What to do if the tick of
bit Tick-borne encephalitis (encephalitis to the veseena - summer type, taiga encephalitis) - the viral infection affecting the central and peripheral nervous system. Heavy complications of a sharp infection can come to the end with paralysis and a lethal outcome.
the Main tank of a virus of tick-borne encephalitis in the nature are its main carriers, ixodic pincers which area of dwelling is on all to a forest and forest-steppe moderate climatic zone of the Euroasian continent.
Pincers (Acarina group of a class Arachnoid) - one of the most various and ancient groups of arthropods on Earth. As a rule, pincers eat the vegetable remains, soil mushrooms, or other small arthropods. In world fauna there are more than 40 000 species of ticks, however, many groups are still badly studied, and annually scientists describe tens of new types. Some ticks adapted to food blood of animals and became parasites. Among parasites ixodic pincers (Ixodoidea) are most known. This group contains only 680 types living on all continents including Antarctica. Ixodic ticks transfer causative agents of diseases of the person with a natural ochagovost: tick-borne encephalitis (the main carriers - a taiga tick of Ixodes persulcatus and I. Ricinus), tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme`s illness), sypny tick-borne typhus, returnable tick-borne typhus, hemorrhagic fever and ku - fevers, tulyaremiya, an erlikhioza and many other. From stings of ixodic pincers take a number of measures for protection. Despite considerable number of species of ixodic ticks, real epidemiological value have only two appearance: Ixodes Persulcatus (taiga tick) in Asian and in a number of regions of the European part, Ixodes Ricinus (the European forest tick) - in the European part. Further it will be a question of these species of ticks.
the Taiga and European forest tick - giants in comparison with the “peace“ fellows, his body is covered with a powerful armor and supplied with four pairs of legs. At females covers of back part are capable to stretch strongly that allows them to absorb large amounts of blood, in hundreds times more than the hungry tick weighs.
In world around ticks are guided generally by means of touch and sense of smell, pincers have no eyes. But sense of smell of pincers very sharp: researches showed that ticks are capable to catch a smell of an animal or the person at distance about 10 meters.
of the Habitat of pincers. the Pincers transmitting encephalitis are widespread almost on all territory of the southern part of a forest zone of Eurasia. In what places most of all risk to face pincers?
Pincers of a vlagolyubiva and therefore their number is most big in well humidified places. Ticks prefer moderately shaded and the deciduous and mixed woods humidified with dense herbage and an underbrush. It is a lot of pincers on a bottom of dens and forest ravines, and also on forest edges, in thickets of osier-beds on coast of forest streamlets. Besides, they are plentiful along forest edges and on the grassed forest paths. > It is very important to p to know
that pincers concentrate on the forest paths and tracks which overgrew on roadsides a grass. Here it is many times more of them, than in the surrounding wood. Researches showed that, ticks are attracted by a smell of animals and people who constantly use these paths at movement on the wood.Some features of placement and behavior of pincers led
to emergence of widespread delusion in Siberia that ticks “jump“ on the person from birches. Really, in the birch woods of pincers, as a rule, there is a lot of. And the tick who clung to clothes creeps up, and he is already found often on the head and shoulders. From here the false impression is made that pincers fell from above.
Should remember characteristic landscapes where at the end of April - the beginning of July the number of pincers is highest and where the risk of infection with tick-borne encephalitis during this period is high: the deciduous woods which are cluttered up with a wood fate windbreak, ravines, valleys of the rivers, meadows.
Behaviour of pincers. the First active adult pincers appear at the beginning or the middle of April when begins to warm the sun, in the wood the first thawed patches are formed. The number of pincers quickly increases, reaching a maximum by the beginning of the second decade of May, and remains high to the middle or the end of June, depending on weather. Then it sharply decreases owing to extinction of pincers at which reserve nutrients are exhausted. However single active parasites can come across up to the end of September.
Ticks trap the production, sitting on the ends of blades, the blades of grass which are sticking out up sticks and branches.
At approach of the potential victim pincers accept a pose of active expectation: extend forward pads and will move them here and there. On forward pads the bodies perceiving smells (Galler`s body) are located. Thus the tick defines the direction on a source of a smell and is made to attack on a prokormitel.Pincers are not especially mobile
: for the life they are capable to overcome independently no more than ten meters. The tick trapping the production climbs up a blade or a bush on height no more half a meter and patiently waits when by somebody passes. If in close proximity to a tick the animal or the person proceeds, then his reaction will be instant. Having spread wide forward pads, he convulsively tries to grasp the future owner. Pads are supplied with claws and suckers that allows a tick to be hooked reliably. Not without reason there is a saying:“ Seized as a tick“.
by means of hooks which are on the end of forward pads the tick clings to everything, as for it. Ixodic pincers (the European forest tick and a taiga tick) never snatch and never fall (do not plan) for the victim from above from trees or high bushes: pincers just cling to the victim which passes by and touches a blade (stick) on which the tick sits.Having located by
on an animal, the tick chooses the place for food. In most cases it is area of the head and neck where the animal cannot get teeth and destroy a parasite. Then it immerses the oral parts (a so-called hobotok) in skin and, cutting it, reaches hypodermic blood vessels from where sucks blood. It is reliable to be fixed to it the cloves on a hobotka directed back, and the first portion of saliva which quickly hardens and pastes oral bodies to skin, like cement help. The liquid saliva emitted subsequently contains the mass of various biologically active agents. One of them anesthetize a wound, others destroy walls of blood vessels and surrounding fabrics, the third suppress the immune reactions of owners directed to rejection of a parasite. The blood and parts of the destroyed fabrics coming to a wound are diluted with saliva and absorbed by a tick. Together with this saliva the virus gets to an organism of an animal or the person and if the dose of a virus is rather big, then the disease can develop. As showed researches, the “cement secret“ mentioned above may contain to a half of all quantity of the virus which is contained in a tick. Therefore even if to remove a tick almost at once after he sticks, then it is possible to catch all the same, in this case the “cement“ which remained in skin will be a source of an infection. It is proved also that the infection is transmitted also at a sting of males. The short-term and painless sting of a male can and be not noticed, especially when in the wood it is full of mosquitoes and midges. Most likely, rather often found cases of tick-borne encephalitis when patients deny a sting of a tick, are connected with attack of males.
At animals ticks most often stick on the head, especially behind auricles, on a neck, a dewlap and in inguinal area. Usually find in the person of the stuck parasites in axillary hollows, in inguinal area and on hairy part of the head. whether