New view on the old garden
End of April - the beginning of May - the best time for updating of an old garden. Business it, of course, troublesome, but remember a proverb “Eyes are afraid, and hands do“. So it is time to turn to work.
Most often the impression of neglect is made by old fruit-trees: apple-trees, pears, cherries, plums, their kroner rise up by 6 - 8 m, branches are bound so that in the middle you will not make the way, bark is shelled, there is a lot more fruits, but they are small.
If to trees already for 20 - 30 years, but their trunks and skeletal (main) branches still healthy, and fruits, though small, but tasty, trees it is possible to rejuvenate. Strong cutting causes awakening of the sleeping kidneys on trunks and in the basis of skeletal branches. In the summer strong vertical escapes which are called “tops“ grow from them. The next year part of “tops“ cut out, and form young krone of the others - for this purpose “tops“ shorten, leaving one - two lateral kidneys. There will pass one more year, and from these kidneys will grow long, almost horizontal escapes, and through two - three years on again created kroner will appear large fruits. At good leaving omolozhyonny fruit-trees can still 10 - 15 yield years a decent harvest.
With part of the appeared “tops“ can arrive differently: to pereprivit them the latest grades yielding more high-quality fruits. Pereprivivat in the early spring in the ways vpriklad and vrasshchep. Complexity is that it is necessary to pereprivivat a large number of “tops“, and as a result on a tree will fructify both the new imparted grades, and an old grade that is not really desirable. Further it will be required to cut out undesirable branches of an old grade every year.
If fruit-trees have hollows, bark lags behind wood, it is few one-year prirost, and the harvest is insignificant, it is necessary to root out them. It would seem, it is the simplest to cut a tree trunk at the level of 40 - 50 cm from the earth, and then already to delete skeletal branches. But it is so possible to arrive in case trees grow at sufficient distance from each other and when falling will not damage the next plantings. At dense landing it is expedient to cut at first carefully the largest branches, to chop off roots, and then already to cut trunks at the height of 1 - 1,5 m from the earth: will easier shake the bases of trunks at a further korchyovka.can be avoided
of Physical efforts at a korchyovka if to use ammonium nitrate. Two of its handfuls fill in the small deepening hollowed in the middle hemp (height of 30 - 40 cm), from above cover with a plastic bag and tie with a twine. Through three - four weeks saltpeter will corrode wood, having turned it into dust. In a month in good weather penyok set fire; it, as a rule, well burns out, making room for landing of other plants.
But, starting new landings, it is necessary to follow certain rules. For example, it is not recommended to plant an apple-tree on the place of an old apple-tree, a pear instead of a former pear, cherry on the place of the former cherry. As well as in vegetable growing, in gardening it is accepted to alternate cultures. Where the apple-tree grew, it is better to put a pear, cherry, plum. The main thing that the young sapling did not appear in shading of adult trees. If the grade self-fertile, is enough to plant one plant. Among self-fertile grades: cherry Youth, Bulatnikovskaya, Rusinka, Rastorguyevskaya, Enikeev`s Memory; plum - Morning, Egg blue, Blue gift, Alexy. If the grade self-fruitless, and in a garden only one vacant place, is helped out by an inoculation. For example, in krone of plum of a grade of Skoroplodnaya (a grade winter-hardy, undersized, fruitful) impart a grade - a pollinator - to discharge of a grade the Red sphere or one of cherry plum grades: The Kuban comet, the Traveller, and in krone of kornesobstvenny plum Eurasia 21 (it is pollinated not by any grade), having very large it is red - violet fruits, Morning and grades with dark-blue fruits - Blue gift and Smolink impart as pollinators the zheltoplodny, early ripening grade. It will provide good repollination of plum, and on different branches of one tree fruits of different color will appear.
Can be put on the places freed in a garden and sweet cherry, but as of a samobesplodna, several saplings are desirable to place its grades a row. If it is not enough place for new saplings, the inoculation will help again. Having bought sweet cherry of a grade of Fatezh of average term of maturing, the next year impart in its krone one - two other grades, for example an early grade of Chermashnaya with yellow fruits and Bryansk pink with pinkish fruits. As a result at the introduction in fructification on one tree there will be three grades of different term of maturing and various coloring. They will provide good mutual pollination and plentiful fructification.
In the lowered places of a garden and cherry and sweet cherry often perish from a vyprevaniye of roots. They will grow only when using hardy forms vegetativno of the made multiple copies stocks: Ï - 3 (Moskovia) and PN (Izmaylovsky) - for cherry; VTs - 13 and LTs - 52 - for sweet cherry. It is possible to grow up to Moscow area and the fructifying apricot, but it is not necessary to put it in the form of the kornesobstvenny plant imparted on an apricot, and to use plum which transfers temporary remoistening of the soil as a stock.
in gardens aroniya black-fruited Almost absolutely ceased to pick berries (a black-fruited mountain ash), and it is a pity to cut down powerful bushes much and it is not necessary - on its branch it is possible to impart a pear. Aroniya branches, of course, not such thick, as at a pear therefore in places of accretion of a stock with a scion the swellings testifying to their incomplete compatibility are formed. Over the years under weight of fruits they will tend to the earth. But it is not necessary to be frightened it: the inclined imparted branches need to be tied up for the winter to columns or a wire lane, and they perfectly perezimut under snow. In the spring they need to be lifted and tied up in vertical position to a support. Thus it is possible to grow up gentle grades of a pear to the North from Moscow.
can Impart modern grades of a pear also on a wild hawthorn, a red mountain ash, a mespilus at the age of three - five years. To provide mutual pollination and good fructification, different branches pereprivivat several grades of a pear: Velez, Chizhovsky, Prominent, Bryansk beauty, Thumbelina. Shanks of these grades well get accustomed on the specified stocks. Trees have the contained growth, early (for the third year) enter fructification, yield rather large fruits of good taste (the stock does not reduce quality of fruits). A lack of such inoculations - fragility of trees. They grow and 12 - 15 years while the pears imparted on a pear can fructify 30 - 40 years fructify. > the Young tree of a red mountain ash (3 - 4 years) it is good to p to use
as a stock, having imparted on it shanks of a quince Japanese. On own roots a quince Japanese - the low bush drawing attention oranzhevo - red or it is yellow - orange flowers, but flowers are often lost among green leaves. If to impart a quince on a mountain ash trunk at the height of 1 m, then the cap of bright flowers will become much more noticeable. It is easy to execute a mountain ash reinoculation. At a tree leave a trunk about 1 m high and three - four branches. Kidneys and lateral branches on a trunk delete, shortly cut off also the left branches on two - four kidneys. As a result of such cutting whole “broom“ of young escapes is formed. In the spring of the next year they are pereprivivat shanks of a quince Japanese. In a year the imparted quince Japanese blossoms fiery flowers, drawing attention of neighbors and acquaintances.
also berry bushes Demand rejuvenation, but it is better to carry out this work in the fall. So, currant and a gooseberry can grow and fructify on one place of 10 - 12 years. With age year prirosta are weakened, productivity and quality of berries decrease. Therefore bushes are more senior than 12 - 15 years better to root out, take out out of limits of a garden and to burn. On vacant places it is quite good to put other cultures - raspberry, vegetables, ornamental shrubs.
A can arrive differently. To remove all elevated part of berry bushes, and from the growing branches to create new young krone by shortening 1 - 2 - summer prirost on 4 - 8 kidneys. Or: to cut out to the basis old 5 - 7 - summer branches, to truncate on lateral branch 3 - 4 - summer branches and to thin out bushes, deleting weak and zagushchayushchy branches. After the rejuvenating cutting currant and a gooseberry yield a harvest of 5 - 6 more years.we Learn to impart
Any inoculation - the surgery which is carried out on a tree or a bush. To work in a garden it is confident, be trained in good time at home. Bring home any branches and learn, sitting at a table, it is correct to cut off shanks with two - three kidneys, to put them to each other and to tie.
some indispensable conditions of operation Exist. First of all - purity. Just before an inoculation wash water the place of an inoculation on a stock, and wipe all tools with the napkin moistened with vodka or alcohol. The inoculative knife has to be sharp - in this case healing of wounds happens quicker and better. It is very important to achieve combination of cambial layers of a scion and a stock. These layers (a zone of the young growing cages) are where bark passes into wood. It is easier to achieve accretion if the cut is not round, but long and oval. The binding of the imparted branch and a shank has to be rather hard. What more densely pressed to each other a scion and a stock, better and quicker they grow together with that. For a binding it is better to use a thick, transparent polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride film which in process of a thickening of an inoculation stretches.
Inoculation shank vrasshchep. Make on the lower ends of shanks with a diameter about 1 cm slanting cuts in the form of a wedge 3 - 4 cm long. (Or a branch) cut off a stock on penyok, split insert one into length at 3 - 4 cm and the formed crack - two shanks with two - three eyes so that their bark and cambial layers coincided. Wind the place of an inoculation with a polyethylene film.the Imparted shanks together with kidneys carefully cover
with a thin layer of a garden var. In a month carefully remove a binding.
Inoculation vpriklad. This way is applied at identical (or almost identical) thickness of a scion and stock. On the imparted shank and a stock make slanting cuts 3 - 4 cm long. Combine them so that bark and a cambium coincided. If the scion and a stock have different thickness, achieve combination at least on the one hand. Densely wrap up the place of an inoculation a polyethylene tape, carefully grease a shank together with kidneys with the garden thief - it will protect from evaporation and a siccation.a binding carefully remove
In a month.
of Cunning of successful cutting
- Sharp tool. At a scrap leaving of “penk“, and also deleting of bark on a branch or a shtamba is inadmissible
- . Delete the whole branches, cutting off them “on a ring“. The basis of the majority of branches has well noticeable ring roller or flow. Cuts on this flow grow evenly and quickly.
- When thinning krone are cut out by the branches departing at an acute angle.
- are More considerably cut off by the top branches, but not lower. As a result the tree is better lit. Dry branches cut out
- to healthy wood, otherwise wounds will not heal. Small wounds wash out
- 3 - 4% solution of a copper vitriol. Wounds with a diameter of 1 - 1,5 cm also more cover with the garden thief.