What is your kid able? The second - the fourth month of
your kid stepped over the first age boundary - one month. At this age it already developed an individual day regimen, time of his wakefulness (so, and time of communication with world around) considerably increased, and communication - the main condition of the correct development. What your kid for the first month of the life learned and what should learn it within the next three months?
As it is strange which - that the child to do just... forgot or will forget soon. If at the beginning of the second month unconditioned reflexes are still brightly expressed, then then gradually begin to die away. The first of them (to one and a half - two months) undergo the return development a support reflex and a reflex of automatic walking : put on a horizontal surface, the child already leans not on all foot, and only on the outer edge of feet. At the same time it sharply straightens legs. If to incline it forward, he does not “walk“ any more. Quite often concerns mothers that their child ceased to lean on legs and “to go“, but it is physiological norm. On the contrary, if these reflexes are expressed in two months and later (at the full-term child), it is pathology of development of nervous system - address the neurologist!
the Majority of other congenital reflexes considerably weaken by the end of the third month of life. So, for example, a hvatatelny reflex dies away approximately by two months: the kid takes the adult`s finger enclosed in a palm rather weakly, and in attempt to raise it opens a palm and lets out a finger.
A here the sosatelny reflex not only does not weaken, but is enriched conditional (i.e. acquired, developed) with reactions. Your kid begins to make the sosatelny movements not only at hit of a nipple of a breast or a pacifier in a mouth, but also at the sight of a breast or a small bottle with milk: the kid knows that now he will be fed! He learned to learn attributes of feeding! He learned to distinguish sweet, neutral, bitter - he becomes a gourmet!
By the beginning of the second month decreases a sgibatelny tone in extremities and razgibatelny - in neck muscles. Now if kid to put on a flank, it does not throw back the head any more. The child begins to move much more actively: periodically unclenches cams, parts handles in the parties, lifts them forward (in two - two and a half months) and up - above shoulders (two and a half - three months). In general the end of the first and the beginning of the second month of life - a turning point in psycho - emotional and motive development of the child. The movements more variously, moreover, can already quite be spoken about “consciousness“ of many movements: by the end of the second month the kid begins to bring closer hands to a mouth, to suck a finger, and by three months - to consider the handles, to rub eyes etc. These first lessons of any motility - the most important milestone in psychomotor development of the child. Mental and physical spheres on the first year of life are a whole. The arrest of development psycho - emotional functions leads to lag of movement skills (there is no incentive motive for their development); in turn, the limited opportunities of knowledge of world around caused by lateness in development of movement skills deprive of the child of new incentives for intellectual development. That is why harmonious psychomotor development is so important at chest age when every day it has to be celebrated by new achievements.
at the age of about two months the baby put on a tummy for some time raises a head, however it amusingly “dangles“ - keeps unstably so the most part of time it lies with the lowered head. And since two and a half months the child already surely and long holds the raised head. In three months, lying on a stomach, it leans on forearms. Some mothers with pleasure report that their kid in three months turns over from a stomach on a back. If it “spins“ steadily in one party, it can be explained with prevalence of a razgibatelny tone in one of handles (i.e. the child not actively turns over, and it is passively filled up on a back). It is better to show such kid to the neurologist.
By the end of the second month of life the child begins to turn actively the head towards the bright subject which appeared in the field of his sight or in search of a source of a loud sound. By three months after a head also shoulders, and then and a trunk are developed. As a result the kid turns on a flank. To stimulate such activity, it is necessary to pay more often attention of the kid on bright (it is possible sounding) toys. From two-month age it is useful to use special “yoke“ (a round or trapezoid rack which can be established in a bed, an arena, etc.) . On it toys are suspended: part on a crossbeam, and part - on the chains falling down. From the place of fastening of this construction to eyes of the child there have to be about 35 cm. The rattles which are hanging down on chains are suspended so that the child at the spontaneous (yet not coordinate) movements of hands could concern them incidentally. In this situation at the kid difficult reflex communication - hearing - visually - motive is formed. He notices that when it concerns the lower toys, top begin to move and ring. In 1 - 2 weeks he already consciously beats with handles the lower toys, then stops and observes how move and the toys suspended above make a sound. It plays with them!
the Following stage - the kid pulls a hand to the toy shown it. How to teach it? It is necessary to take a rattle of bright color, to draw its attention to it. Here he saw it, recorded on it a look. You will see how at the same time he quickens, rejoices, throws up handles forward. It is necessary that at a hand pulling forward it could concern a rattle. When training any activity it is necessary to help the child with receiving positive result: in case it fails, enclose a rattle to it in a hand. Soon its manual activity will become more perfect, the kid will begin to take surely and the suspended toys, and what is cost sideways from him, and what you offer him, but it already at the following stage of development... >
In this age period it is very important to p to estimate of reaction of the baby to communication . Here the adult bent to the child, tenderly addressed him, touched. In reply the kid has a concentration reaction : he becomes silent, does not move, attentively considers the adult, widely opening eyes, and then the smile (in one and a half - two months) and laughter appears (in two and a half - three months). Smile and laughter it is accepted to call revival reaction . In response to the speech turned to it the child “babbles“ - makes low short vowels.to
to cause reaction of revival in the two-month kid, needs rather long time; to three-months age the child quickly enough reacts to contact - throws up handles, “rolls out“ legs, deeply sighs. At children who have not enough communication with adults the complex of revival is formed with lateness, and this certificate of a delay nervously - mental development of the child! Conclusion: communicate with the kid more! Most of children at this age react a revival complex to contact with any adult, without distinguishing ““ and “others“.
But can note emotional reaction of the baby to intonation of your voice. Hearing a tender voice (which usually is followed by a smile, touches, game), it joyfully quickens; if you are dissatisfied with it, rebuke him by a strict angry voice, then from two - two and a half months he can already show negative reaction: ceases to smile, puts sponges, frowns, the chin it begins to shake “foully“, and at last the kid bursts in inconsolable crying. These are already differentiated emotions demonstrating timely maturing of mental functions. If at this age at the full-term child the differentiated emotions are not formed, it is necessary to address for consultation the neuropathologist.Visual reactions
By the end of the first month of life at the newborn already began to be formed by
fixing of a look and skill of tracking moving object, but the movements of eyeballs not always were coordinated, periodically there was a meeting squint. In two - three months at the healthy child function of sight is considerably improved. The movements of eyes are synchronized, the meeting squint is shown less frequently - only at very close examining of a subject. Asymmetric squint (meeting, dispersing), the persistent meeting squint, as well as the lack of long fixing of a look on a subject noted at the kid - a reason for visit to the ophthalmologist. The range of visual reactions of the baby extends - he already begins to look around actively at the subject which interested him, to fix on it a look, and at the same time turns the head in its party. In three months the kid focuses a look on a subject till 7 - 10 minutes, considering it. Its attention is still attracted by yellow and green colors. When he cries, he can already be calmed a toy. One more important visual function is formed: in two - two and a half months the child begins to fix a look and to consider objects in vertical position. Develop this skill: at communication keep it on hands in vertical position!
Aged from one and a half about three months your kid begins to identify localization of a sound in space, looks for its source. Even lying on a back and not seeing you, it turns a head and eyes to a sound source when you talk to it or turn on the music. Develop at it similar reaction to the sounding toy. By three months it quickly finds a sound source including in vertical position. The kid cries - start talking to him, rattle a toy, and you will note that it as if fades and ceases to cry. At sharp sounds the child shudders, fades, and can begin to cry.