Rus Articles Journal

All the time in a way of

All live has to eat. Food, food - the only power source and construction materials. And if to the elementary organism, an amoeba for example, it is rather simple to conclude a nutrient lump in a cage and to digest it, then already special body capable to take food was necessary for a difficult metaphyte and to prepare it for that the organism acquired it.


It is clear that the person also treats such most difficult organisms. And at it, as well as at all highest animals, is zheludochno - an intestinal path (gastrointestinal tract) - difficult arranged tube which is beginning a mouth and coming to an end in the rectum locked by a powerful muscle, an anus.

It is difficult system - both on a structure and on action mechanisms. Difficult, debugged by time, demanding a set of conditions for the best functioning. Correctly to understand the events, to have an opportunity to restore the lost functions, it is rational to dispose given us by nature, it is good to represent a little that it zheludochno - an intestinal path as it is arranged that helps and that harms its work. It especially it is important to p to know

because unlike animal people learned to influence food, subjecting it to culinary processing, making more available for assimilation. To fry, cook, crush - whether always all this only helps?

But we will start a subject. So, mouth. The food gets here, is milled, chewed by teeth, moistened with saliva - and already the food lump is ready to a proglatyvaniye and movement on a gullet in a stomach.

the Mouth begins

with mucous lips and comes to an end with a back wall of a throat where near an entrance to a gullet there is also an entrance to a trachea covered with a nadgortannik. The neighbourhood is necessary, but dangerous. Not without reason speak: when I eat, I am deaf and mute. Talking during food, chewing can choke, and the food instead of a gullet will get into a trachea.

In a mouth such important parts zheludochno - an intestinal path as teeth and language are. And still - salivary glands, whose channels take out in a mouth saliva for mitigation of a food lump. So, teeth make small food, salivary glands moisten it, language mixes, at the same time tasting - flavoring nipples allow to distinguish bitter from sweet, fresh from sour and salty. (By the way, eyes with a nose also take part in an assessment of quality of food: it is difficult to make use of food which looks bad or disgustingly smells whatever useful it at the same time was.)

So, everything is ready - a drink, and the food passes in the gullet connecting a mouth to a stomach. In a gullet which length even at the adult makes about 30 cm nothing happens to food. But its correct work allows food to get into a stomach - the very first shop on its processing. What there occurs?

the Stomach is the already quite difficult body ripening and developing in life time. It has an entrance and an exit. The entrance is there where the gullet enters it, an exit is turned into a duodenum. These “doors“ have to open and be closed strictly according to the schedule differently the person will feel different unpleasant feelings.

Here the food lump came to a stomach. The entrance door opened, passed food and was closed. The mucous membrane of a stomach excreted the gastric juice consisting of hydrochloric acid and the trypsin enzyme digesting protein, he united to the food having, as a rule, alkaline reaction neutralized it - and all this partially digested weight moved to an exit, using force of smooth muscles of a stomach.

“Exit door“ opened, and the food got into a duodenum - short (equal on length to 12 cross fingers), but very important piece of intestines. An exit was again closed after that.

the food is affected by

In a duodenum streaming in its gleam of bile from a gall bladder and juice of a pancreas. The last consists of the trypsin splitting proteins, the amylase splitting carbohydrates and the lipase influencing fats. By the way, bile which is liver waste product divides fats into the smallest droplets (emulsifies) and helps a lipase to cope with these fats.

needs to tell

Here several words about a liver and a pancreas which though do not belong directly to a gastrointestinal tract, but have a direct bearing most on its work.


About a liver, its structure and function wrote volumes of researches. It is surprising, truly fantastic body. Artificially to reproduce the chemical processes happening in a liver of one person it is advisable to construct the whole chemical plant taking quarter of the large city! And that still is unknown, such attempt in full would be successful.

the Liver provides to

constancy of the internal environment of an organism, neutralizes the toxins which got to blood, including medicinal substances, produces bile. In a liver there is a splitting and synthesis of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, it creates stocks of the last and provides their necessary level in blood. In it a number of vitamins, for example vitamin A is formed, from its “exchange collection“ the organism receives a half of all energy. The liver if necessary can detain, deposit up to 20% of blood, and in a minute through it proceeds to one and a half liters of this necessary liquid.

the Bile directly necessary for digestion processes is emitted with

to cookies constantly and stored“ in a gall bladder on which coordinated and rhythmical work timely intake of this emulsifier of fats in an intestines gleam depends.

Pancreas also extremely important body. It has two main functions, to each of which there corresponds the type of cages of this body. One of its cages produce insulin and a glucagon - hormones by means of which cages of an organism can acquire glucose, the main source of fast energy. The second group of cages develops 1,5 - 2 l of so-called pancreatic juice a day. It - that also continues to split proteins, fats and carbohydrates on separate molecules which are soaked up throughout all small intestine.

Length of a small intestine makes

at the adult to 5 - 7 m, and the area is huge because this multilayered gladkomyshechny tube is covered by a set of fibers from within, each of which also represents final “terminal“ for absorption of the split food.

absorption Process - very difficult and energetically expensive. Here does not do without set of specialized enzymes, each fiber is supplied with the blood system, and the significant role is played by the microorganisms living in intestines. They both help digestion, and synthesize some vitamins. In order that process of absorption went normally, the food has to pass along intestines evenly, without being late and to be split to such an extent that the organism could take from it as much as possible a lot of energy and construction substances. It is excessive to speak about that, this process is how difficult and is how vulnerable!

At last, the remains of the used food pass a small intestine and come to a thick gut, one of the main secretory human organs. It, in turn, consists of several departments - ascending, cross - obodochny, descending, sigmovidny and a rectum. Moving on this wider and rough tube, the remains of food are gradually formed in kcal, accepting on the way to themselves any slags fulfilled by an organism. The act of a defekation - and what was once food comes back to environment. It is the difficult process demanding the coordinated muscle work of a large intestine and all organism too.

All this

it is very fascinating, you will tell, but really parents need to know all this? Well - at least to represent truly vast pathology of this important department of a human body.

By the way, parents and children`s doctors deal also with development and formation of all listed functions. And it leaves a mark on character of possible indispositions.

Examples? As much as necessary. There is such disturbing symptom as plentiful vomiting, vomiting. If the chest baby belches, putting at the same time on weight, it occurs from - for anatomic features of his gullet and a stomach - they at it represent a wide retort with an open neck. It is worth adjusting food - and everything will pass. Vomiting at the child of advanced age from whom the stomach already got the bent form inherent in it and the muscles locking an exit from a stomach are developed, - much more dangerous symptom with which it is necessary to deal.

Or, say, digestive juice of the newborn can digest only breast milk (with smaller success - its substitutes). To each food at chest age - the time. By the way, and by an old age force of digestive juice considerably weakens therefore the old person, as well as small, has to pass to more monotonous food too. There is a number of diseases inherent in this or that age there are diseases having seasonal nature, etc.

About all this we will be able now without hurrying to talk - you already imagine that it zheludochno - an intestinal path in general and as the tasks assigned to it are difficult. To the next meetings!