Children`s practice of visit of “terrible places“. Part I
In this work we will get acquainted with the parties of children`s territorial behavior, undercover from adults. Many of them are based on violation of territorial bans. And bans quite reasonable with which need any sane person of any age will agree.
But children are guided not by reason here. Some unclear, but mighty force counter to reason and fear attracts children crossing these bans or, at least, to stand at a dangerous threshold and to endure something extremely important without what difficult will live further.
We enter in an inner sanctum of the confidential Toy Store where children invite not everyone. A lot of things from this about what the speech will go, children hide from adults. But I hope that the story about children`s secrets will not become treachery in relation to them. Children with pleasure and gratitude show, tell, drive to intimate places if feel sincere interest of the adult, his ability to empathize and respect for what for him is opened.
we Will try to be such - we will clean estimated judgments and we will be adjusted on taking described below for granted. This knowledge not only will help to understand actions of children, but also will allow to glance in depths of human soul. I hope that many readers will remember half-forgotten events of own childhood.
On this way we will have two main tasks: to describe live reality of children`s experience of communication with environment and to try to answer a question: why all this? - from the point of view of psychology.we Will look at
at first as absolutely small children behave on walk. At the age of one and a half - two years the child gradually begins to adjust own, individually - the personal relations with the objects interesting him outdoors. On the road to it the beautiful floret, the jumping frog, a worm, a pool can meet. The child instantly transfers the interest in them to action: a flower - to break, - to catch a frog etc. But most often to come into contact with a subject of the interest, the child has to resort to the help of the intermediary - mother or the accompanying adult. But already in two and a half - three years, playing at a playground, the child rather independently builds the relations with a swing, short flights of stairs, hills, sandboxes. He quickly and without assistance finds to them approach and well feels what game opportunities are concealed in these objects and as the desires can place them at service. Sometimes the child calls mother to the aid, sometimes - wants to show her the achievements, but more she is necessary to him as a reference point and an emotional support. Having made the next sortie on a short flight of stairs or a hill, the child comes back to mother as the climber in base camp. Having nestled on mother, having snuggled up to her, having felt that it here, on the place that she loves it that everything is all right, the child with a light heart moves off again in searches of adventures. So proceeds until it does not try everything a little - malsk attractive in that place where it walks. After that he wants to move together with mother further, on the new place.
The is become more senior by the child, the more persistently he tries to appear on stage of life as separate of mother, an independent and capable being. It and is interesting and terrible. The feeling of the trifle, vulnerability, loneliness, fear which periodically visits the child when it appears in private with the huge and obscure world around becomes the back of the growing independence. The lonely swimmer in waves of the everyday sea to be very difficult. Support is necessary. In search of support the child develops the activity in two directions. On the one hand, despite gradual easing of symbiotic affection for mother, mother continues to play a role of the central support on which the world of the child keeps. However, seeking for expansion and fixing of the autonomy, the child tries to obtain that mother considered his growing independence and looked for new forms of relationship, cooperation. The child wants partnership of mother, but not in all affairs and without suppression of its own activity. On the other hand, after three years the child begins to pay more and more attention to peers. He finds out what can be played not nearby as it was earlier, and together. Between three and five years the child intensively masters difficult practice of interaction with similar in game, and then and in other situations.children`s social life So begins
. The main opening of children of this age is the idea of partnership. This word with the Latin root “part“ - “part“ precisely corresponds to the Russian word “partnership“. The role-playing game which enters into behavioural repertoire of the child between three and five years becomes the main model of partner interactions for children. In relation to game action as whole each child who joined in it in a certain role becomes part of process, one of structure-forming elements of a situation - it at - is frequent - a nickname. Will - bondage it appears also the member of children`s game group, and his actions begin to submit to the general for all people to psychological laws of group life irrespective of, the child wants it or not. If he wants to play - he should suffer some unpleasant, but necessary restrictions of a freedom of action arising from - for presence of other participants. The child agrees with such restrictions as a result of difficult fight against himself and others, but - game is worth the candle.
Partnership in game of several children increases its complexity, unexpectedness of its subject courses, helps to break a creative impasse, well and, of course, turns into reality before incorporeal imaginations, filling them with the live relations and experiences. As for so-called “games with rules“ - a tag, a hide-and-seek, Cowboys and Indians, etc., - so favourite in the senior preschool - younger school age, they in principle are impossible without the company.
Street children`s game groups develop spontaneously, but usually their frame is made by the children living in the neighbourhood. Presence of familiar children with whom it is regularly possible to play represents for the child after three years (as well as for their parents) a great value. It is possible to tell that the number of the peers corresponding on a sex, age, development, as well as a variety of convenient places for games are important characteristics of richness of the environment in which there lives the child.
the Children`s domestic company usually unites children - peers with the maximum difference between the most senior and the youngest in two - three years. Such moderate raznovozrastnost has great psychological value therefore it is typical as the principle of the organization of naturally developing children`s societies. The Raznovozrastnost creates the necessary difference of mental potentials stimulating all participants of group.
Small highly appreciate the participation, rejoice that seniors to them condescended and took with themselves, try not to lose face. Seniors clearly see the difference from younger, are forced to consider it, but at the same time have a fine opportunity to meet the desire of the power and to endure feeling of own importance.the Active actions directed to research of world around children prefer to make
not alone, and group. It is twice psychologically favorable to them. In - the first, children - peers have the similar age problems defining them a need. Therefore they well understand interests of each other and on this soil easily unite together to create and endure events, important for them. In - the second, each certain participant feels in group stronger, fearless, sure, and the actions justified. In the relations with the world he feels not as a mote before a cloud any more. Figuratively speaking small “I“ the child find to myself additional, more powerful social body in the form of the group of peers forming something it seems “collective I“ while children unite for some general feats.
Once social psychologists argued on whether couple of people are small group or the group begins with three. Our researches of children`s subculture allow - to say all that for children the group arises when there are two. That is for the child the situation qualitatively changes at the time of association with another when it is possible to tell:“ I not one“ when the pronoun “we“ appears.
Group visit of “terrible places“ is one of the earliest attempts of independent research and emotional accommodation of significant elements of environment and formation of the children`s myth about the world. In my materials the first certificates on such visits generally belong to age of five years.“In five - six years we with the girlfriend approached
the broken cellar window. From there the specific smell of a prelost proceeded, there something rustled, squelched - it was interesting, but it is very terrible. Often we long looked out for something in this darkness. And then composed that saw something terrible - like a rat, - and with squeal ran up“.“In the summer we played
in our yard much - a well on asphalt, hot from the sun. To us was on five - six years. Sometimes we gathered a small group, carefully came into a front door and went down on three steps to the heavy, fettered by iron cellar door.If it was slightly opened by
, then we stood several seconds at this dark crack and listened attentively to strange gurgle of water in the depth of the cellar. It was very terrible to push the head in this crack. Yes nobody did. It seemed that the iron door will be closed at once and the head will remain in the cellar, and a body outside. Then we hasty ran out back to the yard. Contrast between heat which was exhaled by all objects on the street, and the ice penetrating dampness of an entrance to the cellar was forever remembered“.
“We very much were afraid of a small board door at the level of growth of the child in a corner of our yard. Behind it there was a strange superficial niche where the janitor stored sand. It always was damp, and from there through cracks dampness was felt. We sometimes approached all together there that to feel it. It was terrible. Children said that there dead persons lie. In it it was somehow trusted though we few times approached when the janitor took sand, and saw that there space small and there is nothing of that kind“.
the Acute reader for certain noticed in all the given examples similarity of the description of an entrance to “the terrible place“ which consists in his experience as a magic aperture in qualitatively other space where the child in panic is afraid to appear because it not for living people. In descriptions of “terrible places“ (most often it are cellars) children usually note their darkness, cold, a smell of dampness and a decay - their mogilnost, accessory to the world of the dead. It is supposed that there are awful inhabitants who are not people.
Other characteristic feature of terrible space is its ability to change the metrics. Objectively it can look small - as a niche with sand in the last example. But oddly this space can immensely increase, containing in itself anything - as the niche with sand accomodates alleged dead persons.the fact that in special space of “the terrible place“ even time passes in a different way Is amazing
. The remarkable certificate on it is given in the story of the St. Petersburg girl:
“When to me was seven - eight years, we lived on the suburb, and there was a small thrown structure., It seems, before war it was brick zavodik. Rumors went that in blockade it was used as a crematorium - burned corpses of the dead for hunger. And children said that if to approach and very quickly to glance in a window, then it is possible to see the burning furnaces and corpses there. We went, looked, but it is somehow bad because nothing could be made out“.
Turns out that events which (historical) took place in This world long ago in That world (eternal) still continue. The one who is capable to jump through temporary border between two worlds will be able to adjoin to events of Togo of the world. For this purpose it is necessary to work sverkhbystro.Continuation