As to the preschool child to make friends with mathematics of
it is A lot of interesting around
the objects and activity of adults Surrounding the child can expand mathematical representations considerably. It is only necessary to interest the kid in what is around and to help it to see unusual in ordinary, to direct attention to judgment of process and results of actions: measurements, increase or reduction of calculations, establishment of compliance, definition of time, finding of a route of the movement and many other.needs to expand with
limits of independence of the child, to give it an opportunity by means of practical actions to confirm the assumptions, to be approved in understanding of extent, number, weight, equalities, to study properties of objects, to experiment.the Attention of parents has to be directed to
to that the child learned to overcome difficulties, was not afraid of mistakes, sought to argue and find an independent solution of informative tasks. Quite often in a family adults do not allow the child to study properties of objects as are afraid that he will wet shirt sleeves, will soil walls or a table, will litter, will break something, will be cut etc. All fears are proved, however they should not become an obstacle for children`s experimenting.
Sometimes questions which arise at the preschool child demand supervision in specially created situations. Such supervision helps studying of properties of objects, allows to see changes, happening to them under our influence.
For example , from walk was brought it is dazzling white snow, the purest what was found in the yard. It lies on a silver platter and gradually turns gray, darkens. After a while turns into water, and in it black grains and parts float. Not so transparent water as it was supposed.
Or other experience with the snow. On one saucer put friable snow, on another a strong snowball, on the third - a piece of ice. We put a stop watch on a table and we watch the events, then we explain what was seen. We answer a question: why ice remained longer and snow thawed later, than?the adult directs to
In similar situations search, brings by means of questions, reasonings to allocation of properties, exarticulation of the most significant of them in this situation. For example, density of snow weight, lack of free space between its particles where warm air of the room can get.
One more example of statement of experiences. “Do not play for time“, - mother to the child often repeats. At last the little philosopher has a question: how it - to play for time? It can be taken hands and to stretch how a rubber ball? Such phenomenon as subjectivity of perception of time can be checked by practical consideration.
Experience 1. to the Child is offered to sit down conveniently on a stool and to close eyes. Mother includes a stop watch. When, according to the child, there passes minute, he has to raise a hand. By means of a stop watch it is noted, what is the time passed actually. Mother and the child can change over. Upon completion of experience they exchange impressions.
Experience 2. to the Child pair pictures suggest to consider and to find in them differences. After a minute mother asks the child to finish work, but does not report, what is the time passed. The child suggests about that, what is the time passed while he considered pictures.
needs to bring the preschool child to understanding that at occupation by interesting business of people as if does not notice time, and when performing uninteresting, boring work or its absence it seems to it that time hangs heavy. To do something slowly, to spend in vain time is and means “to play for time“.
Can make similar experiments, using other tasks, having chosen other duration of time, to recruit in experiences of other family members.can be
of the Venue of experiences the most traditional. For example, for this purpose the kitchen very much approaches: here the child is expected by a lot of interesting (if mother has time and she has a good mood). The kid near the loved one very much likes to comprehend new. Cut cheese. What form pieces turned out? Triangular, square, rectangular? It is possible to compare square and rectangular pieces of cheese and to define, than they differ, and than are similar. If the child finds it difficult to answer a question, it is possible to bring it to a guess. (Tell, how many the parties at quadrangular and at a rectangular piece; whether identical length of the party? How many corners at each of these pieces?)
the Great interest causes process of preparation of cookies in the child. by means of special devices can give to the test the most different form (for this purpose it is useful and the knife, however, will be required more time, diligence and care). By means of glasses (big and small) it is possible to make circles of the test. When cookies are ready, suggest the child to count at first how many pieces of cookies turned out everything, and then to define how many it is baked pieces of cookies of each form, than cookies of a round form differ (size). Complicate a task. Ask the child to divide conditionally cookies between family members, to define how much it is required cookies if everyone receives on two or three pieces if everyone receives on a cookies half.Preschool children like to shop
together with parents. In shop or in the market can show to the child a lot of interesting. Electronic scales on which products in shop are weighed to compare to scales which use in the market, and household scales. To pay attention that sometimes in the market amount of berries define by a glass. Eggs in shop pack into boxes one ten, i.e. ten pieces. On the price tag their cost for one ten is specified. Juice in packages and bottles can be different volume: on two hundred or on five hundred milliliters, on one, on one and a half or on two liters. The ice cream loved by children can be packed differently too. In each packing - the different number of grams. Boxes with chocolates differ on weight too - it is specified on a box. Its size at the same time can not depend on weight: sometimes in a big box very few candies as each candy lies in the nest, far one from another lie.
In house education is recommended to use the tasks for ingenuity, different in contents, demanding application of various methods at their performance. For example, tasks for finding of the character or object are solved by process of elimination. On the picture three kittens are represented: one kitten striped with a bow, the second kitten striped with a white tail, and the third kitten black. Task: three kittens played with a ball. Tell who confused threads. It was not the black kitten, but striped; it had no bow, but it has a white tail. When performing a task of a reasoning are under construction so: from a condition it is known that it not a black kitten. Means, remain two striped. What do they differ from each other in? One kitten with a bow, another with a white tail. We should choose one of them. In a condition it is told that a kitten striped, but without bow. Therefore, there is only one possible version of the answer: threads were confused by a striped kitten with a white tail.
A here a task for definition of number where various basis of the account is used. Three skiers came to shop and bought for themselves ski sticks. How many sticks were sold? It is necessary to show visually to the child this task, having drawn at first two sticks, to lead round them a circle and under them conditionally to represent the skier. To make the same drawing for the second skier, and then for the third. To count total of sticks and to draw a conclusion: in total six sticks were sold.
Informative communication of the preschool child with the adult and the peer has huge value for all subsequent children`s development. The child specifies ideas of surrounding, faces new properties and signs of objects, learns interrelation of the phenomena. He shows enviable stubbornness, everything is interesting to it, but not everything is available. A lot of things are outside his direct perception. Thanks to the contents sated with information, interesting and useful to the child, informative communication broadens the child`s horizons, helps to construct a complete picture of the world with consciousness.
Examples of tasks on ingenuity and tasks - jokes:to
- the Father - the goose and mother - a cat bought for the children on eight a slipper. How many children at everyone?
- the Grandmother bought granddaughters five candies and three portions of ice cream. Ate all portions of ice cream and as much candies. How many remained candies?
- What stones in the sea? (Wet)
- Call number more than five, but less than two? (Such number does not exist.)