The culture the parent of
the Role of a family to be exclusive. Both in reproduction of national culture, and in formation of cultural shape of each certain person. The phenomenon of parental culture is not only a mirror of identity of the people, its values and traditions, but also and reflection of future these people.the Content of culture is difficult and diverse
. It can be both “art culture“, and “culture of communication“, and “political culture“, and “culture of the national relations“, and “pedagogical culture“. In other sources it is possible to meet reflections about “culture of business“ and even about “culture of repair“ and “culture of advertizing activity“.
ideas of such most ancient and powerful cultural layer as a roditelstvo meet Much less often. The ambiguity in determination of content of concept of “parental culture“ is represented strange at least in view of the following circumstances presently.
the Culture of a roditelstvo belongs to those phenomena of life which influence the most various and its wide layers and affect literally each person. Parental culture - one of the leading prerequisites of full education of children important not only for a separate family, but also for the country in general.
the Most severe demographic dive in which there was Russia at the turn of the century when many scientists and public figures seriously speak about extinction threat raises serious questions concerning a condition of family culture in society for which a matrimony, the family, the birth of children traditionally were among the most important values. Russia sustains the biggest demographic losses not from mortality today, and from a birth rate collapse in all Russian regions - generally due to abortions (three abortions on four pregnancies) that means, in fact, demonstration of conscious refusal of a child-bearing and the parental status.Falling of prestige of motherhood and paternity, fading of a parental initiative, cardinal change of demographic behavior cannot but cause
Of course, with grief stating insuperability of a row all known socially today - the economic problems not in the best way influencing demographic behavior it would be possible to reconcile to inevitability of a slow otpolzaniye of society towards a cemetery. However the following circumstance in view of which not readiness of our subject is represented especially strange draws attention here.
The matter is that, since 90 - x years of the 20th century, - most as it is considered to be, crisis and critical for our country - contrary to the aforesaid problem of fading of culture of a roditelstvo, informal parental associations become characteristic of image of big cities. Their names tell them to activity about the purposes:“ Center of parental culture “, “ family club of parental experience“ and so forth. In their lexicon - new for that period, but the phrases which already became habitual today:“ the conscious roditelstvo “, “ responsible roditelstvo “, “ patrimonial culture of a family“, etc.
only in Moscow of such parental associations created that is called on “an initiative from below“ is Now already more than four tens. Some of them safely stepped over the dawn of the third millennium and are going to celebrate “majority“. Over all country - it is hundreds of the similar centers uniting thousands of active followers inquisitive, ready to study and comprehend features of various educational and improving systems, to select the texts of culture addressed to children, to practice them in occupations with the children, to create a friendly communication environment of families - adherents.are rather various
of the Program of these centers according to contents, and, above all, on world outlook installations, but the fact remains the fact that they were capable to support and develop parental culture in modern society.
For the thinking and looking for parents we will try to give the short characteristic to features of ideas of culture of a roditelstvo in programs of similar associations. We will concentrate attention on all of them general provisions and on basic world outlook distinctions.
the General, uniting elements for all parental collectives are recognition of importance and need of a matrimony, the birth and education of children, respect of a possession of many children and aspiration to it, creative self-realization in parental activity, high prestige of motherhood and paternity. Any parental communities isolate the development periods detsko - the parental relations, considering the dorodovy period, a child-bearing, infancy, the postinfantile period. In all parental associations deal with problems of improvement, leisure, house education and training, master maternal folklore and national traditions, consider problem situations and ways of their overcoming.
the General is also idea of a child-bearing as the intimate process in huge degree connected with spiritual human life. This situation - a peculiar protest against a prerogative of medical approach to sacrament of conception, incubation and birth of new life as the father ignoring emotional and spiritual experiences of mother and alienating from this process. From positions of such approach pregnancy is perceived as the long disease which is inevitably bringing “patient“ into walls of hospital where there comes “healing“ at active intervention of doctors. Without denying justified need of medical control, specialists of the centers of parental culture consider psycho - emotional experiences of the woman and baby, and also are guided by the ideas of incubation, the birth, feeding of the kid, maternal skills and customs accepted in cultural practice of the concrete people.
future parents pass a peculiar initiation under the leadership of skilled mentors In such centers - obstetricians, teachers, psychologists who are distinguished that they, mostly, are parents having many children.
It is traditional in cultural practice of various people the woman taking a way of motherhood needed that other woman, senior and more skilled, would enter it into a new role, letting into secrets of maternal behavior. And today, when the woman cannot receive such maintenance from own mother owing to loss of traditions and practice of family education, it still needs training and mentoring.
Also parental centers participation of the parent to the world of children`s impressions distinguishes, a community of experiences from the first day of life of the child that becomes alternative to parental infantility, passivity and estrangement from the child.
If in program installations of the non-state parental centers can be stated much in common, then in definition of ideological reference points there are basic distinctions. These distinctions are so essential that they are an obstacle for merging of such centers, say, in uniform association. They reflect themselves different world outlooks: the world of the West with inquiries of post-industrial society, the mystical world of the East and the world of original Russian culture, its tradition.
West. the Distinctive feature of the first direction is the rate on intellectualism. The reason sated with knowledge acts as the peculiar cultural sample necessary for a survival and social establishment in information society of high technologies here.as
Ideologists and inspirers culturally - the pedagogical environment doctors, psychologists, teachers and their initiative followers, popular in the USA and Europe, act here. Their subjects - “How to give to the child encyclopedic knowledge“, “How to train the child in mathematics“, “How to teach the child to read“ (names of best-sellers of the American doctor Glen Doman). Their slogans - “e e to teach to read l to of the h the one-year-old baby, than six-year-old, l e of the h e to teach him to mathematics, and also to supply with the encyclopedic information, than to the six-year-old child“. Addressees of this strategy are children of the period of younger preschool age, i.e. to 3 - x years.the Belief in special opportunities of a brain and need of their development determines since childhood by
the dominating way of communication between mother and the kid. The main efforts of parents concentrate on intellectual storm. The house environment is distinguished by abundance of various tables, schemes, the developing toys in which, by the way, adults play nearly with big hobby. Various cards “... are scattered in the house then, there and are connected with those things which they designate: the word “chair“ appears on a chair, the word “case“ is attached to a case when Galya drinks, I hold before her eyes a card with the word “a cup...“ - so the author of practical guidance, popular among parents, on early development Frenchwoman Cecile Lupan writes about it.the high rate on the personal success understood as achievement of material welfare and a certain social standing is characteristic
Of parental expectations.
East. the Second direction is the philosophy of a number of esoteric doctrines. In strict sense these doctrines only partly reproduce elements of east mystical representations and the practician and that more likely externally; more they are connection is religious - the occult representations feeding on ideas of the Buddhism, a cabbala, Tantrism; in them it is possible to allocate Gnosticism elements, the Christianity okkultno interpreted. Their ideologists are theosophists, anthroposophists of the beginning of the 20th century: E. Blavatskaya, A. Bezant, R. Steiner, N. and E. Rerikhi, and also various followers and creators of new doctrines.the Demand of mystical doctrines in parental culture 90 - x years of the 20th century is quite explainable
against former domination in our country of atheistic philosophy and oblivion of domestic religious tradition. Formally esoteric doctrines are under construction on the principle of a priority of the spiritual beginning in formation of the person that in many respects explains inclination to them of parents, not indifferent to search of truth, experiencing spiritual hunger. These doctrines attract those from them who looks not for schemes and techniques, but opportunities of “spiritual improvement“ himself and the children.the Judgment them tendencies of an era is thought of
in the categories “New Century“ (New - Age), “Hera Vodoleya“ ¹ “the sixth race“, “indigo children“ ² (“new“ children who “already came!“ ). A cultural sample - the person with the developed intuition, paranormal abilities, capable to steady spiritual self-improvement, harmoniously fitting into environment: the person of the New century, the person of “the sixth race“, the person - a dolphin. “New - Age“ is represented as cardinally new page in cultural development of humanity. The “new“ person has to become a superperson in all power okkultno - magic abilities.
the Belief in the unrealized, reserve or lost possibilities of a human brain and a nature caused instilling of these ideas in space of parental culture. It developed into promoting various nonconventional improving the practician, water childbirth and systems of special occupations with babies (strengthened Akwa - the trainings interfaced to respiratory practicians, “the baby - the yogi“ and so forth) Pregnant women have a shower bath ice water, fathers with babies dive into ice-holes, wander barefoot about snow, starve, clearing an organism.
It is remarkable that babies, and since a pre-natal state to which special significance is attached became addressees of especial parental efforts in this paradigm.“ Education till the birth “, “ childbirth by the child`s eyes “, “ the soft birth “, “ decrease in a psychological trauma of the birth “, “ reunion with mother after the delivery“ - these subjects reflect connection of concepts of psychology of the perinatal period with mystical moods. Meanwhile, they become key during radical turn from a passive role of parents in questions of incubation and the birth of the kid - to responsible and active, switch attention from mother`s indispositions to active empathy to a condition of the child.
within such approach the concepts “conscious roditelstvo“, “obstetric aid humanization“ arise, breastfeeding is popularized. Intoxication esoterics sometimes passes over time, and children, outgrowing an infantile state, set new tasks for parents.
traditional ideas of spirituality and religiousness come back To cultural life of the country, the movement of “a conscious roditelstvo“ is exempted from occult influences, remaining elementary school of motherhood and paternity for many people. However, in the novoy millennium esoteric views of the birth and education of the person, of the future of a civilization, apparently, will remain in a number of parental communities over all country.
Russia. Defining in understanding of traditional character here not external tenor of life and mechanical copying of old forms, but transfer of values of the Russian culture to the world of the childhood act.
the Tradition as system of transfer and inheritance of spiritual priorities, moral ideals, standards of behavior will organize space of parental culture from positions of this approach. The understanding of the person can be expressed by Ivan Ilyin`s formula: “The person is defined by what he loves and as he loves...“ . As a cultural sample the conscientious, integral spiritual personality acts here; a spiritual ideal - self-sacrifice, sanctity.
B culturally - student teaching of a family education goes hand in hand with education. A lullaby the song and other genres of maternal folklore, national game and the fairy tale, elements of art crafts and needlework, an annual system of calendar holidays are demanded as the means checked by time with which opening before the child of culture of the Homeland - poetics of its language, heights of ideals begins. In line with this direction there is no restriction of age addressing: parental care equally accompanies perinatal development of the child, infancy, the preschool childhood, adolescence.
the Leading principle of formation of the cultural environment of the house - selectivity, a filtration of influences of external environment. And, this principle can extend not only to mass culture, but also to folklore texts. Joint reading, family viewing and discussion of movies, collecting of libraries and videoshops, the museums, concerts, theaters, excursions, travel and pilgrim trips - can be called as signs of family leisure and communication. In videoshops, by the way, animated films of the Soviet period, masterpieces Soviet (is more rare - Post-Soviet) and world cinema by all means will be found.as
patristical images, experience of national pedagogics, the Russian philosophers and cultural figures of the 20th century, domestic teachers who are called for some reason innovators though they possess a role of openers of earlier being available traditions of family pedagogics and house education in Russia (such, for example, as Nikitina`s spouses can mainly act as influential authorities and inspirers).
Thus, in the parental centers operating in the course of this direction creatively refracts in relation to modern conditions rich ethical and culturally - pedagogical heritage of domestic culture, need of its judgment in the conditions of transformation of valuable categories is realized.
Having addressed domestic philosophical thought it is easy to notice that the tendency to intellectualization of the childhood was outlined even in experiences of the beginning of the 20th century that at once caused concern and an enthusiastic response of outstanding philosophers, psychologists, teachers. It is enough to remember Vasily Zenkovsky who, lifting a problem of “pedagogical intellectualism“, called the main objective of education “protection and development of a creative power in us, a creative basis of soul“. But at the same time did not connect a source of this force with intelligence, with acquisition of knowledge: “Creative subsoil of soul... are connected with the emotional sphere from where the tvor is radiatedthe chesky energy warming and animating work of mind and our activity“.
Ivan Ilyin removes a problem of strategy of education from pedagogical in the cultural plane and characterizes the condition of society generated by the apology of rationalism as “heartless culture“: “The mankind creates the culture the incorrect internal act which of structure are excluded: heart, conscience and belief, and force of contemplation it is reduced to the subordinate, almost to a dejectedness...“ He sees the leading problem of education “... not in filling of memory and not in education intelligence and in ignition of heart. The enriched memory and mobile thought - at dead and blind heart - creates the dexterous, but stale person. That is why education without education is business false and dangerous...“does to
“Callousness“ of culture it illegible and in search of Truth. But as, according to Fedor Stepun, there, “... where there is no truth, there is no lie also“ and therefore “absolute indifference to this difference dominates there“. So, there is no intrinsic difference between forces of the good and evil operating in the world in an esoteric picture of the world. Sergey Bulgakov, characterizing the occult nature of Theosophy, notes that it “... operates mystical curiosity, lyutsiferichesky keenness of cold, unloving mind...“ .Spiritual emptiness of appeals to religious association of mankind Alexey Losev connects
with lack of live religious experience and notes that lines of formal similarity of religions need to be considered how “... konstitutivny signs of any religion in general.... It is interesting to note that intellectual rationalistic inventions, an outgrowth? yushchy on lack of concrete and live religious experience, just come in Theosophy to the statement to a tozhda? stvo of all religions what Faure points only to the purest? a malizm of thought and full inability to get into a being as in general religions, and each religion separately“.Summing up of
the results, it is possible to note that the main ideological concepts of an era which were outlined by the beginning of the XX century and gained strength on its extent are reflected in the features and distinctions listed by us in activity of the centers of parental culture of the end of XX - the beginnings of the 21st century. At the same time the first two directions in the parental movement of a turn of eras (very conditionally designated by us as “West“ and “East“) can be entered in a single trend to globalization. “West“ - on a geopolitical model of unification of education and languages of culture under the pressure of modern information technologies. “East“ - by the principle of deleting of ethnic and confessional uniqueness for the purpose of collecting of human community in a universum of uniform world religion and planetary domination of the people of new type who do not have an ethnic origin. The traditional Russian direction reflects a tendency of counteraction to process of leveling of cultural originality, and also shows viability culturally - historical approach and a possibility of its creative refraction in the conditions of today.