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Sinkopalnye states or, simply telling, faints of

faints, as a matter of fact, not an illness. These are temporary states into which the person for a set of the most various reasons can fall. For this reason in modern medical literature they are designated as sinkopalny states.

the Name it came from the Greek word “syncope“ (synkope) - in direct translation “chopping“. Medical value of the term since the most ancient times means a deep faint with loss of consciousness. It is interesting that it literally corresponds to the vulgar, often used in life Russian expressions - “was chopped off“ or “cut down“, so far as concerns the person who suddenly fainted.

the Faint (syncopes) usually call loss of consciousness, sudden, independent of the reason, most often short. At the seeming simplicity of this suffering and relative, in most cases, ease of a current of its reason are rather difficult and diverse.

... Somehow the young woman came to reception to me. Low, thin. Features are pointed, under eyes deep shadows, lips several sinyushna. Nervously rummages in a handbag, searching for the direction. Works as the secretary in the construction organization. Tells about the disease worrying, at the same time the face and a neck become covered by red spots.

- for a long time advised Me to address the neuropathologist. It was treated at the regional therapist earlier. But also he said that all this at me because of nerves.

When she calmed down a little, asked to tell in more detail that she disturbs her.

- By the nature I am a person easily excitable and impressionable. I am nervous from - behind everyone trifles and houses and at work. But most of all I disturb not it. Just you will not believe: slightly that - at once I faint. Recently we passed medical examination, and had to take blood from me. As soon as the laboratorian undertook a needle - I fainted. I do not transfer one type of blood including the stranger. Recently the little son fell and a little rassyok a forehead - and here I fainted...

It is quite typical complaints, they should be heard quite often as well as to observe faints.

the Main reason for similar neurogenetic faints constitutional, that is born, features of easily excitable nervous and vegetative systems against which the crucial role is played by suddenly arising oxygen insufficiency.

It is known that all activity of an organism is regulated by system of a homeostasis which provides normal supply of all bodies and systems of an organism with necessary products and first of all oxygen. This system constantly controls and supports all key parameters of activity of an organism at the necessary level. But sometimes, in extreme conditions, for various reasons in this system there is a failure, and it cannot provide the central nervous system with oxygen in the necessary quantity. Then there are faints. Usually it is peculiar to the people having vegetososudisty dystonia (dysfunction of vegetative nervous system). And it can be congenital as at ours, the patient, and then it is difficult to cope with it, especially when there is an isteroidny spirit of nervous system though it is possible to soften its manifestations usually. But such dystonia can be also a consequence of injuries, infections, intoxications, malfunction of endocrine system, neurosis. In these and many other cases treatment happens more effective. Also faints at persons with heart diseases are frequent.

“The nervous spirit of nervous system“ as spoke earlier, or is simpler - tendency to hysterical reactions, in some cases can be combined with so-called Freudian complexes. At the same time the causal mechanism of developing of a faint the same that it is described above.

I do not know

whether the founder of psychoanalysis Siegmund Freud and the famous Russian writer Victor Viktorovich Smidovich who to all of us is better known under a pseudonym Veresayev were familiar among themselves, living in at one time, but both observed probably same patient. It is described at Veresayev in “Notes of the doctor“.

This middle-aged woman very often, from girlhood, saw almost real passionate erotic dreams at which there were not idle naked men. In real life at the sight of the naked man she suddenly fainted. Later faints came even at the sight of only one underwear of men`s drawers. Neither psychoanalysis, nor famous doctor Smidovich helped. She and remained the old maid though in dreams, as well as in constant erotic imaginations, everything remained still.

the Direct reason for any neurogenetic faint. At having any neurosises faints most often arise reflex - in response to such “starting“ moments as, for example, a type of blood or as reaction even on small painful irritations or their anticipation - it is enough only a type of a medical needle.

quite often are observed by

Besides the neurogenetic faints described above also such which have, so to speak, a somatogenic origin. That is caused by any violations of the internal environment of an organism and its reactivity owing to some diseases.

at many classics, as well as in medical literature of that time, you very often can find the description of faints meeting then much more often, than presently In fiction of the 19th century. Generally in “the noble environment“, it is more at very young girls, since the puberty period. And in medical literature, and in art they were considered as manifestation of “hloroz“. Obviously, on distinguishing them it is pale - to a greenish shade of skin.“ Hloroz“ - the Greek word (chloros), in direct translation - “greenish“. Only by the end of XIX - it became clear to the beginning of the 20th century when began to investigate blood biochemistry that hloroz is display of iron deficiency anemia. And then... Perhaps, then primordially Russian expression also appeared - “pale cannot“.

Then “osiny“ waists for which achievement the most strict diet was required (for those times - almost hungry) were fashionable. And for use of the simulator of a waist - a corset not too full figure was necessary too. Besides in it not especially - also you will eat that.

telling to

To the word, often some modern “fashionable“ amateur diets, among them there is a set of published, can lead equally well to similar consequences, and sometimes and to much worst.

Certainly, anemia was only a background on which the general extremely easily developed for all unconscious states physiological violations.

Similar faints are quite often observed by

at people with warmly - vascular and respiratory insufficiency, at sharp decrease in sugar in blood at diabetics and in the presence of a set of other reasons.

unconscious states at malicious smokers when there are already chronic diseases of lungs which lead to constant venous stagnation and easily appearing oxygen insufficiency during cough - at this moment Are frequent

and there can be a sudden loss of consciousness.

At some people unconscious states can arise upon too fast transition from horizontal position in vertical, at a sharp zaprokidyvaniye of the head back (for example, in the hairdresser`s chair).

are Distinguished also by the extreme faints caused by deep violations of a metabolism (exchange processes) of a brain. They arise as result of the extraordinary external influences surpassing physiological opportunities of adaptation to them. Crucial importance in their emergence belongs to a considerable lack of oxygen of the inhaled air. For example, at high-rise, or as it still call, mountain, diseases at climbers. Similar states can arise also at neurotoxic effect of some poisons, side effect of medicinal substances, etc. There are also polyfactorial faints in which developing several factors can be guilty at once.

the Faint not always arises unexpectedly. Much more often it is preceded by quickly increasing unpleasant feelings in the form of faintness, nausea, flashings before eyes, a ring in ears. All this is followed by the general weakness, sometimes yawning. Quite often skin gets a pale shade, perspiration can appear. Then at some moment there comes relaxation of muscles, legs give away, and the patient falls, fainting. During a faint the patient`s body not movably, contact with it is impossible, muscles are relaxed, pulse, as a rule, rare (speeded up is more rare), weak filling. Arterial pressure decreases, breath becomes superficial. Pupils are more often narrowed, but in some cases can be and expanded. In such condition of people almost does not react to pricks. At a long faint and, so, long oxygen insufficiency spasms, similar in certain cases on epileptic can even begin something. The faint almost always develops at the sitting, standing or going people. With lying it, as a rule, does not happen.

Almost in all cases the coming unconscious states have rather overall clinical picture. However, sometimes the faint can come suddenly, as if without visible harbingers. The faint outcome, as well as an exit from this state proceed differently, depending on the emergence reason.

However not any sudden loss of consciousness proceeding with the same signs is a true faint. In the same state the person gets, for example, at a hypoglycemia - considerable decrease in level of sugar to blood. Then the immediate help of doctors - experts is necessary for the patient. Therefore to any person who suddenly fainted it is necessary to call urgently the doctor, except, obviously, those cases when authentically (from the doctor) it is known that it is about a faint. For example, at repetition of similar states at the same person.

And if at your presence the person fainted, then how to help it, there did not arrive the doctor yet?

In - the first, it is necessary to lay at once it so that the head settled down below a trunk, legs were raised - it will improve blood supply of a brain. To open immediately in the room of a window. To weaken everything that pulls together a neck, a breast, a stomach. If there is a liquid ammonia, to allow to smell, but only so that it did not get on mucous membranes of a nose, lips, eyes, differently it is possible to cause a burn. To sprinkle the person cold water. To pound skin of temples and a breast a dry towel or the moistened cologne, it is possible also cool water. To put hot-water bottles to extremities. In one of the ancient managements I subtracted such recommendation: to cut a bulb in half, in places a cut to rub whisky and to allow to smell. Obviously, it can give quite good effect too. But always, in all cases if the patient within several minutes did not recover consciousness, it is necessary to call “ambulance“ immediately.

Should remember

that a faint - most often a trouble sign in an organism, a consequence of any disease from which also the nervous system suffers. However, despite a set of the existing prerequisites which can promote emergence of an unconscious state it is necessary to tell that most of people are not predisposed to faints at all. It in many respects depends on type of nervous system, stability and stability of internal processes, even in the presence of any chronic diseases.