Rus Articles Journal

What to do if the tick of

bit Tick-borne encephalitis (encephalitis to the veseena - summer type, taiga encephalitis) - the viral infection affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Heavy complications of a sharp infection can come to the end with paralysis and a lethal outcome.

the Main tank of a virus of tick-borne encephalitis in the nature are its main carriers, ixodic pincers which area of dwelling is on all to a forest and forest-steppe moderate climatic zone of the Euroasian continent.

About pincers

Pincers (Acarina group of a class Arachnoid) - one of the most various and ancient groups of arthropods on Earth. As a rule, pincers eat the vegetable remains, soil mushrooms, or other small arthropods. In world fauna there are more than 40 000 species of ticks, however, many groups are still badly studied, and annually scientists describe tens of new types. Some ticks adapted to food blood of animals and became parasites. Among parasites ixodic pincers (Ixodoidea) are most known. This group contains only 680 types living on all continents including Antarctica. Ixodic ticks transfer causative agents of diseases of the person with a natural ochagovost: tick-borne encephalitis (the main carriers - a taiga tick of Ixodes persulcatus and I. Ricinus), tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme`s illness), sypny tick-borne typhus, returnable tick-borne typhus, hemorrhagic fever and ku - fevers, tulyaremiya, an erlikhioza and many other. From stings of ixodic pincers take a number of measures for protection. Despite considerable number of species of ixodic ticks, real epidemiological value have only two appearance: Ixodes Persulcatus (taiga tick) in Asian and in a number of regions of the European part, Ixodes Ricinus (the European forest tick) - in the European part. Further it will be a question of these species of ticks.

the Taiga and European forest tick - giants in comparison with the “peace“ fellows, his body is covered with a powerful armor and supplied with four pairs of legs. At females covers of back part are capable to stretch strongly that allows them to absorb large amounts of blood, in hundreds times more than the hungry tick weighs.

In world around ticks are guided generally by means of touch and sense of smell, pincers have no eyes. But sense of smell of pincers very sharp: researches showed that ticks are capable to catch a smell of an animal or the person at distance about 10 meters.

of the Habitat of pincers. the Pincers transmitting encephalitis are widespread almost on all territory of the southern part of a forest zone of Eurasia. In what places most of all risk to face pincers?

Pincers of a vlagolyubiva and therefore their number is most big in well humidified places. Ticks prefer moderately shaded and the deciduous and mixed woods humidified with dense herbage and an underbrush. It is a lot of pincers on a bottom of dens and forest ravines, and also on forest edges, in thickets of osier-beds on coast of forest streamlets. Besides, they are plentiful along forest edges and on the grassed forest paths. It is very important to p to know

that pincers concentrate on the forest paths and tracks which overgrew on roadsides a grass. Here it is many times more of them, than in the surrounding wood. Researches showed that, ticks are attracted by a smell of animals and people who constantly use these paths at movement on the wood.

Some features of placement and behavior of pincers led

to emergence of widespread delusion in Siberia that ticks “jump“ on the person from birches. Really, in the birch woods of pincers, as a rule, there is a lot of. And the tick who clung to clothes creeps up, and he is already found often on the head and shoulders. From here the false impression is made that pincers fell from above.

Should remember characteristic landscapes where at the end of April - the beginning of July the number of pincers is highest and where the risk of infection with tick-borne encephalitis during this period is high: the deciduous woods which are cluttered up with a wood fate windbreak, ravines, valleys of the rivers, meadows.

Behaviour of pincers. the First active adult pincers appear at the beginning or the middle of April when begins to warm the sun, in the wood the first thawed patches are formed. The number of pincers quickly increases, reaching a maximum by the beginning of the second decade of May, and remains high to the middle or the end of June, depending on weather. Then it sharply decreases owing to extinction of pincers at which reserve nutrients are exhausted. However single active parasites can come across up to the end of September.

Ticks trap the production, sitting on the ends of blades, the blades of grass which are sticking out up sticks and branches.

At approach of the potential victim pincers accept a pose of active expectation: extend forward pads and will move them here and there. On forward pads the bodies perceiving smells (Galler`s body) are located. Thus the tick defines the direction on a source of a smell and is made to attack on a prokormitel.

Pincers are not especially mobile

: for the life they are capable to overcome independently no more than ten meters. The tick trapping the production climbs up a blade or a bush on height no more half a meter and patiently waits when by somebody passes. If in close proximity to a tick the animal or the person proceeds, then his reaction will be instant. Having spread wide forward pads, he convulsively tries to grasp the future owner. Pads are supplied with claws and suckers that allows a tick to be hooked reliably. Not without reason there is a saying:“ Seized as a tick“.

by means of hooks which are on the end of forward pads the tick clings to everything, as for it. Ixodic pincers (the European forest tick and a taiga tick) never snatch and never fall (do not plan) for the victim from above from trees or high bushes: pincers just cling to the victim which passes by and touches a blade (stick) on which the tick sits.

Having located by

on an animal, the tick chooses the place for food. In most cases it is area of the head and neck where the animal cannot get teeth and destroy a parasite. Then it immerses the oral parts (a so-called hobotok) in skin and, cutting it, reaches hypodermic blood vessels from where sucks blood. It is reliable to be fixed to it the cloves on a hobotka directed back, and the first portion of saliva which quickly hardens and pastes oral bodies to skin, like cement help. The liquid saliva emitted subsequently contains the mass of various biologically active agents. One of them anesthetize a wound, others destroy walls of blood vessels and surrounding fabrics, the third suppress the immune reactions of owners directed to rejection of a parasite. The blood and parts of the destroyed fabrics coming to a wound are diluted with saliva and absorbed by a tick. Together with this saliva the virus gets to an organism of an animal or the person and if the dose of a virus is rather big, then the disease can develop. As showed researches, the “cement secret“ mentioned above may contain to a half of all quantity of the virus which is contained in a tick. Therefore even if to remove a tick almost at once after he sticks, then it is possible to catch all the same, in this case the “cement“ which remained in skin will be a source of an infection. It is proved also that the infection is transmitted also at a sting of males. The short-term and painless sting of a male can and be not noticed, especially when in the wood it is full of mosquitoes and midges. Most likely, rather often found cases of tick-borne encephalitis when patients deny a sting of a tick, are connected with attack of males.

At animals ticks most often stick on the head, especially behind auricles, on a neck, a dewlap and in inguinal area. Usually find in the person of the stuck parasites in axillary hollows, in inguinal area and on hairy part of the head. whether

prevention of stings of a tick Is possible
?

Before an exit to the nature put on a light odezha (on it it is visible pincers better) with a long sleeve and a hood, fill trousers in socks. If there is no hood, put on a headdress.

Use repellents.

Each 15 min. examine the clothes, periodically you carry out a careful inspection, paying special attention to a neck, armpits, the inguinal area, auricles - in these parts skin especially gentle and thin and a tick most often sticks exactly there.

At detection of a tick cannot crush it as through micro cracks on hands it is possible to catch encephalitis.

All on sale means depending on active ingredient are divided

of the Security measure from pincers into 3 groups.

Repellent - frighten off ticks.

Acaricide - kill with

ticks.

Insektitsidno`s

- repellent - the preparations of the combined action that is which are killing and frightening off ticks.

the means containing diethyltoluamide belong To the first group:“ Biban“ (Slovenia), “DEFI - the Taiga“ (Russia), “Off! An extreme“ (Italy), “the Gaul - RET“ (Russia), “Gal - RET - C“ (Russia), “Dat - BOKKO“ (Russia), “Reftamid at most“ (Russia). They are applied on clothes and open parts of the body in the form of circular strips around knees, ankles and a breast. The tick avoids contact with a repellent and begins to creep to the opposite side. Protective properties of clothes remain about five days. The rain, wind, a heat and sweat reduce time of action of a protectant. Do not forget to put a preparation repeatedly. Advantage of the frightening-off means is that they are used also for protection against midges, applying not only on clothes, but also on skin. Preparations, more dangerous to pincers, cannot be applied on skin.

by

For protection of children developed preparations with the lowered maintenance of a repellent - it is Ftalar and Efkalat creams, colognes “Pikhtal“, “Evital“, means of “Kamarant“. For children with 3 - x years use of Off - Children`s and Biban - Gel cream is recommended.

got To “lethal“ group:“ Pretiks “, “ taiga Reftamid “, “ Picnic - Antikleshch “, “ Gardeks an aerosol an extreme“ (Italy), “the Tornado - Antikleshch“, “Fumitoks - an anti-tick“, “Gardeks - an anti-tick“, “Permanon“ (permethrin of 0,55%). All preparations except for “Pretiks“ - aerosols. They are applied only to processing of clothes. Things need to be removed that means did not get incidentally on skin. Then, having a little dried, it is possible to put on back.

“Pretiks“ is the pencil which is let out in Novosibirsk. To them draw on clothes of several surrounding strips before going to the wood. It is necessary to watch their safety as strips are quickly enough showered only.

Acaricide preparations with toxic agent alfametrin renders

to

nervously - paralytic impact on ticks. It is shown in 5 minutes - at insects there comes paralysis of extremities, and they disappear from clothes.

by

It was noticed that before perniciously affecting ticks, preparations with toxic agent alfametrin increase activity of pincers, and though this period small, the risk of a sting increases at this time, preparations with active ingredient permethrin kill ticks quicker.

Preparations of the third group combine properties two above-mentioned - they contain 2 active ingredients diethyltoluamide and alfametrin, thanks to it their efficiency at the correct application approaches 100 percent. These are aerosols “Kra - turnips“ (alfatsipermetrin 0,18%, diethyltoluamide of 15%) (Kazan) and “Moskitol - an anti-tick“ (Alfametrin of 0,2%, diethyltoluamide of 7%.) (France).

For processing of the territory from pincers are used by Tsifoks.

to

by Laboratory researches it is proved that at the correct application of repellent preparations about 95 percent of the clung pincers are frightened off. As the most part of pincers clings to trousers, they need to be processed more carefully. It is especially attentively necessary to process clothes around ankles, knees, hips, a waist, and also cuffs of sleeves and a collar. The method of application and consumption rates of all preparations have to be specified on a label.

cases of a fake of chemical means of protection therefore try to buy them in outlets with good reputation became frequent Recently. Upon purchase demand to show the hygienic certificate. The label in Russian has to be attached to import preparations.

by

Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis

To vaccination allow clinically healthy people after survey by the therapist. The therapist will also inform you on where it is possible to carry out vaccination.

can Be vaccinated by

only in the establishments having the license for this kind of activity. Introduction of a vaccine which was stored incorrectly (without observance of “a holodovy chain“) is useless, and it is sometimes dangerous.

by

For prevention of tick-borne encephalitis use the following vaccines:

In what a difference between vaccines?

the Western European strains of a virus of tick-borne encephalitis from which import vaccines prepare and the East European strains used in a domestic production are close to

on anti-gene structure. Similarity in structure of key anti-genes makes 85%. In this regard, immunization by the vaccine prepared from one virus strain creates resistant immunity against infection with any virus of tick-borne encephalitis. Efficiency of foreign vaccines in Russia is confirmed, including researches with use Russian diagnostic the test - systems.

Vaccination is capable to protect about 95% imparted really. However it is necessary to remember that vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis does not exclude all other measures of prevention of stings of pincers (repellents, appropriate equipment) as they transfer not only tick-borne encephalitis, but also other infections (Lyme`s illness, Congo - the Crimean hemorrhagic fever, a tulyaremiya, erlikhioz, babezioz, rickettsial diseases from which it is impossible to be protected by vaccination).

What to do if suction of a tick nevertheless happened?

can always get Primary advice by phone 03.

to

For removal of a tick you will be sent, most likely, to regional SES or regional emergency station.

Should mean

that the probability of a disease of tick-borne encephalitis depends on quantity of a virus of the tick getting at “sting“ (that is time during which the tick was in the stuck state), removal of the stuck parasite is urgent action!

If you have

no opportunity to ask for the help in medical establishment, then the tick should be deleted independently.

During independent removal of a tick a strong thread as it is possible for

closer to a hobotka of a tick tie in knot, take a tick, bringing up him up. The sharp movements are inadmissible. If at extraction of a tick his head which has an appearance of a black point, the place of suction came off wipe with the cotton wool or bandage moistened with alcohol and then delete a head with the sterile needle (which is previously calcinated on fire). As delete a usual splinter. Removal of a tick needs to be made with care, without squeezing hands his body as at the same time expression of contents of a tick together with causative agents of diseases in a wound is possible. It is important not to break off a tick during removal - the part which remained in skin can cause an inflammation and suppuration. At the same time it should be taken into account that at a separation of a head of a tick process of infection can continue as at salivary glands and channels there is a considerable concentration of the KE virus.

some far-fetched recommendations that for the best removal recommend to apply mazevy bandages the stuck tick have under themselves no reasons or to use oil solutions. After removal of a tick leather in the place of its suction is processed tincture iodine or alcohol. Imposing of a bandage, as a rule, is not required.

Having removed with

a tick, keep it for research on contamination, usually it can be made in infectious diseases hospital or special laboratory. After removal of a tick place it in a small glass bottle with a dense cover and put the cotton wool which is slightly moistened with water there. Close a bottle a cover and you store it in the refrigerator. For microscopic diagnostics of a tick it is necessary to bring to laboratory live. For PTsR - diagnostics are suitable even separate fragments of a tick. However the last method has no wide circulation even in the large cities.

If your area is unsuccessful

on tick-borne encephalitis, without waiting for results of the analysis of a tick address in point of a seroprofilaktika of tick-borne encephalitis. The emergency prevention is carried out in the first 3 days (better in 1 days) by immunoglobulin or yodantipiriny. For prevention of tick-borne encephalitis at children till 14 years immunoglobulin and Anaferon children`s is used. In the southern areas of the Russian Federation the tick can infect Congo - the Crimean hemorrhagic fever.