Rus Articles Journal

``Deadly enemies``. Pregnancy and a Rhesus factor - the conflict of

to the Majority of us were hardly necessary to think of what is a Rhesus factor - a factor. It is not surprising: in usual life its existence or absence does not involve any painful consequences. The matter acquires relevance only when it is about pregnancy...

the Rhesus factor - the factor is a protein (or a Rhesus factor - an anti-gene) which is located on a surface of erythrocytes - red blood cells of the person. For the first time it was revealed at monkeys of breed a Rhesus factor from where received the name. Scientists managed to find a Rhesus factor - a factor about 70 years ago. Their opening helped to define that some people have this Rhesus factor - a factor and, respectively, are a Rhesus factor - positive. In other part of mankind a Rhesus factor - the factor was not found; such people are considered as rezusotritsatelny.

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the Rhesus factor - the factor is descended as strong, dominating, a sign. For this reason have it most (about 85%) of people. Blood of these people is a Rhesus factor - positive. Other 15% have no it - they have a Rhesus factor - negative blood. Thus, a Rhesus factor - positive blood means existence a Rhesus factor - a squirrel (or a Rhesus factor - a factor), and a Rhesus factor - negative blood - lack of this factor.

the Negative Rhesus factor - the factor in any way is not felt by the person in usual life. However during pregnancy discrepancy the Rhesus factor - accessories of mother and a fruit can become the reason so-called a Rhesus factor - the conflict.

Possible risk the father`s Rhesus factor mother`s Rhesus factor the child`s Rhesus factor Probability of the conflict plus plus of 75% plus, 25% minus Is not present of there is no there is no
plus minus of 50% plus or 50% minus of 50%
minus plus of 50% plus or 50% minus
minus minus minus

the Conflict: who is guilty?

the Rhesus factor - the sensitization (a Rhesus factor - the conflict) is a development in an organism a Rhesus factor - negative mother of antibodies to anti-genes of system a fruit Rhesus factor, that is to the protein located on the child`s erythrocytes.

the Problem can arise only in that case when future mother a Rhesus factor - is negative, that is in her blood a Rhesus factor - the factor is absent, and future father at the same time a Rhesus factor - is positive (in its blood the Rhesus factor - a factor is defined), then the kid can inherit from it a Rhesus factor - accessory. Thus, the baby, as well as his father, will be a Rhesus factor - positive (in its blood the Rhesus factor - a factor will be created). Formation a Rhesus factor - accessories of the kid comes to the end to 8 - y to week of pregnancy.

Then that future mother bears the kid differing from it in existence in blood a Rhesus factor - a factor whereas she has this Rhesus factor - the factor is absent. The immune system of mother distinguishes alien protein - a Rhesus factor - a factor of the kid - and begins to fight against it. Fight against “enemy“ is carried out as follows: the maternal organism allocates a Rhesus factor - antibodies which begin to attack fruit erythrocytes.

Results of this fight can turn out

very deplorable. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) in blood of a fruit collapse and perish. As a result the total of erythrocytes of the baby decreases and it develops anemia (anemia). Collapsing, erythrocytes of a fruit emit bilirubin - substance which is toxin for the kid. Circulating in blood of the kid, bilirubin poisons him and will paralyze work of vitals of a children`s organism. This state is called a hemolytic illness of a fruit. Without the specific and in due time begun treatment the fruit can die therefore the suspicion on development a Rhesus factor - the conflict is the indication to hospitalization in specialized clinic. it is important to p to understand

that such serious complications of pregnancy as a Rhesus factor - the conflict and a hemolytic illness of the kid, arise only in one case - if future kid has a Rhesus factor - negative mother and a Rhesus factor - the positive father. But even at a Rhesus factor - the positive father it is very possible (to 50% of probability) that the kid will be a Rhesus factor - negative, as well as his mother, and no complications threaten it!

In all other cases:

the father and mother a Rhesus factor - are positive Should tell

that even in case of development the Rhesus factor - the positive child at a Rhesus factor - negative mother will not necessarily develop a Rhesus factor - the conflict, that is not always in this case in an organism of mother antibodies to fruit erythrocytes will be formed. At a Rhesus factor - the negative woman who for the first time became pregnant risk of development the Rhesus factor - the conflict makes only 10%. In the absence of complications (formation of antibodies) in the first pregnancy the same degree of risk (10%) remains also in the following pregnancy.

Even if in blood of the pregnant woman are found by

a Rhesus factor - antibodies, it does not mean 100% risk of a disease of a fruit, the baby has so many defenders. In blood of future mother, in the waters surrounding the kid, and, of course, in principal organ of pregnancy - a placenta - there are special biological filters. These filters block a Rhesus factor - antibodies, detaining them and not passing further to the kid. However efficiency of such protection in many respects depends on the general state of health of future mother and the course of pregnancy. Unfortunately, chronic diseases of the pregnant woman (first of all - infections) and pregnancy complications (interruption threat, toxicosis, a partial otsloyka of a placenta) reduce efficiency of protection and increase risk of development a Rhesus factor - the conflict. Normal during pregnancy the insignificant amount of blood of a fruit insufficient for a sensitization, however in the presence of blood allocations, an arterial hypertension gets to a blood-groove of mother, at obstetric manipulations and intrauterine interventions the volume of the blood of a fruit getting to the woman`s blood-groove increases. So, carrying out during pregnancy of invasive researches (the technique including a micropuncture of a fetal bubble and a fence of cages of a fruit, an umbilical cord, a placenta of fetal waters) increases risk of development a Rhesus factor - the conflict and a hemolytic illness of a fruit. Also large volume of blood gets to the woman`s blood-groove at artificial or spontaneous abortion and Cesarean section.

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the Rhesus factor - antibodies at the woman in who blood is not present a Rhesus factor - a factor can be formed at pregnancy interruption: spontaneous abortion (abortion), medical abortion and at development of extra-uterine pregnancy. Frequency of emergence of antibodies at different types of interruption of pregnancy makes about 3%. These antibodies circulate in the woman`s blood all life and can cause a Rhesus factor - the conflict during the following pregnancy even in many years. As a result the following pregnancy can end with a hemolytic illness of a fruit or an abortion.

to All future mothers should remember importance of preservation of the first pregnancy at negative a Rhesus factor - a factor. Deliberating whether not to interrupt the first pregnancy, think of possible complications, of weight of a hemolytic illness, of complexity of its treatment, of not incubation at the subsequent pregnancies, of big risk of childlessness! Perhaps, it will be powerful argument in favor of pregnancy preservation, will help to keep health to future kid and will present happiness to you.

Prevention a Rhesus factor - the conflict

Planning pregnancy, it is necessary to establish, among other, the blood type and a Rhesus factor - accessory. In that case when the Rhesus factor - a factor is not found (that is future mother a Rhesus factor - is negative), it is necessary to establish a Rhesus factor - a factor of future father. Anyway it is necessary to be registered no later than 7 - 8 weeks of pregnancy - it allows to begin in due time inspection of future mother and to prevent development of many complications.

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Right after registration in a maternity welfare unit a Rhesus factor - negative future mother will appoint special blood test. It is the analysis on identification in its blood a Rhesus factor - antibodies and their quantity, or a caption of antibodies. If antibodies are not found, next time blood on antibodies is investigated on 18 - 20 - y weeks, then monthly. At absence a Rhesus factor - antibodies and safe development of pregnancy in 28 weeks to the woman inject a special drug which interferes with development of antibodies in blood a Rhesus factor - negative mother. This preparation is called antirezusny immunoglobulin. After introduction of a preparation blood on antibodies is not investigated any more.

If antibodies are found by

or pregnancy repeated, after completion of the previous pregnancies an anti-Rhesus factor - immunoglobulin was not entered, there were abortions or medical abortions or were born a Rhesus factor - positive children - regular definition of antibodies is carried out monthly up to 32 - y weeks of pregnancy. With 32 - y on 35 - yu this analysis two times make week of pregnancy already, and after 35 - y weeks check blood for antibodies of times a week - before the childbirth. At emergence of antibodies their caption is defined.

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At identification a Rhesus factor - antibodies on any term of pregnancy future mother is directed to inspection in the clinic specializing in a problem a Rhesus factor - the conflict. If antibodies do not come to light, the pregnant woman continues to be observed in a usual maternity welfare unit, regularly repeating check on antibodies.

After the birth of the kid and crossing of an umbilical cord directly in the rodzal take an umbilical blood for definition a Rhesus factor - a factor of the kid. If the newborn, as well as his mother, is a Rhesus factor - negative, there is no risk for development of a hemolytic illness. In case the kid inherited a positive Rhesus factor from the father, to the mother one more dose of immunoglobulin is entered. Thus prevention a Rhesus factor - the conflict in the following pregnancy is provided. The preparation necessary for this procedure is entered within 48 hours after the delivery. This preparation has to be in all maternity hospitals; it is entered by all a Rhesus factor - to negative women in whom by the time of childbirth of an antibody were not found. But if you know that you probably need immunoglobulin introduction, then it is better to take an interest in advance whether there is a preparation in that maternity hospital where you are going to give birth. After the delivery it is necessary to poynteresovatsya what Rhesus factor - a factor at your kid and if it positive, then - whether entered to you immunoglobulin. It is better if it is made in a rodbloka, in the first 2 hours after the delivery.

the Rhesus factor - the negative woman without the sensitization phenomena (identification of the antibodies demonstrating emergence a Rhesus factor - the conflict) can give birth in the ordinary maternity hospital which does not have specialization in conducting pregnancy and childbirth at a Rhesus factor - the conflict.

How to win against an illness?

(increase of quantity of antibodies in blood) the pregnant woman is hospitalized by

At detection of a hemolytic illness of a fruit in office of pathology of specialized maternity hospital. In maternity hospital conduct additional examination. The condition of a fruit is estimated by means of ultrasonic research, a dopplerometriya and a kardiotokografiya. These researches also help with identification of the first signs a Rhesus factor - the conflict. The beginning attack of maternal antibodies is resulted by a placenta thickening, the amount of fetal waters increases, at the kid the liver and a spleen increase in sizes. Such manifestations a Rhesus factor - the conflict easily come to light by means of ultrasonography.

carry out by
in the presence of indications pre-natal blood transfusion to a fruit.

Two other researches - the dopplerometriya and KTG - allow to make a functional assessment of a condition of the kid, in other words - to trace his health. Doppler - research is version ultrasonography at which determine blood-groove level in uterine arteries, vessels of a placenta and umbilical cord. His growth and development depends on blood circulation between mother and the kid, with blood the fruit receives oxygen and nutrients. At development a Rhesus factor - the conflict the placentary blood-groove worsens.

of KTG, or cardiomonitoring of a fruit - the hardware research allowing to trace and register the heart rate (HR) of a fruit on a special tape. Warm tones of the baby - the main indicator of his health. On increase or an urezheniye of ChSS it is possible to suspect the general deterioration in health of a fruit.

in the presence of indications (rapid growth of quantity of antibodies, considerable suffering of a fruit) is carried out kordotsentez - introduction of a needle to vessels of an umbilical cord of the kid and pre-natal blood transfusion to a fruit.

Procedure is made by

as follows: under control of ultrasonography through a forward belly wall of mother by means of a catheter get into a vein of an umbilical cord and pour to a fruit from 20 to 50 ml of a preparation donor a Rhesus factor - negative blood I of group. This measure promotes weakening of the immune answer of an organism of future mother. Such effect manages to achieve thanks to reduction of relative quantity a Rhesus factor - positive erythrocytes. Thanks to it the condition of the kid improves and pregnancy safely develops. Pre-natal transfusions can be carried out repeatedly to 34 - y weeks of pregnancy. After this term the fruit is considered viable and if necessary the issue of an early rodorazresheniye is resolved.

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For treatment of a hemolytic illness of a fruit use also following techniques:

Plazmoferez - a technique of purification of blood. At a plasma exchange from plasma (liquid part of blood) toxins and pathological products are removed. For this purpose at first make blood sampling, and then return it via the plasma filter.

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of Immunosorbtion of plasma - the method is based on loaded ™ molecules of the harmful products which are contained in blood which when passing through a sorbent (absorbent carbon) “sticks“ to it. Blood is passed via coal filters and returned in the cleared look.

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Replanting of a skin rag - the piece of skin of future father “is implanted“ to the wife the last 3 months of pregnancy. It is similar to plastic surgery (as, for example, at treatment of heavy burns). When the skin rag of future father begins “to get accustomed“ on the new place, the maternal organism distinguishes it as alien fabric. It is some kind of distracting maneuver: immunity of the pregnant woman throws all forces on fight against more alien agent. Development of antibodies to a Rhesus factor of the kid at the same time decreases that gives the chance to prolong pregnancy.

Anti-lymphocytic immunoglobulin - the preparation causing partial destruction of immune cells of mother. Immunity of the pregnant woman decreases that leads to reduction of development of antibodies and improvement of a condition of the kid.

Inspection and treatment at a Rhesus factor - the conflict of mother and a fruit is carried out by

only in the conditions of a specialized hospital. The choice of a method of treatment is defined by the doctor. At in due time begun treatment the forecast for mother and the kid favorable.