In total in our hands of
Human hands - one of the most perfect tools created by the nature. Thanks to them the child not only obtains information on world around, but also gradually develops intelligence. However you should not force events! Ability to operate skillfully such hi-tech live mechanism comes not at once. Thierry Buato, the specialist in psychomotility tells.
to you, perhaps, happened to see during ultrasonography as the germ clings the handle to an umbilical cord. Whether he tries to scramble on it how the monkey? This improbable assumption is not so far from truth. At an embryo the first manifestations of a hvatatelny reflex inherent in both the newborn child, and a monkey cub whose genes for 99% are identical to human are observed.
In the nature a hvatatelny reflex - the real rescue for mummies - monkeys. At danger approach the female slaps a cub on a puzika, and it hangs at it under a stomach, having strong caught mother`s wool all four “hands“. Thus, the monkey has an opportunity to run away from danger, without being afraid to lose in a hurry a cub.this unconditioned reflex is very strong
At the newborn person too. If slightly to concern its palm, it will squeeze a cam with such force that some time will be able to hang, holding a subject which grabbed, whether it be a rope or the pediatrician`s finger. And then we own hands get to ourselves a proud rank of “tsars of the nature“. As the thumb is opposed to other four, and each finger is independent in relation to another, the hand becomes one of the most valuable creations of the nature. However correct functioning of this ingenious live mechanism is ensured by all organism. And first of all its main computer - a brain.
All under control
according to some researches, the right and left cerebral hemispheres, controlling the movements of hands, supplement each other. Right, most likely, allows the kid to learn objects by means of touch. The same hemisphere is responsible for orientation in space, that is ability to define own situation in relation to objects, to distinguish the right and left, to realize that is ahead and that - behind.
the Left hemisphere, according to some supervision, provides thinner process of the analysis and synthesis of information. It is responsible for the accuracy of movements. Thanks to its work the person masters so-called small motility - ability to lift the fallen crumb or a plumelet from a floor. Later, at school, the left hemisphere will allow the child to learn abstract forms by means of touch and sight.
But properly to train a hand, to the little person it is necessary to control the muscular tone at the same time. So, gradually to learn to weaken a brush, an elbow and a shoulder. It is necessary to reckon with development of its motive abilities also: beginning to hold a head, the child tries to coordinate the movement of hands with the fact that he sees (it is called visually - motor coordination). Then the kid learns to operate the movements of a trunk. And having only appeared in vertical position, it will be able to improve the hvatatelny abilities. Sitting, it is far more convenient to do it. And then, having extended handles forward, it is possible to go to win the world.
At communication the child very much early begins to use hands to confirm the desires and to add still imperfect speech: he specifies regarding and to take control and in order that adults called this subject. Without having begun to speak yet, the kid speaks by means of gestures: “let`s“ tell enough simply that parents understood that it is necessary for it.
I, at last, hands promote development of intelligence which during from 0 to 2 years passes a “sensomotorny“ stage as the famous Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget defined it. In other words, comprehension of thought process and accumulation of knowledge happens generally by practical consideration, so, is directly connected with motility. Within these two major years the child touches everything that surrounds him to collect as much as possible various feelings which report to him about properties of objects. So the child learns that there are soft and firm surfaces that water flows, and paper is torn. Sorting this information, the kid who is by nature allocated with memory and ability to logical thinking builds and improves schemes of knowledge.
Stages of a big way
Improvement of hvatatelny function of hands happens step by step, just as intellectual development.
At newborns can observe only a hvatatelny reflex so far. In extremities the muscular tone is especially high therefore at recently been born children cams are always strong squeezed. Within the first three months “the hvatatelny reflex“ weakens, and palms gradually reveal.the Three-months child is not enough
- Pomala begins to coordinate the movements of hands with a look. In the beginning it occurs very conditionally: just once handles incidentally appear in sight of the kid and he fixes on them a look. Gradually these entertaining “features“ begin to bewitch him, he is enraptured with their contemplation, long detains on them a look. However about consciously to bring hands to eyes, the speech does not go yet. These are only the first steps in development visually - motor coordination.
Between three and four months the kid already consciously brings handles to a mouth.he already tries to take
Since fourth month a subject which to it is offered. And though visually - motor coordination is still too imperfect in order that the child could give a hand on a certain distance, at this age the kid can already take a rattle if to put it to it directly in the handle. Now it does it unconsciously and awkwardly as development of a hand hvataniye is in an initial stage: so far the kid clamps a subject between a palm and three last fingers.
in the period of between 6 and 9 months the child learns to sit. So, takes the most convenient position which allows it to see a desirable subject and to pull to it handles already quite consciously and precisely. Thanks to new found mobility and flexibility in shoulders and elbows, it already manages to hold a subject between a thumb and a little finger.
In 6 - 7 months the child is already able to shift a rattle from one hand in another. And by eight months he derives pleasure from noise of toys which he throws. From now on it can not only take and strong squeeze a subject, but also weaken the handle (that it is much more difficult) to throw a toy.
In 9 - 10 months revolution happens! At last the kid can hold a subject between big and index fingers.
the true sleight of hand From this point begins to develop. Small motility of the kid will progress very quickly as he will be able to take more and more small objects more and more exact gestures.
By a year thanks to plentiful practice the baby surely holds any subject in hand. Muscles became stronger, joints reached a certain maturity too, respectively, the list of the manipulations made by hands considerably increased: the kid can pull out one toy from another, back insert, put them a pile, push away, attract, shake, throw, clap in palms... It begins to develop strategy of actions, for example, to force to ring a hand bell... There comes gold time for “research work“.
Between 12 and 15 months cerebral impulses become thinner. The kid reaches a sufficient neurologic maturity that allows his handles to work independently from each other, i.e. one hand can work while another is at rest. The similar mechanism demands good coordination of movements.
By 18 months the child can already put balls in a bottle, construct a tower of three cubes, put detalk, draw a scribble with a pencil. He manages to turn pages in the book. His fingers begin to work independently from each other, and handles are already so dexterous that he demands the right for a certain independence: to eat and drink most, for example. At this age the kid can even unscrew or screw up something and already correctly holds a pencil in hand.
in the period of from two to three years the kid is able to put on independently socks, to put shoes on, on and even to undo on clothes of a button (fastening - business more laborious, he will learn it later). Closer to kindergarten it will be learned to hold scissors properly: a sheet of paper in one hand, scissors - in another. It is not a so simple task!Coordination of movements gradually will be improved by
every year, up to school.“ Today demand very much from kids, - Thierry Buato says, - already in average group of kindergarten abstract figures, arches, broken lines learn to draw them. And in the senior group force to write nearly. However the skills acquired by the child are still too fresh, he feels insufficiently surely so far and can easily fail. And it, in turn, will generate unwillingness to repeat attempt“. Not to aggravate a situation, parents should not press on the kid...
the Right-handed person or - the lefthander?
As a rule, preferences in the choice of a “favourite“ hand are defined by sixth month of life. However accurately they are fixed only by two years. If you do not want to influence the choice of the child, since first months it is necessary to bring toys and objects which he will want to take, not to the right or left hand, and in the middle. Most of kids quickly become right-handed persons, just imitating gestures of adults.
If to put small sideways from itself, it will use the same hand, as you. Put him opposite - and he will give preference to an opposite hand (as in a mirror).
cases when kids up to five years continue to be confused and change “favourites“ Happen. Mostly it occurs from - for small lags in psychomotility development. Sometimes, that the child equally well owns both hands. And then he needs to be convinced more often to use any one hand as even at “dvoyeruky“ children one of extremities is developed more than another.“ If the choice of a hand happens late or slowly, is not excluded that the child will have problems with orientation in space, - Thierry Buato says. - It is quite explainable: if internal reference points by which the provision of a subject concerning itself (the right - left, behind is defined - in front), still were insufficiently created, it becomes automatically even more difficult to be defined in space by means of external reference points“. In similar cases it is necessary to address the expert who will help the child to cope with this problem.
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