Omega - fats: where to look for them?
the Products enriched with fatty acids the Omega appear on counters of shops in increasing frequency: eggs, bread, dairy mixes for the children feeding and pregnant women and many other things. What such agiotage around mysterious “omega“ is explained by and whether they are such irreplaceable actually? >
Digression to chemistry
At first we will try to understand em what is lipids and fats. Often these two concepts unite. Actually lipids include diverse group of substances which allocate from biological objects - cages and fabrics of live organisms - is artificial by means of organic solvents. The concept “lipids“ is wider, than “fats“. Fats - only small part of group of lipids, but, despite it, fats in an organism carry out two important functions:
- reserve (it is a convenient form of storage of energy);
- protective (fats interfere with uncontrolled movement of water in an organism, hypodermic cellulose protects bodies from mechanical damages and overcooling).
But it will be a question not of lipids and fats, and of their components - fatty acids, to be exact, of one of groups of fatty acids with the name Omega (a letter of the Greek alphabet ω) .
Fatty acids carry out three important functions in a human body.
In - the first, they are construction material for phospholipids (the difficult lipids containing salt of phosphoric acid) and glycolipids (the difficult lipids containing carbohydrates). These molecules are a part of an external membrane of one and all cages of an organism, control a metabolism between cages and an organism in general, and therefore are vital for functioning of an organism at the cellular level.
In - the second, derivatives of fatty acids carry out function of the hormones transferring information between organism cages, regulating a metabolism.
B - the third, fatty acids collect in cages in the form of fats - triglycerides (connections with glycerin molecules) and play a role of reserves of fuel. They are split by a cage with allocation of a large amount of energy.
are Distinguished by several types of fatty acids:
- monononsaturated to which acids the Omega - 9 belong;
- polynonsaturated to which acids the Omega - 3 and the Omega - 6 belong.
of Distinction between saturated and nonsaturated fatty acids consist in their chemical structure and properties connected with this structure. As fatty acids are a component of the majority of fats, emit, respectively, saturated and nonsaturated fats.
In saturated fats all available chemical bonds are filled with atoms of hydrogen therefore they do not react with other chemical compounds. At the room temperature these fats firm. It is possible to carry to saturated fats: butter and milk fats, animal fats, fat, palm-oil, cocoa butter.atoms of hydrogen fill with
In nonsaturated fats not all communications that does them more subject to oxidation, besides, they possess softer and liquid consistence. Nonsaturated fats are generally origin vegetable oil, with prevalence of this or that type of fatty acids in structure. >
From more than 200 fatty acids existing in the nature in tissues of the person it is found p slightly more than 70, and a little more than 20 have almost significant distribution. The majority of fatty acids are a part of lipids or are products of their exchange. Our organism is capable to synthesize only the Omega - the 9th fatty acids; The Omega - 3 and the Omega - the 6th fatty acids are not capable to be produced in an organism and have to arrive with food as they are also necessary for our activity.
Why lipids are necessary?
Fats (simple lipids), to be exact the fatty acids which are their part happen “useful“ and “harmful“. Artificial so-called a trance - isomers of fatty acids are dangerous even in the minimum quantities as products of their exchange possess strong toxic properties, and some are not acquired by a live organism at all. Such fatty acids contain in many products fast - foot semi-finished products, sauces, mayonnaise, margarine. And it is better to use saturated fats from animal products (butter, pork, fat) in the minimum quantities as they can lead to the increased content of cholesterol in blood and have pernicious effect on a condition of vascular walls, in the course of biochemical reactions in cages animal fats are split to glycerin and fatty acids participating in cholesterol synthesis. Excess of this substance leads to emergence of atherosclerotic plaques on internal walls of vessels; these plaques interfere with blood movement. You should not exclude fats from the diet at all at all and to be fond of so-called “burners of fat“, modern, often fantastic diets - it is worth remembering that everything is good moderately,
Difficult lipids - the main component of a cellular membrane, a brain of the person for 60% consists of lipids, and, according to scientists, not less than 30% of their total fall to the share of lipids which part are the Omega - 3 fatty acids. Irreplaceable fatty acids the Omega - 3 are a part fosfo - and the glycolipids which are the most important structural components of cellular membranes. Besides, they are predecessors of big group of other dlinnotsepochechny fatty acids - the eykozanoid representing biologically active connections; prostaglandins, leykotriyena, tromboksana which are carrying out functions of local hormones. They regulate processes of a tromboobrazovaniye, a tone of smooth muscle cells of bronchial tubes and blood vessels, participate in inflammatory reaction.to
It is proved that fats and oils which keep a liquid state at the room temperature are more useful to an organism and contain irreplaceable fatty acids the Omega - 3 and the Omega - 6. These acids call irreplaceable because without them we could not exist.the Omega - such different and such important
the fresh, but not frozen fish.
the Omega - 6 and the Omega - 3 to affect a human body absolutely differently.“ Minus“ acids the Omega - 6 are products of its exchange. Exchange by-products the Omega - 6 promote:
- to inflammations;
- to formation of blood blood clots;
- to growth of tumors.
exchange Products the Omega - 3 have opposite effects. As soon as fats the Omega - 3 get to an organism, they take root into cages, influencing their structure and activity. From here such variety of their useful properties. These acids:
- improve work of heart, brain, eyes and joints;
- reduce the level of harmful cholesterol; can render to
- anti-inflammatory effect, depending on that what cages will absorb this fatty acid, for example by the macrophages participating in immune reactions of an organism or cells of a retina of an eye;
- are excellent antioxidants, that is promote removal from an organism of harmful substances and free radicals (highly active groups of the atoms possessing strong oxidizing properties);
- of acid the Omega - 3 is prevented and improve a state at eczema, an allergy, asthma, Alzheimer`s disease, a depression and nervous diseases, diabetes, a hyperactivity of children, psoriasis, osteoporosis, arthrosis, cardiovascular problems, and also more serious diseases, for example, a prostate cancer or breast cancer.
- Try that in your daily diet animal fats and the refined vegetable oils did not prevail, and also, whenever possible, exclude fast - foot, mayonnaise and margarine. It is better to prepare meat semi-finished products independently.
- 2 times a week are recommended to eat several walnut or pine nuts or a handful of pumpkin or sunflower sunflower seeds. Couch grains of wheat or oats and add them to salads. “Arrange“
- fish days“: prepare fat sea medium-sized fish (she can be boiled, salty, prepared on a grill).
- Salads from fresh green (it is desirable sheet) vegetables have to be present daily, add to them as gas station 1 - 2 tablespoons of olive or linseed oil, it is also possible to use mustard, rape, corn, pumpkin oils.
- Porridge and the crude rice - sources of vitamin E which is a defender useful the Omega - acids. This vitamin contains in not refined oils, and also in oils from seeds of cereals and nuts.
the Omega - 3 and the Omega - 6 are necessary for an organism for development of cages (formation of a cellular membrane), during pregnancy the child receives fatty acids the Omega - 3 of mother`s organism. Polynonsaturated fatty acids the Omega - 3, getting through a placentary barrier, provide full development of the central nervous system of a fruit. Acids the Omega are especially important for mother and the child during the last 3 months of pregnancy and the postnatal period, will not end development of a retina of an eye and brain at the biochemical level yet. If the pregnant woman does not consume enough the Omega - 3 acids with food, its organism withdraws them from own stocks. It leads to a lack of these components of a maternal organism, does it less steady against stresses, increases probability of premature birth, a postnatal depression, reduces elasticity of cellular membranes that, in turn, increases risk of gaps at childbirth, the Shortcoming and an imbalance of these acids during pregnancy can lead to violation of development of a brain and structure of sight of the child.to
to our organism need both types of fatty acids though it is already established that the Omega - 6 can lead surplus to sad consequences. Therefore it is so important to know what products contain these necessary substances.
How to reach balance
In a diet of our ancestors about 1:1, Considerable changes of the principles of food, increase in a share of animal fats, and also use of generally sunflower oil when cooking for the last centuries displaced a ratio of acids the Omega - 6 and the Omega - 3 to 20:1 that led to emergence of serious problems with health, And is valid, in a diet of the modern adult consumption of the fats containing the Omega - 3 acids, makes only 50 - 80% from vital. Inhabitants of Europe consume few Omega - 3 acids against surplus the Omega - 6. Especially it concerns vegetarians.to
to counterbalance consumption of fatty acids by us, it is necessary to provide an organism with fatty acids the Omega - 3 and the Omega - 6 in the ratio at least 1:2 or 1:3, and it is the best of all to use them in equal quantities. So far this ratio in a diet of most of city dwellers at best looks as 1:5, and in the worst - as 1:20. Besides, consumption of the fats containing an acid Omega in such unprofitable ratio interferes with good assimilation the Omega - 3.
the Recommended daily dose of fats the Omega - 3 - 1,6 g for women and 2 g for men. Such dose is necessary for normal activity of cages of an organism. In transfer to foodstuff it is 1 tablespoon of rape oil, either 1 teaspoon of a linen seed, or 5-Yu pieces of crude, not fried nuts, or 3 eggs enriched the Omega - 3, either 70 g of a fresh salmon, or other fish of fat and semifat grades (a mackerel, a herring, sardines, a trout, a tuna, etc. - 3 - 4 times a week for 100 - 150), and also seafood and caviar. Naturally, it is the best of all to choose the fresh, but not frozen fish hooked in wild conditions but who is not grown up on a fish farm as in fish of fats the Omega - 3 influences contents a type of its food, and on fish farms fish eats generally flour and compound feed, but not plankton. Remember that fats the Omega - 3 animals of an origin are acquired worse, than vegetable.
the Main source the Omega - 6 acids serve vegetable oils, such as olive, corn or soy. The recommended dose the Omega - 6 makes 3 - 6 g a day. Consuming 1 tablespoon of olive oil a day, you receive necessary quantity the Omega - 6 (by the way, it is one of the few products which for 100% is acquired by our organism).
|the Omega - the 9th acids||the Omega - 3 acids||the Omega - the 6th acids|
|Olive oil||Fish and cod-liver oil||Olive oil|
|Peanut butter||Linseed oil||Sunflower oil|
|of Avocado||Rape oil||Corn oil|
|of Olive||walnut Oil||Nuts and sunflower seeds|
|Fowl||Oil of germs of wheat||Soy oil|
of EPA and DHA, or once again about the Omega - 3
the Most useful and active of the Omega - 3 fats are an eicosapentanew acid (ERA) and docosahexane acid (DHA). ERA is the main component of vegetable oils, a DHA contains in fish and cod-liver oil.
the Brain of the person is one of largest “consumers“ of DHA, on average using about 20 g of this substance a day, lowering of the level of serotonin in a brain is connected With the low DHA level that causes a tendency to depressions, suicide and aggression. The stable relation between the low Omega level - 3 fatty acids and depressions is found,Adequate consumption of DHA and ERA is especially important
during pregnancy and a lactation. During these periods mother has to provide needs of a fruit or the baby for DHA and ERA because it cannot synthesize these substances independently. DHA makes 15 - 20% of a cerebral cortex and 30 - 60% of a retina of an eye therefore this substance is necessary for normal development of a fruit or the newborn child. There are proofs that deficiency the Omega - 3 fats is capable to increase risk of premature birth, the lowered weight of the newborn and a hyperactivity of the growing child.
Shortage of DHA at young mother can become the reason of a postnatal hypertension (increase of arterial pressure). To fill shortage the easiest by means of food additives - cod-liver oil or linseed oil, the Necessary condition is also sufficient receipt with food of tokoferol (vitamin E), natural antioxidants as excess intake only of polynonsaturated fatty acids can lead to activation of processes of oxidation of polynonsaturated fatty acids. Tokoferola do not allow highly active oxidizers - to free radicals to destroy double communications in molecules of fatty acids and consequently, to affect their chemical properties.
the Recommended total of EPA and DHA is about 650 mg a day with increase in a dose up to 1000 mg a day during pregnancy and feeding of the child. Effects are shown approximately in three weeks of regular reception. They are expressed in stabilization of pressure, improvement of the general health, memory. The matter is that these acids regulate the content of serotonin - the chemical transmitter of impulses between nervous cages which influences mood in this connection fatty acids the Omega - 3 are effective in fight against the loosened nerves, the postnatal depression, symptoms of the climacteric period, personal crises and other reasons leading to deterioration in mood.to
As it was already told above, daily consumption of acids the Omega - 6 is enough ineliko, in connection with features of a diet of the modern person therefore it is important to watch balance of these connections, Surplus the Omega - 6 reduces comprehensibility of acids the Omega - 3. As the Omega - 6 provide such protective reactions of an organism as an inflammation and a stop of bleeding, their surplus can cause an aggravation of chronic inflammatory processes and increase of arterial pressure due to increase in viscosity of blood that leads to emergence of additional load of heart. Therefore the pregnant woman should increase a share the Omega - 3 fatty acids in the diet and to aspire to a ratio 1:1. It can achieve, replacing, for example, sunflower oil linen at preparation of salads and alternating it to olive.
But polinenasyshenny fats of a phytogenesis have own dangerous properties which are not so widely known. These fats are extremely subject to oxidation, especially when they are heated and left on air. It is necessary not to allow in our organism the oxidized fats because they create free radicals which destroy cages of nervous system and other vitals that leads to decrease in mental capacities, acceleration of processes of aging, developing of tumors. Therefore show consideration for a product! If polynonsaturated oils and fats have a pro-rancid smell, do not eat them.
Thus, observing rather simple nutritional recommendations and accepting the polyvitamins providing a tokoferolama organism, the pregnant woman can satisfy completely needs of the organism and an organism of future child for acids the Omega, without using at the same time dietary supplements and additional reception of cod-liver oil. And of course, it is impossible to forget that, along with the balanced food, adequate physical activity, walks in the fresh air and favorable psychoemotional climate are necessary for future mother.