Listen to you!
Pediatricians - psychologists advise: from the earliest age talk to the kid as much as possible. According to experts, it helps to adjust emotional contact by the newborn and well affects intellectual development. But sometimes mothers ask a question: and what is heard by the child aged about one year? And what understands from heard? We addressed for explanations to. m of N to the otolaryngologist Galina Klyuenkova.
Till the birth
Already in mother`s womb the baby is capable to distinguish the sounds surrounding the pregnant woman. The kid hears voices of parents, the music playing in the room, noise of the motor of the car, stories which mother reads aloud, etc. It is interesting that right after the birth the child distinguishes mother`s voice from other voices. Moreover, the baby prefers to listen to those songs and verses which he heard till the birth, in a stomach at mother. All this says that acoustical abilities develop till the birth.
After the delivery
When the kid is born, the first weeks he hears only loud sounds. High ringing tone draw attention of the child quicker. For this reason newborns so vividly react on a baby talk of adults who are, as a rule, said by a high pitched voice.the child begins to hear
By 2 - 3 months and low, low sounds, learns to compare heard with what was seen, connecting visual and acoustical impressions together. Now sharp, unexpected sounds can wake or frighten the kid, and the baby will begin to cry, showing the discontent. During the same period it is possible to see also bright positive reaction on a face of the kid - a smile. And at first the child smiles not in response to the adult`s smile, and in response to a sound of its voice.
B of 4 - 5 months reaction becomes more rough: the kid begins to murmur, coo, wave handles and legs. Now the child is already capable to understand where there is a sound source, and turns the head on the adult`s voice. It is remarkable that the movements of the kid during “conversation“ with the parent are synchronized and literally copy the movement speaking - according to scientists, thus the child prepares for future mastering speech skills.
By 6 - 7 months the baby already reacts to the name, and also understands and feels mood of people around. So, if at mother a joyful face, the child laughs, expecting reciprocal laughter, smiles, a praise. If the face of the adult angry, the kid can be frightened and even to begin to cry, associating angry looks with shout and abuse.
From 9 months at babies ability to imitate the heard sounds, to repeat some of them develops, by 10 - 12 months in the speech of the kid the first conscious words appear:“ mother“, “father“, “woman“, “pussycat“ etc. Now the child begins to understand what is told by adults, comprehends heard. His speech develops in parallel with hearing.
That I hear, I speak
Is obvious that the speech of the child is closely connected with his hearing. However not all parents attach great value to that as in what quantities the child hears them. Mothers sometimes do not know what to speak about with kid especially as the baby does not understand also a half of monologues of the family. Therefore manage avaricious and rare phrases and by that slow down development of the child. Continuous “hearing“ and “vision“ of someone else`s speech also stimulates development of the speech of the kid. The lexicon of the child of preschool age for 90% consists of the words and phrases heard from parents. Try to talk to the baby, to comment on what was seen on walk, to read to the kid verses, fairy tales. It is wrong to believe that the TV can help with training in speech skills in the child. Researches show that the child has to hear and see the speech not on the screen, and “alive“.
Today many mothers and fathers from early age begin to train the child in foreign languages. Here a key role is played by development of hearing. With good hearing it is much simpler to children to learn foreign languages as they catch tiny nuances and distinctions in a pronunciation of these or those sounds. So, for example, Chinese - special system of tones, and only people with good ear for music are capable to learn it. However, even in aspiration to the best try to observe a measure - sometimes the child needs to listen also to silence.
Something not so...
Unfortunately, some children suffer from a hearing disorder of various degree. Not so it is not enough such kids - 15 newborns from 1000. However, severe defeats, such as deafness or strong relative deafness, meet only in 0,5% of cases. Reasons of violations the most different. They can be divided on congenital and acquired. Carry genetic deviations and heredity to congenital.
of Defeat of hearing can appear also owing to prematurity (weight at the birth less than 1500), hypoxias, respiratory standstill at the baby at the time of delivery, from - for patrimonial injuries, abuse during pregnancy of alcohol, drugs. Such negative consequences can sometimes come because of infection of mother during pregnancy with a rubella, herpes, flu, toxoplasmosis - diseases which are especially dangerous in the first four months of pregnancy.
However, the child can be born with good hearing, but lose it (or partially to lose) from - for complications after bacterial meningitis, encephalitis, severe forms of measles, a mumps, a chronic inflammation of an ear, accidents (various injuries), chemotherapy, application of ototoksichesky means (especially some antibiotics).
Trouble that to the nonspecialist in the first months of life to distinguish a hearing disorder at the kid quite difficult. Even the baby who is completely deprived of hearing cries at the moments of discomfort and can coo, “babble“ when to it it is good. Therefore the family also does not suspect that the child can have problems with hearing. Only when other children begin to mutter more - is less comprehended, to respond on the name, to satisfy requests, at adults I can arise suspicions that at their kid not everything is all right with hearing: the child all the time is silent, does not react to requests, loud sounds, music. But even in this case parents not always go to the doctor, and address physicians when time is already missed.
How to learn?
various methods of diagnostics and check of hearing of babies Exist. In some developed countries of all newborns survey regarding decrease in hearing by means of a special method - registration of otoakustichesky issue. By means of this absolutely safe and painless method it is possible to reveal a hearing disorder even at newborns, checking as the snail of an inner ear functions.
Besides, hearing of the baby it is possible to investigate also by means of a computer elektroentsefaloaudiogramma which is carried out under an easy anesthesia. To the kid certain signals are given, and if the hearing is not broken, in a cerebral cortex there are responses. After that the computer issues the conclusion.by
One more method is called “an approximate audiometriya“. It is suitable for children is more senior which react to visual signals (pictures, light) and are capable to understand where the sound source settles down. If the child is interested only in the image and does not react to sound irritants, it is possible to suspect decrease in hearing.
What to do?
Unfortunately, in 90% of cases deafness is irreversible. But a hearing disorder - a physical defect, but not intellectual, and children can quite seize oral and written language, learn to read, write, communicate with peers, and to enter in the future to the university, to get a job, find a family. Certainly, the hearing-impaired child needs the serious help of the family. Ideally the child needs to pick up artificial limbs aged till 6 months, the best period for development of the speech - from 9 months to 3 - 4 years. It is regularly important to be engaged with surdopedagogy, to develop actively the kid - and a hearing disorder will not become an obstacle in a way to communication and training of the kid.