the most famous and eminent persons admitted to Makaronomaniya sympathy for the Italian paste: Sofia Lauren, Audrey Hyopbern, Gioachino Rossini, Enrico Caruso... It seems that it is simpler than food and does not exist: welded in boiled water, added sauce - and it is ready. However not one generation of “theorists“ of kitchen tried to find out how and when such “simple“ dish as paste, not only won hearts of Italians, but also became world-wide favourite.
Long time was considered that acquainted Marco Polo`s compatriots with paste, in 1295 come back to Venice from long travel to China. And it is valid: in Celestial Empire they ate vermicelli in 2000 BC. Confirms it recently found archeologists on North - the country West well remained bowl from the remains of the pasta made, however, not of wheat, and of millet. According to other version, paste spread across Italy after the Arab invasion to Sicily in the XII-XIII centuries. Arabs - nomads always took a stock of dried noodles which rescued them from hunger during long transitions in the travel.
However, most likely, inhabitants of the peninsula - a boot conceived a liking for pasta much earlier. It is known that various variations of the test from flour and water still ancient Greeks and Romans, however, used fir-trees they it not as a separate dish. Flat cake of the test (“itrion“ or “laganum“) at first was baked, and then cut on ribbons with which filled soups. The antique doctor Galen, the Roman poet Kvint Horace Flakk in one of “Satires“ and Greek grammars and the sophist Afiney Navkratiysky wrote about such food. Mentions of the fact that boiled itrium dough was used in Palestine in the III-V centuries are also in the Talmud.paste was extended by
By the beginning of the second millennium in Italy so that there were recipe-books devoted to it. The most ancient collection of recipes which reached up to now - “About art to prepare sitsiliansky for vermicelli and macaroni“ about 1000 is written by Martino Corvo, the personal cook Patriarkha of Akvileysky John IV. Three centuries later a certain Barnaba de Reatinis published the book “Meeting of Properties of Products“ which is devoted to kinds of paste. By the way, modern recipe-books contain 300 options of bases of preparation and more than one thousand recipes of pastes, however, some differ from each other unless in the name. But nevertheless the main characteristic of the Italian paste since the 14th century its division on fresh and dry is considered to this day.to
to Distribution of the Italian paste across all Europe was promoted by the wedding of Caterina Medici and future French king Henry II which took place in 1533. The fourteen-year florentiyka brought with herself to Paris not only lots of orders, but also culinary recipes. It is known that especially for it the French cooks cooked “Macaroni baked pudding with thrushes“ where except paste mushrooms, truffles, chicken potroshka and thrushes stuffed with a liver entered. In 1602 the composer Giovanny del Turco laid the foundation of nice tradition of the Italian musical culinary specialists which then was carried on by Rossini, Verdi and Puccini, and began to compose the recipe-book. He published it only in 34 years under the name “Feasts and Various Sacraments“, having collected all recipes famous to it. In particular, he in detail painted pastes popular at that time with a stuffing - anolin in broth, the tortell, ravioli. Since 1608 pasta could not be done just like that: there was a law that all producers of paste have to enter guild of vermishelshchik (vermicellarti). In 1639 liverymen finally won against the competitors of bakers: from now on they are forbidden to do by the special decree paste. In 1699 the guild of vermishelshchik changes a name, becoming guild of makaronshchik.Water, flour and bronze
For production of dry paste (pasta secca or pastasciutta) is used by
flour from firm grades of wheat. In it more protein, than in flour from soft grades there is less starch. It is mixed with water then dough is pressed through through metal lattices. Are considered the best bronze as they leave edges of paste slightly - slightly friable, and it is a guarantee that subsequently such makaronina will well absorb water when cooking and will contact (or as Italians speak, “will get married“) sauce. Then paste is dried. Before it dried on the sun therefore and today most of all paste is made in the most solar districts - in Kampanyi, on Sicily, in Laguria. Now paste is dried in rooms, but occupies this process still a lot of time - from 40 to 80 hours until it reaches demanded 12 - percentage humidity.
quality makaronin is judged by several criteria. First of all - color: ideal - warm, it is yellow - golden, with an amber shade. On a gleam of a makaronin has to be light, transparent, with tiny tochechka on all length which demonstrate that at flour there are grain germs. To the touch - firm, but at the same time elastic, that is at easy pressing by it is more useless to break and the more so to crumble.
One more important test which producers put to dry paste before sending to shops, - cooking. Good production stays in boiled water, without having boiled soft, at least 20 minutes, and water in which it cooks, does not change color, does not grow turbid and does not become bonding. Of course, it does not mean that it is necessary to cook paste 20 minutes, but such is examination on durability.
Fresh paste (pasta fresca) becomes at home, so, changes from area to area, from the city to the city, from the hostess to the hostess. And still basic rules are and here. That which is used in the biggest area of Italy - Emily - Romagna is considered the initial recipe. For such paste flour from soft grades of wheat, the premium (in Italy it is designated by “00“), fresh eggs with yolks of orange color, a pinch of salt and several drops of olive oil is necessary. Dough is accurately stirred fingers or a wooden rake, gradually picking up flour. When the uniform lump is formed, it begins to be broken about a table, to pull, rumple that the dense, elastic weight which is left later for half an hour under a napkin turned out “to mature“.
Then dough are rolled - either a usual rolling pin, or the special machine consisting of two metal rollers between which distance can be regulated. This procedure is repeated several times that layer became more uniform.in general to derogations from this classical recipe does not have
A number. It appears, in house paste there is nothing obligatory at all - egg, for example, which - where do not put. To wheat flour of the premium mix buckwheat or chickpeas, bran, and also greens, wine, grated cheese... A specific place is held by color paste: it is received, adding natural dyes to the test. For example, to receive yellow or orange shades, it is necessary to add a saffron, pumpkin or carrots, spinach and a cucumber grass, pink - tomatoes, brown - cocoa, violet - beet, and black - ink of an octopus give green color.
the Marriage union
Paste without sauce does not happen. Even the simplest additive - olive oil with garlic and pepper is already sauce, and classical, and it has a name:“ alyo, olyo, peperonchino“. To choose to paste of more refined “partner“, first of all it is necessary to pay attention on “forms - a factor“, that is to length of a makaronina and to the invoice of its surface. Difficult, multicomponent sauces, and to long and smooth - simple and uniform approach short and ridge paste more.But not everything is so simple
. The following step - should be defined what place is taken by paste in the menu. The plate of macaroni can replace the whole lunch, and the caloric content of “naked“ paste is not so big: in 100 g of a dry product 350 - 370 kcal contain. In this case sauce has to guarantee nutritiousness, that is include fats and proteins, for example cheese or meat. Another matter if paste is the main part of the traditional Italian dinner consisting of three and more dishes: snack - “anti-mouths“, then, actually, paste and dessert, coffee or digestive... In this case, of course, easy gravy - vegetable or fish will approach better.
But there is more to come. Sauce has to be in harmony with other dishes. If as snack the dish with seafood, and on the second the baked trout moves, then it is desirable also sauce to paste to make fish. And when a role of a main course is played by meat of a wild wild boar, and it is good to make gravy for paste from a game. In other words, the food has to be various, but not eclectic! At last, Italians thought up also such cunning: by drawing up the menu it is necessary to consider the rule of increase of intensity - each subsequent dish has to possess more saturated taste, than previous.
Dry and fresh paste is not just two types of paste, it is two way of life. Dry paste becomes at factories. First “pastifich“ (so in Italy call macaroni factories) appeared in Italy in the 18th century, them 149 now. Dry macaroni prepares only a few minutes: bought, welded and ate. Fresh paste though it can also be bought in shop, nevertheless still traditionally prepares at home. Several hours occupy this process. It would seem, two types of paste completely correspond to division of Italy into the “fast“ industrial North and the “slow“ agricultural South. This imbalance exists still. In the north - automobile giants “Fiat“ and “Pirelli“, finance corporations, the large industrial companies. In the south - mafia, unemployment, is lower a standard of living, and only 24% of the Italian GDP are made here. The paradox is that paste divides Italy exactly the opposite: industrialization of paste began with the South, there and today eat it more. And here in the north, despite the accelerated life rhythm, just “house“ fresh paste of long preparation spread.
The are more strict than the rule, the it is more interesting to break them. In other words, to experiment. Paste confirms it. For example, that will leave if to put not macaroni in sauce, and sauce - in macaroni? The ravioli very similar to what we call pelmeni and vareniki will turn out. For forcemeat the same ingredients, as suit for sauces: meat, fish, cheeses, greens, vegetables. Some versions prepare very quickly: test layer is rolled, small hills of a stuffing, from above - one more layer of the test then small squares special with a gear castor are knifed are put. So do, for example, “anyolett“. And for “karamell“ dough is cut at first small squares, put a stuffing and turned as candy candy wrappers. Twist “fagottin“ even more fancifully - small knots.
the lasagna, more similar to pie, than on macaroni, and the stuffed pancakes to “krespella“ also belongs To the category of pastes. But, perhaps, the strangest macaroni - cold. Cold paste salad - a fine dish for summer picnic. If in salad cheese is supposed, it is added to even warm macaroni that it managed to melt slightly. All the rest: the fresh and baked vegetables, sausages, ham, boiled eggs are put when paste finally cools down. Fill such unusual salad without cunnings - olive oil, vinegar and spices.by
It no wonder that macaroni with their universality and readiness began to change one of the main subjects and in kitchen a fusion. Especially well paste combinations to the Chinese or Indian sauces, for example with a curry turn out. The molecular kitchen fashionable now did not ignore paste the, however, in molecular macaroni too there is neither flour, nor eggs. But only the frozen sea water.
In Italy 20 administrative units (15 areas and 5 autonomous regions), and in everyone are macaroni “specialist programme“. Abruzzo is famous for paste “alla a kitar“, that is in the form of guitar strings which moves with ragout from pork or a rabbit, and also tagliatelle with a sauce from grape snails. In Apulia prepare for “orekkyetta“ (“ears“) to which do sauce of a turnip tops of vegetable. Bazilikata: here cook “kavatyedd“ - trickled pastries with pork sauce. Vallee - d Aosta: residents of this small area borrow paste from the neighboring regions (for example, lombardiysky “pizzokerr“ from buckwheat flour), plentifully flavoring it with local odorous fontin cheese. Veneto it is well-known for the of “bigola“, similar to spaghetti, is only thicker which eat with duck sauce.
In Calabria are prepared by “shchilatedd“ - small spaghetti which are given the twisted form, winding them on a knitting spoke, and to them - various fish and meat sauces. Kampanye: here gnocchis and talyolin with sauces do of tomatoes and broccoli, and also paste “alla a putanesk“ (“a la the prostitute“) with anchovies and capers. Lazio is famous for the of “bukatina“ - thick long macaroni which gives with sauce “all an amatrichyana“ on the basis of smoked pork cheeks, tomatoes and sheep cheese or with simpler sauce “kachio e Pepe“ (cheese, pepper, olive oil). In Laguria “farfalle“ (“butterfly“) with gravy do of green peas, but the best-known local sauce is Genoa pesto with which give twisted “trophy“ (“matches“). Lombardy: here prepare a set of types of paste with meat or vegetable forcemeat (“kanonse“, “anyol“, “tortell“). The most known dish Mark - the “sea and mountains“ spaghetti with squids and mushrooms sauce.to Moliza is famous for
for the simple, but nourishing sauce to long paste made of a grain crumb, olive oil, garlic and parsley. Piedmont: here to paste often do gravy of white truffles. The best-known paste of Sardinia - “malloreddus“. These trickled pastries move with tomatoes sauce and sausages. Besides, on Sardinia often cook ricotta ravioli. Sicily is famous for the paste “alla Norma“ called so in honor of the heroine of the opera Bellini to whom sauce is done of eggplants and ricotta. On the Mediterranean coast of Tuscany prepare for “bavettena“ (“slobbers“) with fish sauce. In Trentino - Alto - Adige, close to Austria, the “kanederla“ trickled pastries very similar to Austrian and German “knedl“ prepare and give in broth. Umbria is well-known for black truffles, with them - that is given here by both spaghetti, and “strangozz“, and also do “umbrichell“ with a sauce of a perch. Friuli - Venice - Julia: here cook potatoes anyolott pelmeni. Emilia-Romagna - the homeland of the well-known sauce “bolognese“, that is Bologna where enter mincemeat, tomatoes, onions, carrots and a celery. Here too often do the stuffed paste, for example, “kappeletta“ (“hats“) with the mixed beef, veal and pork stuffing.
the Comedy of della paste
Eating paste, it is very difficult “to behave decently“: not to champ, not to vymazyvatsya sauce, not to drop macaroni on a shirt. It is possible therefore paste turned into object of sneers and jokes. In the 15th century even poetic style under the name “makaronichesky poetry“ arose. So comic poems in which grandiloquent Latin mixed up with colloquial Italian were called - just as paste mixes up with sauce. And the speech in such works too often went about macaroni. The comic poem of Tifi of a delya of Odazi Maccaronea sustained 7 editions (the first in 1490). And the poem “Baldus“ belonging to a feather of the monk - the Benedictine Theophila Folengo, known also under Merlino Kokayo`s pseudonym became the most known. In this poem the tale of chivalry is parodied, and in particular the magic country of Bengodi in which gods are engaged with cooking of macaroni in big coppers is described. The similar district is mentioned also in “Decameron“: Boccaccio tells about area Live - deliciously where there is “a mountain all from grated parmesan on which there live people and are engaged in another in nothing as soon as cook macaroni and trickled pastries, cook them in broth from capons and throw down“.
But here that surprisingly and paradoxically: for Boccaccio paste - a sign of abundance and prosperity, and in the Soviet Union macaroni was considered as a symbol of a public catering and did not enjoy popularity. The recipe-book published in 1955 from nearly one thousandyach of pages gives to pasta dishes only three and a half. Even only one property of macaroni appeared in jokes: to be tasteless. You remember here such:
Hostess to the guest: “You already leave? On the street pours in buckets! Perhaps you will have supper with us?“
Guest: “And what at you for dinner?“
“Yes in principle and rain not such strong!“
As draw which on April 1, 1957 the British TV company BBC amused the audience contrasts with these jokes! Especially for “April Fools` Day“ TV men shot the short film about trees on which spaghetti grow: say, experience and skill of the Italian farmers at last allowed them to grow up makaronina of identical length. Next day the studio was called by tens of the viewers with one question: where to buy saplings?. However, today our relation to macaroni cardinally exchanged. And not only during bad weather, but also in clear day we with pleasure accept the offer to remain on paste.