Rus Articles Journal

The main lesson of Maria Montessori

When for the first time you face history of pedagogical system of Maria Montessori, it is necessary to be surprised to with what hatred ideologists of all totalitarian modes of last century treated it.

having Hardly come to the power, both Mussolini, and Stalin, and Hitler at once issue decrees on Montessori`s closing - schools, persecutions on teachers - supporters of this system begin. And it is unsurprising: key the word in a lexicon of the most great teacher and humanist of the twentieth century Maria Montessori is “freedom“. The purpose of all the life she saw education of the free, independent, independently conceiving people able to make decisions and to bear responsibility for them. It is clear, that just - clear water, dictators of all times in panic were afraid of such people as the fairy Bastinda.

Maria Montessori - really the child of the time. Having been born in 1870, it already in early adolescence began fight for the right of the woman to get an education on an equal basis with men, having come at first to a man`s gymnasium, and then and to university. Having finished it in 1896, she becomes the Italy`s first woman - the doctor of medicine. In student`s years, working in university clinic, she watched the mentally retarded children destitute by the derelicts of society deprived not only books and toys, but also elementary human heat more than once.

Struck up to the soul depth, the girl decides to devote herself to treatment and training of these children. But what would be if children with limited opportunities, children who were rejected by society appeared in other environment? Perhaps, if they were not locked in hospital, had toys and books if adults, parents and teachers paid them attention, they could catch up in development of the healthy peers?

those years it: to the twentieth century of mentally sick people did not treat, and only isolated in psychiatric clinics in which living conditions a little in what differed from prison, and, especially, came to nobody to mind to see in them the personality.

And still, Maria Montessori decides to try. At first she conducts researches at institute of experimental psychology at the Roman University, and in 1900 heads just opened otrtofrenichesky school - the first educational institution in Europe for children with deviations in development. As her little patients badly spoke, Montessori developed the special exercises developing the speech by means of training of small motility of fingers (there are nervous terminations stimulating the speech centers in a cerebral cortex). And from - for the fact that children with an arrest of development badly understood explanations of teachers, special grants and games by means of which pupils of this unusual school could study world around on the basis of own touch experience were thought up. So Maria Montessori began to develop the unique didactic grants.

What.

But even if children who were still considered as not trainees achieved such progress, what to speak about healthy? And Maria Montessori decides to open school for ordinary children who as she considers, fell into much worst state now, than her little patients. And in 1907 in one of the poorest suburbs of Rome the first Montessori - school, the well-known Children`s home comes off.

Maria Montessori believed that the main task of the tutor is to create the active developing environment in which there are no casual objects and details. Each element of such environment has to carry out strictly certain function. Nearly the first that does to Montessori at the new school, it once and for all turns out from the class Her Majesty Partu which as she believes, limits not only physical activity, but also informative abilities of the child. From now on in Montessori - classes of a school desk are replaced with easy little tables and rugs which the child can transfer independently voluntarily to any corner of the room.

watching

children of different age Day after day, Montessori introduced didactic grants and materials, chose an optimum form of little tables and stools. Any, appear, did not escape from its close attention, even the most fine detail. There are data that it in the course of experiments rejected more than seventy percent of materials, leaving only what yielded really very good results. Therefore it is no wonder that materials and grants which sustained check time quite often call “Gold material of Montessori“.

And still, the main thing in Montessori`s system - not grants, not a technique. The main thing is a Child, unique, unique and unique. And, being unique, he has the right for the individual, calculated on it one system of training. But where to take it? It is impossible to put on the teacher to everyone? Especially - Children`s home of Maria Montessori which as we remember, was in the poorest working quarter. And still, Maria Montessori trained according to individual programs forty kids at the same time. How? It just provided to each child independently to develop for itself the individual program of training, to choose, than when and as to it to be engaged to the developing environment created by teachers.

Montessori`s System provides to each child really boundless freedom of choice. Each pupil can solve at own discretion here, than he would like to be engaged today: the account, geography or reading to wash or plant a flower.

with

But - freedom of each person comes to an end where freedom of another begins. This key principle of modern democratic society was realized by the outstanding teacher and the humanist nearly a century ago when “the big world“ was still oh as it is far from democracy in our understanding of this word. Therefore even two - three-year-old kids in Montessori - a garden perfectly know that they should not rustle and play about when other children are shipped in reflections that, having played, they surely have to clean games and materials on a regiment, carefully to wipe for itself dirt and pools that then it was convenient and pleasant to others to be engaged.

- school does not have

In Montessori traditional division into classes: in one group children of different age are engaged. Beginners, having for the first time come to school, easily acquire the rules of conduct accepted here, looking at old residents. Grown wise experience seniors learn younger as it is correct to play didactic games, show them letters, help. Yes! At this surprising school children teach each other! And what is done by the teacher? He fixedly watches group and is connected only when someone from children asks it for the help or experiences serious difficulties in work.

by

the Room in which settles down montessor - a class it is broken into five zones in which thematic material is grouped. In a zone of practical life the child learns to serve himself and others. Here it is possible to wash really things in a basin and to stroke them the hot iron, to knife sharp vegetables for salad, to clean boots the real shoe polish. In a zone of touch development the child to distinguish objects of certain signs. There are materials developing tactile feelings, sight, hearing, sense of smell. In a mathematical zone as it is easy to guess, there is a material which will help the child to master concept of quantity and about communication it with a symbol, to learn to carry out mathematical operations. In a language zone children study reading and the letter. And, at last, there is a zone which most often call “space“. Here the child can receive the first ideas of world around, of interrelations and interaction of the phenomena and objects, of history and culture of the different people.

All Montessori - materials are surprisingly concrete and evident, they allow the child not just to take on trust words of the teacher, and on the basis of own experience to be convinced that in one hundred ten tens, and twice two - and really four, and Earth really rotates around the Sun, and not vice versa.

Montessori paid Huge attention to training of children in skills of self-service, fairly believing that the child able to lace up dexterously own boots, to button a jacket and to sew a button to a shirt not only gains invaluable experience of independence and responsibility, but also will develop those muscles which are necessary also for mastering skills of written language.

could be told

many good and kind words to the great teacher and the humanist Maria Montessori and its educational system. But you will find these remarkable words in a set on the specialized websites (in particular, montessori - center. ru). And we would like, all - to stop also on minuses which as it is regrettable, are also in this system.

the Main minus is that Montessori - pedagogics, perfectly developing analytical skills, logic, small motility, that is, those fields of activity which are controlled by the left hemisphere, practically does not pay attention to a “creative“ right hemisphere which, unlike left, learns the world completely.

In classical Montessori - a garden children do not play spontaneous creative games, here consider them useless, not helping intellectual development of the child, and, on the contrary, braking it. Of course, unlike valdorfsky system, there is no such total ideological control here, but the children occupied with the developing intellectual games practically do not have time for banal dolls and a hide-and-seek.

A actually - and it are convincingly proved by all authoritative pedagogical and psychological researches of the last century - without role-playing game not only normal emotional, but also intellectual development of the child is impossible.

Montessori - pedagogics and children`s art creativity So resolutely rejects, in particular, drawing, Here that one of prominent ideologists of Montessori - pedagogics in Russia writes about it: “Nobody pays attention that perhaps the hand of the child is still sluggish his mind beschuvstvenen to fine and ugly and admiring all „ scribbles “ only certificate of a certain level of muscular and spiritual chaos.“ Further the same author writes:“ Montessori considered as a deviation in development leaving of the child to the fantastic world which is given rise by his desire to become isolated and leave from the problems rising before the kid in life. If this world is not connected with reality, then it is similar to hallucinations of addicts, than substantial creativity rather. Considers creative ability of mind of Montessori how means of work on reality“. It is thought, comments are excessive here...

the Difficult situation develops also with reading, a subject to which, apparently, in Montessori`s system so much attention is paid. If in valdorfsky kindergartens magic fairy tales are the only literary works which are authorized for reading to children, then Montessori - pedagogics though directly and does not deny fiction for children, but suffers it only because “contains in fairy tales not only a huge lexicon, but also folklore elements, and in this sense they are useful to development of the child“. Any activity, including, and reading, according to Montessori - teachers, has to bring to the child real benefit: to develop his speech, to help with knowledge of the real world, to broaden horizons. But to be able to put quickly letters in words and to be a reader is not one and too. At such relation to the book the child will never learn that main thing for what in general the fiction is written and read: to art of empathy, reflection, internal dialogue with the author and heroes of the readable text. As a result the child at all the mind risks to grow up emotionally undeveloped “a cracker - a znayka“.

Should not dismiss also that Maria Montessori`s system in her classical look suits not all children. The child inclined to autism can become isolated, retire here finally into oneself. The hyperactive noisy kid, it is difficult for them to regulate the behavior, to cope with the emotions, will feel extremely uncomfortablly too, causing, besides, discontent of tutors. It is unlikely the system will do good to Montessori and children to creatively exceptional children at whom the right hemisphere dominates: besides that here their unique abilities in a due measure will not be demanded, the way of knowledge of the world which is offered by Maria Montessori, is absolutely alien to them.

But nevertheless, unconditional pluses of Montessori - pedagogics is obvious and proved by time. And though this system is counted, first of all, on training in kindergarten and school, a lot of things from Montessori`s experience - pedagogics with success can be used also in house education. There are many recommendations how to organize the developing environment in house conditions in what games with water, sand, clay it is possible to play. The well-known framework and Montessori`s inserts for many years remain a hit of sales in shops of the developing games.

And still, it appears, main thing even not it. Let`s remember a keyword of system of Maria Montessori: “freedom“. Freedom of the conceiving, educated person able to be responsible for himself and the acts, the person respecting and the right of other people for the same degree of freedom.

Read to

attentively great Montessori`s works and try to see the child her eyes: it is unique and unique; it is allocated with by nature boundless opportunities and thirst of knowledge, and a task of the loving wise parents - to respect the right of the kid to be oneself, daily and to hourly create for it the developing environment in which it could satisfy the inquisitiveness, softly and tactfully directing the baby to the ways of knowledge full of joyful opening and inspirations. Here - the main lesson of Maria Montessori.