In flight! Ladder
Screw angular, direct on kosoura, on bolets with a turn, folding garret... It is only possible to guess what was the very first ladder. For certain something primitive... The branches of trees which are tied up by stalks of the dried plants. Steps, vytesanny stone axe. Anyway, it is almost impossible to present the modern dwelling without it architecturally - an engineering construction. But if in an apartment house a ladder as the mother-in-law, do not choose, then here for own cottage it is always possible to design something special, “under itself“...
“Time - a plate, two - the plate, will be a short flight of stairs“
At first very few theory. As a rule, any ladder is, first of all, the basis (kosoura, bolets, an upsetting pipe) and steps (opened or with a so-called podstupenok). Still can be present: platforms between marches (a version - a balustrade), and also a handrail, rail-posts and other decorative elements.
as a ladder happen: kosourny, on bolets, screw, helicoid. Kosour is two inclined beams on each side ladders which hold steps. Differ direct, gear, roundish. If kosour a straight line, then ladder march turns out direct. At a roundish kosour (when beams are bent) the ladder has a visible bend. At a gear kosour the top party of beams is cut out in the form of teeth, and on these teeth steps are established (they are called “consignment notes“).
Kosourny ladders usually are made of a tree. Beautifully and respectably. From shortcomings: such design turns out massive, it begins to prevail in an interior.
ladders on bolets (bolts) or as they are often called, suspended gained distribution Recently. This brilliant German invention saves space, it is convenient and strong. And you will look - as if soars in air. And at the same time each step maintains the weight of “Gazelle“ - 1800 kg! System of fixture of steps at such ladders invisible. It is arranged so: rubber laying and steel bolets on which steps fasten insert into a wall. Rubber laying reduces vibration and a scratch when walking. > Such ladders it is convenient to p to repair
: if one of steps is damaged, it can be removed without problems, without having mentioned next. Of course, ladders on bolets are not so magnificent as kosourny. And from - for the seeming ease of a ladder on bolets mistakenly are perceived as less steady though they are absolutely reliable and safe.
In spiral staircases of a step settle down around the central rack - a so-called upsetting pipe - and in principle do not need an additional support or fastening. However, it is possible to meet a spiral staircase both on kosoura, and on bolets. And here helicoid ladders have no kosour and bolets and settle down usually in the center of the room. Their steps are twirled around an upsetting pipe in the form of a direct vertical spiral (from here and the name). Usual spiral staircases can be slightly extended. Let`s tell at once, functionality of a spiral staircase very often gives way to its design opportunities.the Spiral staircase should not do
too narrow as it is fraught with inconveniences: on it it will be difficult to disperse, and raising of large-size furniture will become almost unsoluble problem.Separately should be told
also about step width. First of all, the step has to be convenient for rise - not too high or low. Its width has to correspond 45 - mu to the leg size (that is not less than 25 centimeters) not to fall down on the way down. And height of a step has to be no more than 20 centimeters. An optimum inclination of a ladder - from 30 to 45 degrees. The quantity of steps depends on height of a ceiling and a tilt angle of a ladder. For example, with a height of ceiling of 2 m of 60 cm and a tilt angle 45 ° (maximum permissible) about 13 steps 20 cm high “will keep within“ a ladder (to divide 260 cm on 20).
From what, from what, from what...
... these ladders are made? If to keep the same cheerful intonation, as in the refrain of a children`s song which is slightly paraphrased by us, then it is possible to answer briefly: from everything! Meaning material. Here and always demanded tree, both metal, and natural stone, and molding marble, and even glass...the Unconditional favourite modern builders have
, of course, ladder designs from a tree. Environmentally friendly, warm, various shades, they give in to sophisticated processing, are beautiful and available at the price. Wood of coniferous breeds (a fir-tree, a fir, a pine, a larch, a cedar), and also an oak, a beech, a nut, cherry is used. At each breed the features. For example, the expansion coefficient at a larch is five times higher, than at a pine. And it means that at change of humidity education enough large cracks both strong torsion and a bend of material is indoors possible. To avoid these troubles, it is necessary to establish surely an automatic parouvlazhnitel and to maintain constant temperature in the room. The same precautionary measures belong and to other breeds of a tree, however, consequences are not so critical. Several years later a small time will be closed, and moisture will cease to influence wood actively.
By the way, at all it is optional that all ladder was made of one breed and in general - it is exclusive from a tree. Various combined options are possible. For example, kosour metal, and steps wooden. Or kosour wooden, steps marble, and a handrail - shod.by
At production of stone ladders applies a wide range of materials, from concrete to marble, natural or molding (artificial). Ladders from marble mainly use in internal rooms. This results from the fact that marble, having rich color scale, is insufficiently steady against differences of humidity and temperature. And here to granite vagaries of the weather at all. But it is unimportant, ladder steps will be made of marble or of granite, - it is necessary to remember that it is quite slippery materials. Therefore if in the house there are children or elderly people, it is better to strengthen at steps antiskid profiles, for example, from rubber.by
When using stone ladders applies a wide range of materials, from concrete to marble. The palette of materials for metal and plastic ladders is also very various, thanks to broad penetration into construction of advanced technologies of their production.
Meet (the truth, it is quite rare) and the ladders made of nonconventional materials (for example, from glass) that can introduce special color in a room interior.
Where to address?
the Russian land, as we know, was always famous for the masters, including from the remote place. For example, magnificent exclusive ladders of a tree are made by Anatoly Dankovsky`s shop in Dyagilevo.
a Variety of the ladders offered by the Moscow companies is capable to blow the mind even of the most exacting house owner. A spiral staircase with fastening in a wall, ladder racks from glass, a spiral octagonal staircase, a vertical straight line, vertical with steps of a different form, combined - with marble facing of steps and wooden rail-posts and a handrail... And it is always possible to order something absolutely special, in one copy.
For example, the Li - El Dizayn company offers magnificent ladders of the leading Italian producers of Scale, InterScala, Edilco, GranaEnzo. According to catalogs it is possible to choose any model and a configuration. Moreover, models can combine: to take a handrail and rail-posts from one, kosour with steps - from another, and a landing - from the third. Material: tree, metal, glass, marble or concrete.
the Vland Company specializes more than ten years in production and installation of modern ladder protections, exclusive metalwork, stylish and original home decoration from metal and takes the leading positions among domestic producers in this segment of the market today. A basis the material applied in products - stainless steel with high-quality processing of a surface. It is possible to estimate modern style and grace of the protections executed by this company in buildings of capital shopping centers:“ Cheryomushki“ on Trade-union, “Mosmart“ on Dmitrovskoye Highway, “ZAR Gallery“ on Rublyovka, etc. And you will appear on crossing of the Nakhimov and Sevastopol avenues, surely pay attention to a monument to seamen - to sailors of the Black Sea Fleet: it is realized too with active participation of the Vland company.
Dates of performance of orders at all firms approximately identical: 2 - 4 months. The import ladder will be ready in two months, and Russian - in a month. And here the ladder price traditionally pays off on height meter. According to the most conservative estimates, the ladder of the average sizes, with good design, will cost approximately $7000. All the rest depends on your wishes.