One of diagnostics methods during pregnancy are ultrasonic research - ultrasonography. How many times future mother has to pass this research what information is given by ultrasonography depending on terms of its carrying out and in what cases the number of researches increases?
Ultrasonic research there pass practically all future mothers, and not less than three times for all pregnancy - provided that the woman was registered in a maternity welfare unit on small term (till 12 weeks) and implements all recommendations of the doctor of the obstetrician - the gynecologist conducting her pregnancy that is reflected in the relevant normative documents of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. However to many women this research is conducted more often.
At once that obstetric ultrasonic research (the research conducted during pregnancy) - very important and informative method of diagnostics helping to answer many questions and allowing to reveal these or those deviations in pre-natal development of a fruit.
research is absolute
without serious consequences: the patient does not feel any discomfort, except the sensor moving on her stomach. Numerous scientific data confirm almost full harmlessness of ultrasonography for health of both future mother, and her kid. In particular, it was shown that doses and intensity of ultrasonic influence during standard obstetric research did not make negative impact on embryos of laboratory animals and a chromosome of living cells. Considering safety and high informational content of this research, the World Health Organization recommends carrying out ultrasonography during pregnancy not less than 3 times.
However to future mothers should not abuse ultrasonic researches on own initiative. For example, it is not necessary to run tens of times on research only to specify a sex of the kid, to estimate his weight and the sizes. Agree, it is difficult to present that the pregnant woman went to take a blood test out of curiosity once again, without appointment of the doctor, for ultrasonic research terms and indications are determined too.
the First ultrasonography
the First ultrasonic research needs to be passed on the term of 10 - 14 weeks. It is necessary to tell that in need of BONDS - research is conducted also on earlier term of pregnancy, Very often till 10 weeks of ultrasonography it is carried out for the purpose of confirmation of the fact of pregnancy. It can be necessary in the presence at the patient of violations of a menstrual cycle before pregnancy: at long delays of periods, at a periods delay, but the negative house test for pregnancy.
we Will list to
situations which are the indication for obligatory carrying out BONDS - scannings to 10 - y weeks of pregnancy:
bleeding from a genital tract of various intensity;
of pain in the bottom of a stomach;
suspicion on not developing pregnancy (discrepancy of the size of a uterus at vaginal research to the estimated term of pregnancy);
not incubation of pregnancy in the anamnesis (if the woman already had earlier not developing pregnancy, an abortion on early term etc.);
the pregnancy which was caused application of auxiliary reproductive technologies - VRT (EKO - extracorporal fertilization - fertilization in a test tube, etc.) ;
fruit malformations during the previous pregnancies;
possible polycarpous pregnancy (such situation can be expected when carrying out to the patient of stimulation of an ovulation - introduction by preparation for pregnancy of high doses of hormonal preparations for stimulation of growth and maturing of a follicle).
One of important points of carrying out ultrasonography in the first trimester of pregnancy is the possibility of diagnosis of the malformations of an embryo revealed already on early term, sometimes not compatible to life or hard invalidiziruyushchy future child. At suspicion on existence of a malformation of an embryo during ultrasonography in the first trimester for confirmation or a denial of the diagnosis there is a need of use of invasive methods of diagnostics - research of amniotic waters, is more rare - a biopsy of a horion (capture of fabric of a horion - future placenta - on research).
<22 - 24 weeks to future parents will probably report to div class= “vrezkasmall“ align= right> B a sex of the kid.
Early diagnostics of congenital defects in the first trimester of pregnancy is important
also because at emergence of need to interrupt pregnancy the damage to an organism is caused much less considerable, than interruption of pregnancy on later terms. Exist OUSE - indicators which are informative only on early terms of pregnancy. For example, measurement sheyno - vorotnikovy space is carried out on 11 - 14 - y to week of pregnancy, on later terms this research does not bear any significant information or the size of a fruit is informative for establishment of pregnancy term on it to 15 - y weeks, further hereditary features can already influence the size of a fruit. For example, at high parents the child with high probability will be born high and will not fit into average parameters.
the Second ultrasonography
At the normal course of pregnancy the following planned ultrasonography is carried out by
in an interval with 20 - y on 24 - yu week of pregnancy. However during the period with 14 - y on 20 - yu week of pregnancy additional research can be required. It will be out in case changes of level of the hormones which are handed over in a planned order by all pregnant women at first in 10 - 12 weeks, then in 16 - 18 weeks of pregnancy are revealed (PAPP - A, AFP, (ß - HGCh, estriol).
of One of the most important problems of ultrasonography in the second trimester of pregnancy still remains detection of congenital malformations of a fruit. During this period of pregnancy the sizes of the fruit, its bodies and systems (heart, a liver, kidneys etc.) allow the doctor conducting research in more detail and to precisely perform inspection and to reveal possible violations in their development. Also studying of a condition of a placenta (existence in it of cysts, kaltsifikat (small deposits of calcium in placenta fabric) which its normal functioning, an assessment of its sizes etc. can break is important. These parameters are very significant for definition of further tactics of conducting pregnancy as the placenta is an important link of interaction of future mother and kid, helping the last to receive already vnutriutrobno the necessary nutrients, vitamins which are required for his normal growth and development. The amount of amniotic waters as its change, both towards reduction, and towards increase, can speak about the adverse course of pregnancy is estimated and demands further, more profound inspection of future mother. In 22 - 24 weeks future parents will probably be told a sex of the kid though in certain cases this news can be learned in the first trimester.
Invasive are called diagnostic and medical procedures with penetration into body tissues, for example, the intramuscular prick is invasive procedure too.
with 22 - y on 24 - yu week of pregnancy by means of the ultrasonic device carry out by
doppler sonography To the period - research of vessels of a uterus, a state matochno - a placentary blood-groove (vessels of a uterus, an umbilical cord, placenta). Character and degree of expressiveness of possible violations in various links of blood circulation in system “mother - a placenta - a fruit“ allows to estimate degree of their expressiveness and to predict the further course of pregnancy to develop tactics of its maintaining.
that only set received by means of ultrasonography and a dopplerometriya of parameters will allow the doctor to give the most exact assessment of a pre-natal condition of a fruit and to develop rational tactics of further conducting pregnancy.
the Third ultrasonography
in the absence of any deviations from standard indicators the following ultrasonography according to the plan spend by
in an interval with 32 - y on 34 - yu week of pregnancy, and a dopplerometriya - not earlier than in a month as development of any violations of blood circulation happens gradually and diagnostic significant they become within a month if during this time this term there were no other complications, for example changes in a gemostaziogramma did not appear (a blood test on coagulability). In this case the doctor will recommend carrying out a dopplerometriya of earlier planned term. If during researches any violations are revealed (decrease in a blood-groove in the studied vessels, lag of a fruit in growth and development), and the patient needs medical actions which can be carried out as an ambul - torno, and permanently, depending on extent of the revealed violations, repeated OUSE - research and doppler sonography the doctor will appoint at least one more time after carrying out the corresponding course of treatment. If necessary the course of treatment is repeated, and the quantity of BONDS - researches respectively increases.
of Research of the increased accuracy
In cases when ultrasonography of the first level (in a maternity welfare unit) found certain problems or the doctor had any doubts in his results, the patient is directed to OUSE - scanning of the second level of obstetric screening - in the centers of prenatal diagnostics, the physician - the genetic centers and other similar establishments equipped with ultrasonic scanners of high resolution and completed with medical personnel of expert qualification. In such cases the number of ultrasonic researches respectively increases.
diagnosis of congenital malformations of a fruit is still actual
In the third trimester. Though all rough malformations come to light, as a rule, at earlier ultrasonography, such malformations as gidronefroz one or both kidneys (a liquid congestion in kidney lokhanka), a megaureter (expansion of a mochetochnik of a fruit) on earlier terms of pregnancy for a number of reasons can be not diagnosed. The fruit arrangement, inconvenient for research, in a uterus at research in the second trimester can be one of such reasons. In case of diagnostics of any defect, depending on its complexity, the issue of its correction is resolved: whether urgent surgery right after childbirth is necessary for rescue of life of the kid or some delay of operation is possible in case this defect does not pose hazard to life of the newborn. Sometimes, in case of detection of heavy defects, the issue of interruption of pregnancy before term (to 40 - y weeks of pregnancy) by means of introduction of the medicamentous means promoting the beginning of patrimonial activity is resolved.
Problems of BONDS - researches in the third trimester are:
an assessment fetoplatsentarny and matochno - a placentary blood-groove as violations in this system can be the cause of such complication of pregnancy as a pre-natal growth inhibition of a fruit;
assessment of the sizes of a fruit, their compliance to pregnancy term;
a placenta arrangement (full or partial (regional) prelying of a placenta that is important for the choice of a method of a rodorazresheniye - childbirth in natural patrimonial ways or operation of Cesarean section), its “maturity“, i.e. readiness for the forthcoming childbirth;
the provision of a fruit in a uterus cavity (its prelying part; what is turned to an exit from a uterus - a head or the pelvic end) that is important for definition of tactics of conducting childbirth.
the Last point is very conditional
as the child in a womb of mother and in later term of pregnancy (after 34 - y weeks) though it is rare, but can turn over from the correct situation (down a head) in wrong - slanting or cross situation. In certain cases the kid in general can be developed on 180 º and to settle down legs to an exit from a uterus.
Three-dimensional ultrasonography Separately should telling
about three-dimensional ultrasonic research which is new, modern and that is important, fashionable research now. Many future parents with interest visit this procedure, forgetting sometimes that it is additional research though the qualified specialist having modern diagnostic opportunities (the good ultrasonic device) can take all necessary measurements, to consider everything and to draw the corresponding conclusions, using two-dimensional ultrasound. What so attracts future mothers and fathers? In - the first, such research allows to receive on the screen the image in three projections at once, i.e. volume, so, more indicative, close to photographic what future parents aspire to. In - the second, this research allows to make entry of movements of a fruit in real time in a format of a digital photo, and also VHS (videotape), CD or DVD in a three-dimensional format. And at last, similar research gives the chance to look through and analyze the received images through wide intervals of time that is important for the doctors conducting research.
All violations revealed at ultrasonography on this term of pregnancy, in particular connected with a condition of a placenta demand the qualified medical intervention necessary to avoid the birth of the unripe kid with a small weight.
in conclusion would like to tell
that ultrasonography during pregnancy is of great importance and you should not neglect it. Whatever big, in your opinion, was the number of these researches - three (at physiological pregnancy) or much more (in the presence of pathology), it is necessary to undergo all procedures appointed by the doctor. In time the conducted ultrasonic research can help you to give rise without complications, and to your child - to be born healthy.
the Last planned ultrasonography is carried out by
on term 32 - 34 weeks, however additional research before childbirth, for example in certain cases can be necessary for specification of situation and prelying of a fruit (is more often - at women with excess body weight), and also a condition of a blood-groove in vessels of a uterus and a placenta and pre-natal condition of a fruit that can influence the choice of a method of a rodorazresheniye (operation of Cesarean section or childbirth in natural patrimonial ways).