“Grain ears“ of
the Siberian pelmeni and the Chinese wontons, the Azerbaijani dyushbara and Lithuanian tseppelinay, Japanese a gyodza and Mari podkogylyo - all these dishes from the test with a stuffing of steel for many people living in different points of the globe, not only traditional, but also ritual. Today, when various variations of pelmeni can be bought in shop, they passed into the category of daily food. Though such relation to this product is a little unfair - there was time when devoted them verses. In 1879 the resident of Nizhny Novgorod, somebody Mikhail Vasilyevich Blinov, published a book with the name “Songs about Pelmeni“ to which such humourous catchphrase became an epigraph here:“ I am ready to fall on knees before the one who invented pelmeni“.
the Dumplings dictionary
the Balyk - berek. the Central Asian pelmeni with a fish stuffing. Are steamed.
of Boraki. the Armenian pelmeni in the form of large “glasses“ (the tubes opened since one end). Forcemeat - beef with onions. Boraki at first weary in broth, and then fry in oil.
Vareniki. Ukrainian national dish. Unlike the Russian pelmeni in vareniki not crude, but boiled meat is put. But vareniki dessert - with cottage cheese and cherry are even more known.
Wonton. the Chinese pelmeni which usually give in broth.
of Gyodz. the Japanese pelmeni, usually with shrimps or pork. Most often they are fried in sesame oil, but sometimes previously boiled on couple.
of Dyushbar (dyushpar). the Iranian and Azerbaijani pelmeni with a beef and mutton stuffing, quite small size. Move in broth.
of Knedli (knydl). Polish, Czech, West - the Ukrainian pelmeni from potato dough. Often become with a plum stuffing.
Sorcerers. Old Russian pelmeni (are known also in Lithuania under the name “koltunay“). Became with a vegetarian cepes stuffing or cabbage, prepared in pots in the Russian furnace.
Manti. Central Asian dish. In a stuffing mutton with a fat tail, onions and spices, and also pumpkin is most often put. They are steamed, and eaten with hands.
of Podkogylyo. the Mari pelmeni, usually become with game stuffing (bear`s fleshes, sokhatina, barsuchatina, zaychatina).
Ravioli. the Italian pelmeni in the form of small squares or rectangles. At a stuffing often there is a cottage cheese cheese ricotta. Move with tomato sauce.
Ears. Small Ukrainian and Belarusian pelmeni which usually are served as addition to soup or borsch. Are often filled with porridge or mushrooms.
of Khinkali. Large Georgian pelmeni. Forcemeat is made of beef, mutton, onions, cilantro and garlic.
Tsemart. Mordovian pelmeni. In a stuffing - fat or pork and fried onions.
of Tseppelinay. the Lithuanian potato forcemeat pelmeni from meat or cottage cheese.
of Jiaozi. Chinese pelmeni, usually quite large, crescent-shaped.
It agrees one of versions, to emergence of a favourite product we are obliged to Chinese - allegedly from them in the 13th century Marco Polo learned about pelmeni. Upon return from China the traveler described various foreign dishes, and the Italian cooks were not slow to adopt original recipes, however, having introduced in them own color. By the way, the dumplings industry in Celestial Empire and is developed now extremely: there are several honeycombs of grades of pelmeni, both meat, and vegetarian.
Other historians of cookery consider that pelmeni got to the Old World thanking not the traveler - the Venetian, and Mongols who extended them on all won lands.also the third option Is possible
- similar dishes were thought up independently from each other. Especially as between different types of dough products with a stuffing there are much more differences, than similarities.the Question of the one who invented pelmeni in Russia remains to
open too. If to trust linguists, the word “dumpling“ (initially “pelnyan“) has a finnougorsky origin:“ pel“ means “ear“, and “nurses“ - “bread“. The etymology is clear: the product in finished form is really similar to an ear, only from the test. By the way, in the south one of kinds of vareniki which give together with borsch and is called - “ears“.pelmeni nicknamed
A in some Volga region dialects “permenyam“ or “permyanyam“ as if wishing to emphasize that this dish extended from Perm Krai where settled the finnougorsky people - votyak, the Komi, Veps.to
Of course, it would be interesting to establish a true way of a gain by world pelmeni, but behind prescription of years it is necessary to be content only with guesses.
Packing in assortment
Dough for pelmeni and vareniki, popular with us, is made of wheat flour with addition of a small amount of water and eggs. The last ingredient gives to the test elasticity, it has to be thin not to kill taste of a stuffing, sticky that edges densely stuck together, and strong that during cooking not to be torn.
Though this classical recipe not dogma for cooks. Options are possible. One prefer to do dough in general without eggs, but in this case it should be kneaded very long, others consider that the key to success - cold water or even grated ice, the third, on the contrary, prefer to make flour (that is to pour into it boiled water), and the fourth try to obtain the necessary consistence by means of milk or even curdled milk. Some add to dough of a little vegetable oil which gives elasticity too, and in the Urals prefer to eggs eggs of wild birds - quails or pheasants. Italians, caring for beauty of a ready-made product, often do dough for ravioli color, adding to it spinach (it gives to a product green color), tomato paste (red), a saffron (yellow) or “blackened“ an octopus (black).
If to look at dumplings geography more widely, then it appears, as wheat flour not a so obligatory component of the test. For Karelian “gates“ instead of it rye flour undertakes. Lithuanians prepare the tseppelinay from potato dough in which part of potato crude, another - boiled. And in Hugo - East Asia among a set of kinds of pelmeni is also such which are made of rice flour - they turn out transparent as glass.
Even more variety can be observed in a dumplings stuffing. Let`s begin with meat, habitual for us. In a midland and the Volga region, as a rule, pelmeni are made of two types of meat - beef and pork. In Siberia quite often add odorous bear`s flesh, a sokhatina (elk meat) or any other game. High-calorific and vitamin-rich marrow is added to a stuffing of “gerasimovsky“ pelmeni (which invention is attributed to the famous Soviet film director Sergey Gerasimov). Muslim regions, naturally, do without pork, but there put a lot of dukhovity mutton (as well as in the south).generally is present
A no restrictions: Karelians fill the pelmeni with herring, Kamchadals prepare shrimps and squids pelmeni, and Maris - with kabanyatiny, zaychatiny, barsuchatiny or with meat of any other animal who manages to be hit on hunting.
But meat - not the only stuffing suitable for pelmeni. The essence of a dish is that as a filler there can be everything that is edible if only skill of the cook did not pump up.
Pelmeni can be quite expensive and nutritious food. For example, at refined Parisian restaurants of Russian cuisine serve black caviar pelmeni. For them dough is rolled as a tissue paper because cook those only several seconds (otherwise caviar will lose taste).However the price of a popular product is not less important
for those who are able to count money, than taste. To support big families, our ancestors were not lazy to consider the cost of each pelmeshk and thought out various ways for its decrease.
So cereals, vegetables, herbs, fruit and berries got to a stuffing. Roughly saying that broke in a kitchen garden, prepared. The main dumplings vegetable - onions: small cut, it adds to meat sharpness and a savor therefore it is added to a stuffing everywhere where it grows. It goes to pelmeni in the raw, and for vareniki it is previously fried. Addition, the second for popularity, in a stuffing is the cabbage, fresh or stewed. It cannot almost be noticed in mincemeat, however with it the stuffing becomes more juicy and volume as, actually, and with herbs: a goutweed, a nettle, a kislitsa, an orach, parsley, cress - salad, onions feathers, a beet tops of vegetable. In lean years herbs pelmeni were just rescue: with their help a handful of flour it was possible to feed a family.
One more important dumplings vegetable from a melon field - pumpkin: it is added to manti and other types of the pelmeni which are steamed.
By the way, vegetable stuffings are not less popular, than meat. For example, Old Russian pelmeni - “sorcerers“ for fast days were filled with cepes and sauerkraut. Also Japanese a gyodza with a radish, and the Chinese baotsza with haricot are vegetarian, and without telling the Ukrainian ears filled with buckwheat cereal about Slavic dessert options - the South Russian apples or cherry dumplings or the Czech knedliks with plums.to
as the Stuffing can also serve cottage cheese or cheese. In the majority of the Italian dumplings versions, whether it be ravioli or anyolott, there is a ricotta - the cheese made from serum which remained after production of a mozzarella. In other words, it is a by-product too - low-cost, as well as vegetables.serious work is done by
However regardless of that, the actual cost of pelmeni decreases or increases, their preparation always requires time: dough has to be vymeshano to elasticity and the stuffing should be made absolutely uniform. Of course, now we do it by means of electric meat grinders and food processors. Though for some types of pelmeni it is recommended to crush a stuffing a knife or a special kitchen hatchet. Especially it concerns some meat: so pieces remain juicy and do not lose taste.When both dough, and a stuffing are ready
, there comes the most responsible moment: connections of one with another. This process begins with expansion of the test. And here too there are several ways. Siberians prefer not to be lazy and for each pelmeshk to roll a separate piece of the test. But it long. For process acceleration some hostesses roll layer of the test and cut out from it circles. It is beautiful and impractical: there are scraps which, of course, can be mixed in a lump and to roll anew, however dough will be not that is excess flour will stick to it, it will lose elasticity. However, it is possible to find application and for scraps: do home-made noodles of them, and start up part on “deceptive“ pelmeni (that is empty, without stuffing) or pelmeni “with a surprise“ - with a coin, a button or a ringlet. Cheerfully, but it is possible to break tooth also.
In Soviet period various devices for a molding of pelmeni in the form of “gun“ or a form with cuts for preparation of 20 - 40 pelmeni gained at once distribution. The principle of operation of these devices is similar: on the rolled layer of the test the stuffing is imposed and becomes covered by another, then pelmeshka are cut out by the gun or rolled by a rolling pin - then drop out of cuts. It is at first sight practical and quickly, and in practice these devices not always well fasten edges and when cooking pelmeni collapse. Another matter - to stick together hands. Some handymen pinch dough figured combs in a look spiralek or braids - it not only is beautiful and reliable, but also allows meat broth or vegetable juice to remain inside.
this Equipment universal, naturally, is not. If you cook not pelmeni, and, let us assume, the Uzbek manti, then they are closed up absolutely in a different way - “box“. The Georgian khinkalis - “small knot“. The Armenian barracks remain open since one end. But nevertheless the Chinese creating the real masterpieces from pelmeni are considered as the most skillful masters: lotus flowers, hare ears or small fishes with transparent tails.It is time for
at a table
Pelmeni are ready, and here - there was a trifle. The easiest way - to weld. It would seem, everyone will get along with this case: threw in the boiling added some salt water and wait, will not emerge yet. However not everything is so simple. Professionals recommend to use instead of water hens - broth (from the French courtbouillon): so call the auxiliary broth cooked from a large number of vegetables (onions, carrots, a celery) with spices, salt and a small amount of vinegar or wine. Hens - broth is not eaten because it tasteless, and here pelmeni in it turn out excellent. Some types of pelmeni are cooked in meat broth together with which they give. Act with small Central Asian products like a dyushbara or a chuchvara this way. And here the Ukrainian ears given with borsch are boiled separately. In the Urals there is also such method of cooking of pelmeni: to weld, then to pull out, oil and again in boiled water for several seconds.
Second in popularity a way of thermal treatment - on couple. So the Uzbek manti, Tuva “poses“, Chinese “dy - bags“ and some types of the Japanese pelmeni which stuffing includes soy cottage cheese prepare. For their preparation there are special devices. Mantovarka (manti - kaskan) or a bamboo sieve look differently, but the principle of cooking in them same: on a bottom water is poured, lattices from above are established, and manti or pelmeni are put on them. In this process there are several subtleties too: water has to be very much (otherwise it will be evaporated too quickly) and very little that it did not adjoin to the test. That dough did not stick to lattices, pelmeni are oiled or put under them wet towel wipes or lettuce leaves, cabbage. Processing the ferry - business long, occupies not less than half an hour.Much less often pelmeni fry
. Cunning here in that the stuffing was fried thoroughly, and a crust did not harden too strongly therefore most often fry products with not meat stuffing, and in meat pelmeni the seam is closed up not up to the end, leaving a small opening. - frying of this dish there is also a lot of nuances in boiling, as well as in recipes of preparation. For example, in Algeria do beets which are fried at first in a large amount of fat, and then boil in pea broth. At last, the most rare way of the address with pelmeni - roasting. So they are trained generally by owners of suitable furnaces “with slow heat“ - for example, in the Russian furnaces.
Sauces for taste
Good pelmeni demand some good sauce (certainly, in those cases if they are given separately, but not in borsch or broth). We got used to eat them with vinegar or with seasoning from a tomato, pepper, horse-radish and garlic, generally, with something sharp and sourish. In the Urals do so-called “maknyu“ of vegetable oil, salt, sugar, vinegar and pepper. The famous culinary theorist William Pokhlebkin recommended to eat pelmeni just with oil. For this purpose, having taken out from water, they are slightly dried and then add oil - so it will better be absorbed in dough.the Ukrainian vareniki are inconceivable
without sour cream. In the Far East to pelmeni surely serve soy sauce, in the Caucasus - tkemal (seasoning from plums) and adjika (seasoning from hot red pepper). In Siberia do sauces on the basis of sour cream and milk, adding to them garlic, onions and herbs.
Some types of pelmeni demand also special etiquette. So, manti and poses can be eaten with hands. And if pelmeni give together with broth, then at first eat broth, and then with the same spoon - pelmeni. In China, however, arrive on the contrary: at first catch pelmeni, and then drink broth (not obligatory a spoon, it is possible and too much plates).
As an alternative to pelmeni house ppreparations in any shop can be bought “ready“ pelmeni, and also their numerous versions. In a year Russians eat about 500 thousand tons of such production. To train them quickly and conveniently, however taste for some reason considerably differs from house (as we try to convince ourselves of the return). Why does that happen?
In - the first, at industrial production of pelmeni the stuffing is made not of a fresh-killed meat at all. In it components as “the frozen blocks from trimmed meat and an offal“, a liver, soy are put such unpleasant even aurally. According to technological instructions, instead of eggs blood plasma, serum light food and caseinate of sodium can be added to dough. All this, naturally, does not improve taste.
In - the second, forcemeat at dumplings plants is crushed not knives and even not in meat grinders, and in huge mixers - kutter in whom edges rotate with a speed of 2 000 - 2 500 revolutions per minute. In several minutes they turn all ingredients into uniform gray paste which on a consistence has nothing in common with home-made forcemeat.
B - the third, the automatic machine making a lot of marriage which is not thrown out molds pelmeni, and again throw in kutter where forcemeat becomes.
On this technology are prepared by pelmeni already many years. Earlier important economic problems were so resolved: in - the first, increase in wastelessness of meat production, and in - the second, providing the population with a cheap product. But, in spite of the fact that their relevance did not become invalid and today, on counters qualitative products began to appear. Allows to distinguish them from pelmeni of economy class not only the price, but first of all a manual way of production. And finally taste.