Art to ask questions it pass - to ask training of thinking
Art questions - one of basic abilities both for study, and for professional activity. Advance in development of material can be estimated from the point of view of what questions are asked by the person. Many professions are under construction on ability to ask the correct questions, i.e. questions effective for collection of information. Doctors, managers, teachers, lawyers, psychologists specially learn to ask questions. Questions which the person asks when he lacks information show the level of the understanding of a problem and ability which is giving a task to speculate. Ability to ask questions helps at the solution of intellectual tasks, promotes improvement of mutual understanding between people.the Modern person asks
questions not only to other person, but also search engines on the Internet. Ability to allocate keywords on which “searcher“ will give substantial references is based on the same art you give a task keywords to ask questions - just instead of a question from the estimated answer.
Try to perform the following tasks (it is possible to choose one of three options, but everything is better to execute).
Task 1. Present that you teach foreign literature and you want to find out as far as your pupils mastered V. Shakespeare`s tragedy “Hamlet“. What 10 questions you would ask for clarification of depth of knowledge of your pupils? Write down questions.
Task 2. Present that you the head, and one of your subordinates was late with terms of performance of an important task. Think up 5 - 6 questions which you asked to understand the reason of an event and to define fair disciplinary measures. Think to whom you could set them.
Task 3. Present that you the critic - the art critic. You select movies for a festival. You are faced by a task to choose 3 movies from 5 presented on a competition. Think up 3 - 4 questions that who already saw these movies which would help to make to you a choice before viewing.What questions you “used“
- opened, i.e. demanding the developed answer (for example, “When you used this thing last time?“) or closed which it is possible to answer “yes“ or “no“ (“You look for this thing long ago?“ ). Notice that the open question gives to the interlocutor more chances to express, and to you - to obtain more information. One more problem of the closed questions - representation asking a question that it long ago, far, well, can significantly differ from representations answering (misunderstanding quite so is born). For you is “long ago“ a week ago, and for another - yesterday. Try to reformulate questions which were closed so that they became open in your list.Researchers allocate to
5 types of questions.
I. The actual questions (or questions on knowledge)Such questions are directed to
to clarification of the facts and features which are easy for observing. Answers to the actual questions can often be estimated as correct or wrong. Though the actual questions usually simple, them it is necessary to be able to set too.the Actual questions are directed to
to definition of the following characteristics:
- who (who the author who could prevent who performed this work etc.);
- when (as it is frequent what frequency, how long it was, what is the time back when it can happen...);
- where (how far it is from... how there to reach...);
- as (as it occurred as it could happen what qualities need to be possessed...)
For the Task such question can be 1 example of the actual question: “How Shakespeare`s play about prince Datsk is called?“. Less primitively questions which are raised by subject lines look: “When and under what circumstances Polonius was killed? What consequences this murder had?“. For the Task become 2 such questions: “Whom you asked for the help when you understood that you are not in time?“, “On what is the time you were late with performance of a task?“ “What means for the solution of an objective you possessed?“, “What consequences of delay in performance of a task?“. For the Task 3 actual questions will be: “Who director of the movie?“, “What experience of participation in competitions and festivals creators of the movie have?“, “How many money the movie in hire raised?“ .Count
how many the actual questions in your list in what task the share of these questions is more. The actual questions are very important for the situation offered in the Task 2 - to understand a situation, previously it is necessary to find out the historical background, and then incident consequences. For the Task situation 1 actual questions have the smallest value - the actual party of work is known and a little interesting. The situation of the Task 3 assumes that the actual questions create a basis for decision-making and have to be added with other questions.
II. Convergent questions
These questions have no definite answer and demand thought tension. Neither the situation, nor the text give the direct hint. Most often these questions are formulated as “Why...“, “What reasons...“, “Why...“ (With what purposes the person acted? What reasons of an event? From - for what it did not happen?) .
the Convergent question connects understanding of the person and the actual material, it is the first step of interpretation of that situation or the text concerning which questions are set.
For example, for “Hamlet“ such questions will be: “What main reasons for madness of Ophelia what pushed her on suicide?“, “By what Hamlet`s vindictiveness is explained what forces it to pursue mother and the uncle?“. For the Task can be 2 such questions: “Why you addressed (or did not ask) for the help?“, “What was not enough for you for performance of a task?“. For the Task 3 such questions will be: “In what advantages of this movie before others?“, “As it is better to build sequence of movies in the program of a festival?“ .
Check the list of questions - how many from them are directed to clarification of the reasons and an explanation?
III. Divergent questions
the Essence of such question consists in a situation obuslavlivaniye: “That will be (will not be) if...“. The divergent question allows answering to understand existence of alternative. Ability to ask such questions is important for many experts: making decision on treatment, a measure of punishment or encouragement surely has to be based on an assessment of consequences of the made decision. If the convergent question is turned on an explanation already happened, then divergent - on a future prediction.
the Analysis of “Hamlet“ could include, for example, the following questions: “As if Hamlet and Ophelia`s relations developed if Hamlet`s father did not die?“, “That would happen to Hamlet if he survived and punished offenders?“. For the second situation it would be possible to ask questions:“ What could help to perform to you a task in time? “, “ if you used it - that means, as if it influenced a situation?“. For the third situation questions are possible: “How inclusion of this movie in the program of a festival will be reflected in popularity of a festival?“, “Who has to present the movie that it was noticed by the audience?“, “What public response will be if this movie is not included in the program?“.
Attentively study the list of your questions - whether it is possible to allocate “strong“ questions, significant for a solution, and “weak“, those which could be excluded from the list. The “strong“ question gives understanding of a situation, frequent it is a question on alternative: “Who could make it, under a condition...“, “When it can occur if...“, “Where it could occur...“ etc. Both the situation 2, and a situation 3 demand questions on an opportunity. Such questions are not absolutely correct for a situation 1 as within a work of art it is difficult to argue in a conditional inclination.
IV. A question - an assessment (a question on judgment and comparison)
These questions connect understanding of a situation and the relation of the person to an event, the book, the movie etc. The answer to such question shows suspension of judgments, ability to avoid a categoriality. The question on judgment assumes that answering it possesses information which is going beyond a situation is not indifferent to a subject of conversation and understands ambiguity of what there is a speech about.Questions on an assessment and comparison are irreplaceable
when it is necessary to estimate understanding of a historic fact or work of art. In a situation 1 questions are possible:“ Compare Ophelia and Juliette`s death in what similarity and distinction of these heroines of Shakespeare to what other literary heroes Hamlet “, “ than the play is similar; Hamlet differs from other plays of Shakespeare“. For a situation can be 2 such questions: “In what you are responsible and in what others?“, “Estimate the actions: where you made the right decision and where wrong?“ . For the third situation the question on an assessment can be directed, for example, to comparison of different movies on the different bases.Questions on an assessment and comparison are desirable
in all three offered tasks - important that these questions disposed to justification of the point of view.
V.Actually questions of one type smoothly pass the combined question (a complex question, the answer to which can be very long) with
into questions of other type. So, the actual question creates a basis for questions of three other types. Often in one question it is possible to connect a question on an explanation and a question on the assumption.For example in a situation 1 you can ask
such questions: “Not all heroes of the play of Shakespeare equally actively interact with each other. Confirm this situation and find to it an explanation. How the dialogue scene between Polonius and Hamlet`s father could look?“ . In a situation 2 it is possible to ask such combined questions: “When it became clear that you are not in time why you did not report about it at once?“, “Who could make this task for you to whom you would charge it on my place and why?“. In situations 3 combined question can be directed to clarification of art value of the movie: “What new artistic touches are in the movie how they correspond to festival priorities?“Look at
whether there is a lot of among the questions which are thought up by you combined. Think how it is possible to connect already available questions in the general complex question. Degree of interrelation of the questions asked by you is defined by whether you have an orientation in collection of information, whether you allocate preliminary hypotheses, and hypotheses which were how made by you are variable. The combined questions allow to connect different questions and from the received answers to put complete “picture“ of the studied situation.Ability to ask questions helps the person to learn to answer with
questions of others thoughtfully and without haste; to answer, arguing and developing the point of view. Scheduling of the answer to a question is no other than splitting one big question into “narrower“ questions. Not incidentally many psychologists prefer to speak about art, but not ability to ask questions: the question shows not only the level of awareness, but also ability of the person to approach a subject of studying non-standard. If in your list there are a lot of combined questions, questions on an explanation, a prediction or an assessment - you, most likely, without effort include your creative abilities in studying of a situation. If it was difficult for you to ask “strong“ questions, it does not mean that at you such abilities a little. Try to remake your questions in more difficult, and for this purpose “include“ interest in a task.