Pot with porridge
the Stomach - the main preparatory kitchen of our organism. Using the gastric juice consisting of hydrochloric acid and strong enzyme of the pepsin digesting proteins it digests the food ground in a food lump in an oral cavity. By the way, the better the food is chewed, the it is easier to digest to a stomach it.to
of Gastric juice allocates about 2 liters a day. The main problem consists in that, as hydrochloric acid, and pepsin - aggressive for mucous a stomach and intestines of liquid. In order that they did not corrode a stomach wall from within, its cages emit also the slime protecting from effect of acid and pepsin. Except slime, hydrochloric acid and pepsin gastric juice includes still the so-called internal factor of Kasl promoting absorption of B12 vitamin, very important for blood formation.
the Stomach inherently is an expansion of a digestive tract. The form of this expansion is various at babies and adults. At babies the stomach represents the trapeze located the basis down. With age the stomach takes the form of a snail or a fat question mark. In order that sour gastric juice did not irritate mucous intestines and a gullet, “the gastric bag“ is locked by two muscles - rather weak kardialny, on an entrance, and very powerful pilorichesky, at the exit. Kardialny closes an entrance to a stomach after the food lump got to it. Piloricheskaya opens how the food absorbed gastric juice. Thus, the food of neutral or even alkaline contents gets into a duodenum already.
This rather difficult mechanism often glitches. All diseases of a stomach share on functional and organic.
Functional changes can concern both sekretorny activity mucous a stomach, and violation of its motility (refluxes - throwings of food in the opposite direction, pilorospazm, a cardiospasm, kardialny insufficiency).Organic changes are reduced by
to gastritises, sharp and chronic, stomach ulcer with localizations in different departments of a stomach, to anomalies of development (anomaly of a form, situation, to diverticulums and a pilorostenoz), to tumors of a stomach and its postoperative diseases. Of course, within journal article we will manage to concern only the diseases having the greatest distribution.
So, one after another.
Prevalence of gastroenterologichesky diseases at children till 14 years makes about 80 on 1000 children, reaching a maximum in 6 years (!) . At this age of the complaint to a small appetite and belly-aches reach the maximum and demand the address to the expert.the Movement back
Violation of motility of a stomach, as a rule, is
a consequence of more general frustration of TsNS and is often observed as one of symptoms of perinatal encephalopathy. It is shown usually by vomiting and vomiting of various intensity, interferes with accumulation of weight and causes lawful concern of parents.
However the similar picture meets also in cases of organic defeats, for example, at a pilorostenoza. So the hypertrophy of the muscle of the gatekeeper locking an exit from a stomach is called. At the same time receipt of food weight in intestines with all that it implies sharply decreases. This disease at the earliest age (2 - 3 weeks) by means of rather simple and low-traumatic operation giving instant and lasting effect is treated.
One of the most frequent violations of motility of a gullet and a stomach - zheludochno - an esophageal reflux at which occurs involuntary, without the previous nausea or vomiting flowing gastric or zheludochno - intestinal contents in a gullet. It is sometimes connected with presence at the child of diafragmalny hernia - openings in a diaphragm where the part of a stomach comes, or with insufficiency of the muscle locking an exit from a gullet - a so-called lower esophageal sphincter. By the way, babies do not have this muscle at all, it develops later. For this reason vomiting at kids - a thing quite usual.So about zheludochno - an esophageal reflux can be spoken to
only at more senior children. At the same time there are complaints to pain, heartburn, a food delay after a proglatyvaniye, then - nausea, vomiting, vomiting intestinal contents. In all these cases it is necessary to see the gastroenterologist. Diagnostics of this state is rather difficult, as well as treatment which has both a conservative, and surgical phase.We mentioned
tendency of babies to vomiting. It depends as on a structure of a stomach and a gullet at this age, and on inability of nervous system to localize excitement: on any irritation all zheludochno - the intestinal path of the child of the first months of life is excited and answers with a total spasm which manifestation is vomiting (vomiting).
Several general councils. You feed the child in a quiet situation, you watch that he well took a breast (not only a nipple, but also an areola), did not swallow air. Take it after feeding some time vertically that air came out. The peak of vomiting usually falls on the first month of life, and, as a rule, absolutely they disappear by 4 - 5 month or after introduction of a feeding up.
How to distinguish vomiting from vomiting? Rather simply. The child belches usually during feeding or right after it, not changed breast milk. Vomiting is a little delayed in time and usually milk already stvorozheno, has a sour smell. Unlike vomiting, vomiting always requires attention of the doctor.Not that ate
the Functional Diarrheas (FD) can arise due to various reasons. One of quite frequent - an ordinary overeating even of quite good-quality food. It is necessary to remember that the digesting ability of a stomach is not boundless; that in the beginning lives the child in general can digest only maternal milk and gastric enzymes are adapted for it; that with age the digesting abilities of a stomach increase, reaching peak by 18 years, but, I repeat, to all there is a limit.
FRZh can Also cause the long hungry pauses alternating with plentiful meal, food with no drink, a bad chewing, the use of the sharp, irritating and sokogonny food, the use of food allergenic - at food allergy.the Organism, however, is arranged to
so that FRZh can be a symptom and other diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path: hepatitis, cholecystitis, helminthic invasion, chronic dysentery or other bodies and systems (respiratory organs, mocheotdeleniye, endocrine, TsNS).Symptoms at FRZh are reduced by
usually to uncertain belly-aches or in subspoon area. Character of pains can be the most different. They can have skhvatkoobrazny character (especially at nervously - mental tension), aching (at reception of spicy food), to be followed by feeling of a raspiraniye, weight in subspoon area.
At reception of quite good-quality, but plentiful food the same symptoms which are coming to an end with vomiting after which pain disappears can arise the simplification appears. Similar frustration, only more rough, can arise at food allergy after contact with allergen. Probably also the food toksikoinfektion which is caused by hit in food of microbes and their toxins begins. Here except belly-aches and vomiting there are displays of the general intoxication - a headache, fever, a liquid chair. Gets sick ordinary several children eating the same food. > it is excessive to p to tell
, as at pains, and in case of vomiting it is necessary to see a doctor.Functional diarrhea are usually well treated by
and do not leave consequences. Sometimes nevertheless transition to gastritis and stomach ulcer is possible.
Sharp gastritis - the acute inflammation of a mucous membrane of a stomach of the noninfectious nature - occurs at children rather seldom. Reason, as a rule, reception of the unusual food, use of a large number of unripe berries, apples and other fruit, smoked products very cold (ice cream) or very hot food etc. Can cause an inflammation mucous a stomach and some drugs (aspirin, cytostatics). The same symptoms, as at functional frustration - feeling of weight and a raspiraniye in subspoon area, belly-ache, vomiting. The state needs too recommendations of the doctor because can mask display of many diseases. The main thing in treatment - food unloading, observance of a diet, rest. As a rule, passes completely.
Chronic gastritis considerably meets at children`s age, especially at teenagers more often, and requires the most careful to itself attention because steadily conducts to an atrophy mucous a stomach, to reduction of amount of the functioning gastric glands and considerable deterioration in its work.
of the Reason of developing of chronic gastritis the most different and not only alimentary (food). Huge value has predisposition - hereditary increase of release of hydrochloric acid (giperkhlorgidriya), the lowered stability mucous to the damaging factors. Reduces this stability mucous and Campylobacter pylotidis microbe - it sometimes infected all family. This microbe causes immunological shifts in a mucous membrane, from - for whom there is an inflammation and the subsequent atrophy of an epithelium of a stomach.Should tell
that chronic gastritis proceeds differently - various departments mucous are surprised, the area of defeat can be different, sometimes aggravations alternate with the improvement periods. Related departments zheludochno - an intestinal path - a gullet can be surprised (more rare) and the duodenum (is much more often). Depth of defeat mucous can be different too - from superficial before deep defeat with erosion.
At children the antralny department of a stomach close to a duodenum most often is surprised. Pain and nausea or after meal can be in the mornings the leading symptom. The pains aching more often moderate, sometimes intensive, amplify during the walking, run and in vertical position. Children complain of weakness, fatigue, a headache, dizziness.
At emergence of such symptoms should address the gastroenterologist who will appoint inspection immediately. It is necessary to tell that the main method is here gastroscopy which gives the chance to estimate a condition of mucous, to study its morphology and function of gastric glands. This method, certainly, is harmless, but is not really pleasant. On need of its application parents should be adjusted first of all, to calm and respectively to adjust the child and in talk not to pile on the agony at all. The author who repeatedly had to be influenced by endoscopic procedures, writes about it with skill and with a clear conscience.Results of gastroscopy will allow to appoint by
much better treatment and to check its efficiency. Also in children`s practice in the diagnostic purposes gastric sounding with fractional research of gastric contents is used. It allows to estimate in detail function of gastric glands and to understand extent of their defeat.
It especially is important that part of patients with chronic gastritis with the increased acidity can ache subsequently and with stomach ulcer of a stomach and duodenum.
Generally speaking, treatment of chronic gastritis complex without active participation of parents is also absolutely impossible. The basic principle - creation of an optimum general regime (mental and physical rest) and the corresponding diet. Just to tell it, but not always just to make. But the fact remains: if the child continues to be nervous, he will not recover. Therefore it is necessary to treat with understanding to purpose of sedatives - they are necessary not less, than strict observance of a diet and the schedule of its gradual expansion. In general close contact with the gastroenterologist treating your child is absolutely necessary because the illness proceeds is long.
All aforesaid belongs also to stomach ulcer of a stomach and duodenum. As it strikes and initial departments of intestines, we will in detail consider it in the following article. Be not ill.