Mayonnaise, ketchup, sour cream...
Mayonnaise and ketchup became the most favourite sauces for gas station of daily dishes and sandwiches not only for adults, but also for children. Nevertheless it is known that it is not so dietary products - they are especially harmful to a children`s organism.
B “house execution“ mayonnaise which part the egg yolks pounded to homogeneous mass, salt, sugar, lemon juice and olive oil are is not capable to do big harm to health of the child, except for that this natural sauce everything is remains a high-fatty product. And consequently, children of early age (till 3 years) with imperfect fermental system zheludochno - an intestinal path and to children with an excess weight are not recommended to use even “home-made“ mayonnaise. And here troubles with health can begin at regular use of purchased mayonnaise which, as a rule, contains a set of preservatives, fragrances and “substitutes“.
the real mayonnaise (in that look in what its structure passes in accordance with GOST) contains from 70 to 84% of olive oil; 10 - 15% of a yolk; 2 - 3% of sugar (or fructose); 1 - 1,5% of salt; to 5 - 6% of freshly squeezed lemon juice or acetic acid; small additives to 0,5% of various dry ground spices are possible; to 6% of prepared mustard for preparation of provencal mayonnaise. This product is obliged by the consistence to such high content of olive oil.
Mayonnaise, the corresponding GOST, it is not possible to buy: it is the fast-spoiling product, production it is very expensive. Producers develop the TU (specifications) allowing to use instead of olive oil cheaper vegetable oils and to add to a product only fragrances of olive oil, along with amplifiers of taste for reduction in cost of production of sauce. With reduction of natural ingredients and percent of fat content of mayonnaise concentration of the additives impacting to mayonnaise various relish and aroma, allowing to create the big range increases. Thus, can be a part of mayonnaise:
- of substance, improving appearance (dyes);
- of substance, the regulating konsistenttion (thickeners, emulsifiers, stabilizers);
- of substance, the regulating taste and aroma (fragrances, flavoring additives); the substances increasing safety and increasing periods of storage (preservatives, antioxidants). >
to a product on TU. To give uniformity of a cheap emulsion of mayonnaise, add not fresh yolks, but egg powder or powdered skim milk to it. Instead of the put freshly squeezed lemon juice add vinegar to a product, and not apple, but table. Vinegar is received artificially - by a sbrazhivaniye of alcohols and carbohydrates by means of acetic bacteria. Vinegar, in any its execution, renders an irritant action on a mucous membrane zheludochno - an intestinal path of the child therefore in baby food it is not used.
For giving of long-term stability and protection from stratification into compoundings are entered by stabilizers and thickeners, and the fat content of mayonnaise (than it is easier) is lower, more them it is required to those. For this purpose use gum - the high-molecular carbohydrates which are the main component of exudates (juice, exudates) allocated by plants at mechanical damages of bark or diseases. Gum is thickeners, stabilizers, geleobrazovatel, means for capsulation. They are widely used in production of mayonnaise. Emit the following gum: arabic gum, agar-agar; dextrans; alginic acids; guaran; ksantan.the consistence mayonnaise is obliged by
Besides gelatin and gum as thickeners often use modified (that is with the qualities changed by means of genetic engineering) starches and flour which influence on a human body still is not studied yet.
Gum, preservatives potassium sorbate, benzonat sodium and so forth - interfere with fast damage of mayonnaise, suppressing development of yeast and mold mushrooms. Use of these chemicals in food can lead to development of allergic reactions, and not on a certain type of a product (reactions of immediate type to a certain preservative), and in principle: in total “chemical additives“ have negative effect on immunity of the child, reducing it, therefore, the probability not only viral diseases, but also allergic reactions grows. The mayonnaise expiration date directly depends on concentration of preservatives: the their is more, the product is longer stored. Therefore, practically all industrial mayonnaise with an expiration date of 90 days contains preservatives.
Another which was not less loved by all but also not really useful product for a children`s organism is a ketchup. Ketchup is called the table seasoning prepared from uvarenny tomato paste with spices and spices. The main component of ketchup - tomato paste. Its contents in ketchup has to be not less than 15% (in accordance with GOST) - sauces with such maintenance of a tomato belong to the first or second category (the house-keeper - a class); in ketchups of the highest category of a tomato there have to be not less than 30%, and in extra - or a premium - classes - not less than 40% that provides a dense consistence. And if the initial quantity of tomato raw materials is not enough, “substitutes of tomatoes“ come to the rescue: apple puree, a beet or plum basis and thickeners - stabilizers: flour, starch or gum. In the “reduced the price“ ketchups there is not enough acid of tomatoes therefore add lemon acid to them.
Not less important and obligatory component of qualitative ketchup - spice. Classical seasonings are onions, a basil, parsley, ginger, a carnation, cinnamon, black and red pepper, a paprika, mustard, in the house-keeper - the class is added acetic acid. Unfortunately, not all listed components are suitable for baby food. So, if greens, cinnamon, a carnation, a paprika and ginger in the minimum quantities it is possible to offer the kid, then mustard, red and black pepper, vinegar, getting on a mucous membrane zheludochno - an intestinal path of the child, can cause inflammatory processes, provoke, for example, gastritis. In the category “extra“ (sauces of this category the most natural, that is the most tomato - they contain about 30% of a tomato in a dry equivalent) a share of these solids (the quantity of a tomato in a certain equivalent means here) has to make not less than 27%, and in the house-keeper - a class - 14%. Thanks to such high concentration of natural tomatoes in sauce extra - a class, as a rule, practically do not add spices to it.Preservatives, fragrances and dyes are usually added by
to sauces of the highest, the first and second grades. And tomato sauce extra - a class for safety is exposed to pasteurization or sterilization therefore does not demand introduction of artificial additives. Such tomato sauces can be used in food of healthy children 1,5 years are more senior.can already Determine by
a product of poor quality by appearance (provided that ketchup is packaged in a glass container): unnatural shades of red color, very saturated or dark tone say that the maintenance of tomatoes in this product is insignificant a little, for its preparation apple or plum bases were used, and for a plausible look the fair amount of dyes is added.Dish
Such sauces especially is not recommended to be used in food of children. Besides that any ketchup can provoke inflammatory processes of a digestive tract, development of allergic reaction, to cause an exacerbation of chronic diseases The gastrointestinal tract, ketchups containing artificial dyes can provoke at the child development of pancreatitis - a pancreas inflammation.
So, in food of children of preschool age does not recommend to use mayonnaise, ketchup and sauces from them. And it is possible to replace them with not less tasty, but more useful sour cream sauces and tomatoes or tomato paste.
Tomato paste is the concentrated semi-finished product. Receive it due to evaporation of moisture from previously cleared of grains and skins of tomatoes. In the tomato paste made in accordance with GOST besides tomatoes, there have to be only water, salt and lemon juice. Some unfair producers can add to a product vegetable purees and thickeners (gum, flour, starch) and acetic acid.
of the Dish on the basis of tomatoes and tomato paste in the absence of food intolerance can be entered into a diet of the child since 1,5 years.
the Main raw materials - tomatoes which are a useful and unique product. Mineral substances are their part: potassium, magnesium, zinc, calcium, iron, phosphorus - and 1 vitamins B , In 2 , In 3 , In 6 , In 9 , E, but most of all in them vitamin C. And uniqueness gives to tomatoes the substance lycopene painting vegetables in red color. Lycopene is very strong natural antioxidant (so call the natural substances capable to slow down processes of oxidation in an organism, these processes can lead to death of cages of an organism). Lycopene surpasses such fighters against free radicals as vitamins C and E. U of elderly people in the properties lycopene considerably reduces risk of development warmly - vascular diseases.
Sour cream is received souring of the normalized pasteurized cream pure cultures of lactic streptococci. Sour cream is distinguished from other lactic products with the increased caloric content - the content of fat in it can be from 10 to 40%. According to the standard the content of fat, acidity, in sour cream with proteinaceous fillers - a mass fraction of solids is normalized. For reduction in cost of production of a product its proteinaceous structure by introduction of a proteinaceous serumal concentrate, buttermilk is restored. This information has to be provided on a label.
In baby food it is better for div to use sour cream with a natural proteinaceous component, 10% of fat content. The biological value of sour cream is caused by availability of the full-fledged milk protein containing irreplaceable amino acids, digestible fats and dairy sugar and also the fact that in the course of maturing and souring substances which are much better acquired by a human body, in comparison with dairy products are formed. Sour cream contains valuable vitamins: And, E, B 2 , In 12 , C, PP, and also the calcium, phosphorus and iron necessary for the growing organism. Thanks to lactic fermentation sour cream turns into a product of pro-biotic action: the microorganisms which are contained in it help to fight against putrefactive flora of intestines, to raise and breed to useful bacteria. But all the useful properties are lost by the sour cream calculated on long period of storage - it is more than 10 days. Besides pasteurization, for extension of periods of storage, add preservatives to it. It is better not to use sour cream with long period of storage in baby food. Low-fat sour cream (10% are better) as gas station for soup, salads and sauces, it is possible to offer children since 1,5 years.
- 1 glass of 10% sour cream;
- 0,5 tablespoons of wheat flour;
- of 10 g of butter; salt to taste.
to boiling. Then in the white pan-frying (the flour fried in butter) prepared on butter gradually pour in the warmed sour cream, continuously stirring slowly, not allowing formation of lumps. After that add spices (salt) if lumps turned out - filter and bring to boiling.
- 2 tablespoons a tomato - pastes; 1 glass of water (broth);
- 3 of h spoon of flour;
- 1 bulb;
- 2 segments of garlic (for children after 3 years);
- 1 tablespoon of butter;
- sugar, salt to taste.
On a frying pan to kindle a half of butter, to brown on it the chopped onions and pounded garlic. Then to add divorced in water (broth) a tomato - paste, salt, sugar. To extinguish within 10 minutes, constantly stirring slowly. To pound flour with the remained oil, to mix with sauce and to extinguish 2 - 3 more minutes.
fresh tomatoes Sauce
- 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil;
- 2 big bulbs;
- 2 garlic gloves (for children 3 years are younger not to add);
- tomatoes fresh - 5 - 6 pieces;
- bay leaf - 1 piece;
- salt, sugar to taste.
to Warm vegetable oil in a pan. On average fire to fry small cut onions till golden color. To add the crushed garlic, tomatoes cut with cubes, bay leaf, salt and sugar to taste. To bring weight to boiling, to reduce temperature, to close a cover and to extinguish on slow fire within 40 minutes. Ready sauce is filtered, wiped through a small sieve and again allow to begin to boil.