If in a family the child About 20% of pupils of the first classes experience difficulties in assimilation of the program with a delay of mental development
. A specific place among the reasons of poor progress is held by a delay of mental development - not rough lag demanding correctional approach, but allowing to be trained at comprehensive school.Even before receipt in school parents can notice
that their child differs from the peers: he began to sit, stand, tell later the first words. Even in the course of game the child is impulsive, at first does, and then only begins to think. Its activity on occupations in kindergarten is not always purposeful - to it difficultly to concentrate on the activity, does not understand what to begin with how to continue, quickly distracts. These features and furthermore their combination can already be a disturbing signal of trouble.
But, unfortunately, as it often happens, parents do not notice such behavior of the children, or hope that the child “will be tightened“, “will improve“, “dorazovtsya“. But here the child comes to school and meets serious problems, requirements, excessive for it. He often does not manage “to fit“ into school life and new children`s collective. And on behavior it so differs from peers that teachers come to confusion.“ So turns and distracts that hears nothing and does not remember “, “ all only began work, and he was already tired, in a window looks“, - teachers say about such. And parents are lost: does homework for three hours, and to sense is not present, itself wants to do nothing... Also charges to the child begin: is lazy, does not try, wants to understand nothing. Gradually such children get to category “with firmness poor“.
It is natural that the “poor“ pupil, working slowly and not always truly and violating school requirements, receives more remarks, bad notes. Schoolmates quite often laugh at it. Gradually at the child uneasiness, offense, feeling of own awkwardness develops. At the same time not only the self-assessment decreases, but also the desire to go to school, to do homework, to strike up new acquaintances in a class vanishes.
According to different data of the psychologist - pedagogical researches, about 20% of pupils of the first classes experience to some extent difficulties in assimilation of the school program. And it is noted that for various reasons such children are deprived of an opportunity to acquire new knowledge and skills on an equal basis with the peers. A specific place among the reasons of resistant poor progress is held by such option of individual development of mentality of the child who in domestic science received the name a delay of mental development.
the Delay of mental development is a medical diagnosis therefore only the expert can define it. If parents met similar difficulties, then it is the best of all to address to the children`s doctor - the neuropsychiatrist for specification of the reason of similar problems.the delay of mental development is understood by
not rough lag in mental development which, on the one hand, demands special correctional approach to training of the child As the term, on the other hand, allows - as a rule, in the presence of this special approach - to be trained at comprehensive school.Children with a delay of mental development are often restless, inattentive
, hardly understand conditions of the offered tasks. They show low informative activity, they are less inquisitive, than peers. Such child as if “does not hear“ or “does not see“ much in the world surrounding him, does not seek to understand, comprehend the events around it. It is caused by specific features of its mental activity - storing, thinking, attention, emotionally - the strong-willed sphere. Not rough organic insufficiency of those brain systems which are responsible for learning ability of the child and formation of irregular shapes of behavior is the cornerstone of such features most often.by
So, when studying neuropsychological features of children with ZPR noted a slow rate of maturing of frontal areas of the left and right hemispheres to which main functions formation of programs of behavior belongs, control and regulation of the activity, allocation of essential elements of information, their comparison and the analysis, development is abstract - logical thinking, the directed attention. And, the weakened activation of the left hemisphere at receipt of information in right is characteristic of children with a delay of mental development by the beginning of training at school that is observed at earlier stages of normal development of the child.It is shown by
at a slow rate of perception and processing of the arriving information, at the same time the child perceives information fragmentary, is not full and therefore her the same as his peer with normal rate of development cannot comprehend and acquire. Decrease in memory is shown in difficulty of semantic processing of information therefore children often resort to mechanical storing.by
At children with a delay of mental development reduced ability to plan the activity, ability to expect result of the activity and to correlate to it separate actions. Insufficient orientation in the solution of informative tasks leads to the fact that the child when performing any task begins to work “at random“ that leads to numerous mistakes.
the Marked-out specific features of the organization of mental activity of children with a delay of mental development show that children of this category significantly differ from the peers with normal rate of development. Therefore those charges which parents can allow:“ the idler “, “ you catch crows“ - are not proved at all. It is really difficult for such children to fulfill school requirements, they quickly are tired, cannot work, quickly switch long with concentration from one kind of activity to another. Children of this category need the help of adults, especially at the first grade levels.What help parents can give to
if in a family the child with a delay of mental development?
Can face manifestation of the polar attitudes of parents towards children with deviations in development. In one families on the child look as at small. He is sponsored, collect to him in school a portfolio, parents control each action of the child when performing homeworks. All life in a family is subordinated to this child: for it all do, including also what without special work he could make. Such hyper guardianship is very harmful to children. In simple types deyatelnost, elementary skills of self-service and self-checking such important qualities as self-confidence, a sense of responsibility, independence develop. Of course, control is necessary, but it needs to be organized not “over“, and “nearby“. Mother asks the child: “What at you tomorrow lessons? Tell that you put in a briefcase?“ or “What homework you will do at first? What task? What for this purpose is necessary for you?“ Questions of this sort allow to make active attention of the child, to send it to the necessary course, to form independence of decision-making.
of the identity of the child, Not less harmful to formation, with a delay of mental development appears also the opposite extreme at which possibilities of children are obviously overestimated, requirements without specifics of their mental activity are imposed to them. The overload, especially intellectual, involves not only decrease in working capacity, block in understanding of a situation, but also can be shown as aggression, failures in behavior, sharp differences of mood. The overestimated requirements of parents bring to whom that, undertaking business, excessive for itself, the child cannot execute it, begins to be nervous, loses faith in the forces. To keep efficiency of such child, not to do an academic load additional harm him to health, it is necessary to show consideration for the organization of its work and rest very much. Psychologists and doctors claim that breaks during performance of homework are absolutely necessary. With concentration the child can work without rest at the beginning of training not for long, only 8 - 15 min. So, continuous reading at the first grader should not exceed 8 - 10 min., the letter of 4 - 5 min. After that it is better to replace activity. And in 30 - 40 minutes it makes sense to take a big break - it is possible to have a bite, jump, be engaged in the designer, to cut out the interesting picture and to paste in an album. Also eyes have to have a rest and to work other groups of muscles.
In psychology very important principle is - “training leads development“ (L. S. Vygotsky). However it will be useful and productive only if corresponds to real opportunities of the child.also other option of the attitudes of parents towards children - indifferent and popustitelsky Is possible
. Often it meets in socially dysfunctional families or in such where parents behind numerous problems do not notice the child`s problems. In the beginning they just do not notice how their child develops, and later when problems become obvious, begin to strew them with punches, to frighten by belts and excessive punishments. A bit later, when similar actions will not yield results (and it is natural and will be), will wave a hand, a pier “live as you want“.
Especially important for formation of the identity of the school student is progress of the first years of training. During this period are put not only basic knowledge and skills, but also ability to study, relationship with teachers, the attitude towards themselves as to the pupil. The child`s self-assessment at this age very in many respects depends on an assessment of the people surrounding it.
It is important that the child trusted in the forces, tested a condition of comfort, security, positive attitude and interest. Communication is of very great importance for formation of this party of mentality of the child with a delay of mental development. Until he did not learn to read, the only means understanding of the world - the story of the adult interesting and fascinating. Ask then to the child questions of what he learned. There is a question - there is a brainwork. There is a thought - memory becomes more active.Informative activity, aspiration to brainwork are formed by
at first on the lung available to the child and at the same time interesting material. Interest and success not only awaken belief in the forces in the child, defuse tensions, but also promote maintenance of an active, comfortable state. And, it is better to do it in not educational situation: on the way to the grandmother, sitting in the evening on a sofa, gathering a hand-made article from the designer. whether
the child with a delay of mental development Needs medical assistance? Delay of mental development not an illness, but individual option of mental development. But, according to experts, this or that insolvency structurally - functional brain systems, acquired as a result of not rough injury of a brain is the cornerstone of development of mentality of such children. Therefore inspection by the doctor - the child`s neuropsychiatrist with a delay of mental development is desirable: it can reveal signs of organic damage of a brain and is medicamentous influence it, can coordinate excessive block or excitability of the child by means of drugs, to normalize a dream, to speed up work of cells of a brain.by
for children with a delay of mental development developed Now educational programs, special classes on system korrektsionno - the developing training in comprehensive schools are created. In them adequate conditions - small fullness of a class (10 - 12 people) are created. Additional hours on individual occupations with the child do not allow to miss those features which are essential to his training.in conclusion should be emphasized with
, very important in due time to pay attention to a delay in mental development of the child: what began work with the child earlier, than the probability of the fullest compensation of shortcomings of his development is higher and the guarantee is higher that he will not be injured, having appeared without the special help in the general stream of training and realizing the insolvency.