is deadly.
the Cobra Central Asian - its length is 110 - 140 cm, the large sizes, coloring from light-yellow to black. It is widespread in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, China, India. It is very poisonous, the sting is deadly.
Shchitomordnik east - length is 50 - 60 cm, brown or the drill - gray color with oval spots of a trunk on each side. The snake is widespread on coast of Northern Amur, India, China. Well floats, the sting is painful and poisonous.
of Eph sandy - its length of 50 - 60 cm, has coloring from serovato - sandy to darkly - brown. On the head light drawing in the form of a silhouette of the flying bird. It is widespread in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan. The sting is deadly.all snake poisons divide
On nature of impact on a human body into three groups:
- the neurotoxic poisons breaking nervously - muscular transfer (these are poisons of cobras, tropical sea serpents);
- the gemovazotoksichesky poisons damaging small vessels and increasing their permeability, breaking coagulability of blood and destroying erythrocytes (poisons of a gyurza, efa, shchitomordnik, a viper so work);
- the poisons combining effect of poisons 1 and 2 - y groups (poisons of rattlesnakes, the Australian adders).
At a sting of venomous snakes of the first group of people is felt by pain and a sleep in a sting zone. Coordination of movements, the speech, swallowing is in a few minutes broken. The ascending sluggish paralysis gradually extending from extremities to muscles of a trunk and respiratory muscles develops. If poison got directly to a blood vessel, full paralysis comes in 10 - 20 minutes. The victim perishes from respiratory standstill.
At a sting of snakes of the second group local changes originally prevail: quickly accruing hypostasis, hemorrhage and necrosis of fabrics in a zone of a sting are followed by intolerable pain up to painful shock. In 1 - 3 hour the raised bleeding from the place of a sting, nasal, zheludochno - intestinal, etc. bleedings, hemorrhages develops in internals. Insufficiency of blood circulation or a sharp renal failure can become a cause of death.
Help to the victim. Right after a sting of the person needs to lay and provide it absolute rest since the more it will move, the quicker poison will spread on an organism. Try not to panic - deaths from stings of the majority of venomous snakes at the correct assistance very much and are very rare. The first minutes after a sting from a wound it is possible to squeeze out part of snake poison if to squeeze a skin fold so that from a wound there will be a drop of liquid which is deleted at once.
Within the next 15 - 20 minutes needs to suck away poison from a wound. The styptic plait cannot be imposed categorically since violation of blood circulation will strengthen disintegration of fabrics in a sting zone, and products of this disintegration poison an organism of bitten. Snake poison spreads on lymphatic ways therefore it makes sense to apply a hard bandage above the place of a sting: the strip of any fabric is tied rather densely, but so that between fabric and skin it was possible to push two fingers. Such bandage does not disturb a blood-groove, but slows down poison distribution a little. In process of increase of hypostasis the bandage needs to be weakened that it did not crash into fabrics. The bandage is applied that time while suck away poison. The victim or the one who helps him can do it.
poison suction Procedure really constitutes some danger for giving help if on mucous his mouth there are damages, but a poison dose which can be received thus less that is incommensurable that was received by the person bitten by a snake therefore the risk is in this situation justified. Try to spit out as often as possible. The person giving thus help risks to catch also all diseases which are transmitted through blood. If any reasons stop you, use not own mouth, but make-shifts. Best of all some analog of a medical can will approach: glass pile, glass and so forth. At first place in it the burning match, and then put on skin so that the trace from a sting appeared in the center banks. Blood from a wound will nasasyvatsya in bank. At the worst, it is possible to suck away poison by means of the syringe. The wound cannot be cauterized, made an incision and filled in with iodine, to put a grass.Injured cannot give to
alcohol since alcoholic intoxication strengthens effect of poison and weakens effect of antisnake serum. Novokainovy blockade becomes only if you it are able and know that to you definitely not to get serum (novocaine weakens effect of serum too). Having stopped sucking away poison, process a wound an anti-septic tank and apply a pure bandage. To reduce intoxication, poison it is necessary as it is possible to part stronger. Therefore surely provide to the victim plentiful warm drink (tea, coffee). Inside give 2 tablets (10 mg) of Prednisolonum, antihistamines. In hard cases the same preparations enter intramuscularly (the same dosages, as at stings of insects; see above). Transportation is carried out in a prone position, the extremity in which the snake bit needs to be recorded. The earlier you will bring the victim to medical institution, the effect of serum which to it will be entered there will be better. Antisnake serums happen monovalent (from stings of one species of snakes): an avtigyurza, an antiefa, etc. also polyvalent (are used usually when the species of a snake is unknown). If it is impossible to address to medical institution, and you have serum, it is necessary to enter it hypodermically between shovels, it is obligatory according to the following scheme: at first 0,1 ml, in 10 - 15 minutes - 0,25 ml, in 10 - 15 minutes - all remained dose are entered. Such gradual introduction is necessary since at hypersensibility reaction to serum can be more dangerous than the sting. The serum dose usually makes 500 - 1500 AE (1 - 3 ampoules).
Stings of animals
the Help at stings of animals the same, as at any wounds: bleeding stop, processing of a wound anti-septic tank, imposing of a bandage. If necessary - anesthesia. Do not forget that after a sting of an animal it is possible to ache with rage, which outcome always deadly. For prevention of this zabolevniya it is necessary to address to medical institution for carrying out specific prevention as quickly as it is possible, irrespective of health of the victim.