Rus Articles Journal

Botulism of

Buying in the market or in shop canned or fish meat, marinated vegetables and mushrooms, we always look that the cover was not blown up, and liquid not muddy. Whether you - and why quite so we arrive reflected?. The matter is that, eating poor prepared products or products with the violated storage conditions, it is possible to catch botulism.

Botulism - the illness resulting from poisoning with toxins of bacteria of botulism and which is characterized by a severe defeat of the central and vegetative nervous system.

the Activator - clostridium botulinum - is widespread in the nature with a constant habitat in the soil, forms the disputes extremely steady against influence of chemical and physical factors (maintain boiling within 5 hours and perish at 120 °C in 30 minutes). Bacteria contain one of the poisons, strongest in the nature, - botulotoksin, its lethal dose for the person makes only 0,3 mkg.

of People catches botulism at the use of products of an animal and a phytogenesis polluted by klostridiya of fruit and vegetables incorrectly tinned, through sausages, ham, smoked fish. In recent years in developing of botulism not the last role is played by the mushrooms preserved in house conditions.

the Sick person is dangerous by

to people around as he allocates in external environment of a bacterium with excrements, emetic masses. Got into a digestive tract botulotoksin does not collapse enzymes, it is soaked up in blood and carried on all organism, “settling“ in various parts of the nervous system. There are paresis and paralyzes of muscles of a throat, throat, respiratory muscles. It leads to violation of breath, swallowing owing to what arise aspiration (from - for hits of gastric contents in lungs) pneumonia. Sepsis (blood poisoning) can develop.

to

So, it is clear that infection of the adult occurs through zheludochno - an intestinal path, however, two exceptions of this rule which are found very seldom - botulism of babies at whom toxin is produced in intestines vegetative (not mature, not disputes) by activator forms, and wound botulism when reproduction of klostridiya and a toksinoobrazovaniye happens in the rotting, necrotic fabrics of a wound are known.

the Clinic

the Incubatory period (from the moment of hit of the activator in an organism before clinical displays of an illness) lasts from several hours to 2 - 5 days. It is known that the disease is heavier, the incubatory period is shorter. At severe forms it makes, on average, about days.

During botulism are allocated by 3 syndromes:

As a rule, the illness begins li with manifestations gastrointestinalny a syndrome - the patient is disturbed by nausea, vomiting, skhvatkoobrazny belly-aches, a liquid chair without pathological impurity. It proceeds, on average, 20 - 24 hours, then neurologic the symptomatology appears: disorder of sight - one of the earliest symptoms of botulism (patients “grid“ before eyes disturbs, doubling of objects, difficulty of reading - it is connected with paralysis of eye muscles). At the same time there are a thirst, dryness of mucous membranes, disorder of swallowing, the voice timbre can change. Patients complain of feeling of “lump“ in a throat, morbidity when swallowing, irritation - these symptoms are caused by damage of glotatelny muscles. Sometimes mistakenly diagnose quinsy for such patients.

the Neurologic symptomatology lasts several days and is followed by all-toxic a syndrome - patients complain of a severe headache, dizziness, sleeplessness, the general weakness, temperature increase of a body. In hard cases, at damage of respiratory muscles, patients the feeling of shortage of air disturbs, weight in a thorax, breath becomes superficial. Respiratory insufficiency develops that is a cause of death at botulism.

Treatment of botulism

At the slightest suspicion to botulism of the patient needs to be sent to

to specialized office as only there will be able to render it the specific treatment directed to neutralization, binding and removal of toxins from an organism as soon as possible.

For neutralization of a botulotoksin are used by special serums intramuscularly within 1 - 4 days. Considering that in zheludochno - an intestinal path disputes can turn into vegetative forms, for their destruction use antibiotics (levomitsetin, preparations of a tetracycline row). At disorders of breath artificial ventilation of lungs is shown. For the best saturation of blood oxygen and increases of protective forces of an organism use hyperbaric oxygenation.

Forecast

Forecast rather serious. Even at in due time begun treatment and modern methods of therapy the lethality makes 15 - 30%. Term of stay in a hospital of 1 - 2 month.

of Complication at botulism

of Complication arise often. Carry toxic myocarditis (damage of muscles of heart), pneumonia (pneumonia), sepsis (blood poisoning) to them. After an extract from a hospital patients are observed from 2 weeks to 6 months with the minimum inspection (an electrocardiogram, blood test, surveys of the neuropathologist, cardiologist, infectiologist).

Prevention of botulism

As is the main reason for developing of botulism

the use in food of poor prepared, spoiled products, a leading role in prevention of this disease explanatory work with the population about rules of house conservation of vegetables, fruit, mushrooms, meat, about need of careful observance of technology is. For destruction of a botulotoksin before the use of canned food it is expedient to warm up their contents to 100 °C within 30 minutes.

cannot eat canned, fish meat At all if the iron jar is blown up, deformed (“bombazhny“ banks).

For prevention of botulism at the persons using together with a disease of botulism infected a product, to them are entered by serums like A, B, E (against the types of klostridiya, most dangerous to the person), and watch them within 10 - 12 days.

From history

I in conclusion - the interesting historical report. The disease is known for a long time, but botulism his German scientist Yu. Kerner called about two hundred years ago, having studied and having described clinic of an illness at the person. He considered as the reason “sausage“ poison, this name kept till 1896 when Dutch Van Zomengel received culture of a stick of a botulinus from ham.

botulism was established to

at the beginning of the 20th century at animals. It was described in Rossi and many other countries at horses, a cattle, birds, minks. And, mortality of animals among the patients with botulism makes 100%.