Rus Articles Journal

Development of space of the house: materialization “I“. Part II

the Beginning

Children invent a set of the ways “materialize“ of in the spatial field which they develop. Outside the house - it and drawings on asphalt, and an inscription on walls, and children`s tradition of making of “secrets“ and “hiding places“. But all - the first external space becoming ““ is a house in which the child lives. Therefore for it it is especially important to be fixed and be approved at home, to place here numerous signs of the presence.

as things - deputies of children often use the drawings, hand-made articles as in them author`s presence is much more noticeable, than in the bought thing. In general, the child is usually very different in ways by means of which he ego-trips in house space, “inhabits himself“ the home world. It begins with what everywhere where he wants to be present, will visit: will glance, will feel, will sit, will roll about. So he lives space, having filled it with the invisible, but remaining in memory of the child trajectories of the movements. Where it is necessary, will leave the plenipotentiaries. Small will make scribbles on a wall or on a door, more - will hang up the drawings over mother`s bed that to be closer to it, will push it for the night under a pillow the doll, will put a plasticine figure on a bedside table.

Children are more senior than

sometimes lead round a pencil drawing on wall-paper at the bed, add spot contours on a wall that the entertaining image turned out, do “for interest“ small hiding places in own apartment, that is lay a hand to that in the house there was a material print of their undercover creative activity. Such behavior can be strange adult in a form, but is actually close to it in essence.

the Young wife, having lodged in the house of the husband, feels what will become the real hostess only there when everything touches, will wash up, will shift though a little bit - but in own way. That is will master space of the new dwelling, having turned it in the field of the active actions, having adjoined to each subject on which there will be a trace of her hands. It will introduce there surely and own things which will become signs of its master`s presence.

It is similar also the man acts. He that will quicker accustom to the new dwelling, than rather will find there everything that can be corrected, repaired, adjusted. He will pay special attention to those material knots on which activity of the house depends (switches, cranes, handles, etc.) will also have thus the finger on the pulse of house events.

Can tell

that in house space degree of “opredmechennost“ usually expresses “a presence measure“ of each of family members. It is bad when one fills with itself(himself) everything around, restricting others. It is bad when there is in the house an unfortunate derelict who has no vital space and even own place - a bed, desk, case or the shelf. And, on the contrary, in amicable, well organized families where each family member is respected and unique, and the relationship is built up, usually all remember where whose place where who likes to sit, and cups are respectively put: to the father - with the ship, mother - with a rose, grandmother`s darling - with blue leaves, a vnuchkina - with a cockerel etc.

value of the family member is Sometimes important to emphasize

, to express respect for it through its things - symbols. This your place - nobody can occupy it, except you; it is your cup - it will not be delivered to the casual guest; it is your table - you are his owner, nobody will begin to bring the order here, without having asked you.

of the Thing - symbols help to structure house space as the field in which family members live and interact. Through such things it is possible to fix situation and to strengthen effect of presence of the person, to improve his relations with others.

So, the house becomes the first social space where the relations of family members are with each other symbolically fixed in the subject environment for the child. In the daily house experience the small child for the first time learns sense of possesive speech forms - your, my, father`s, mother`s - through understanding of accessory of the personal belongings which are at the same time representing each of family members. It is known that younger children think of concepts - complexes. They represent a set of elements, is associative connected with each other.

So, “Father“ is an and big bearded person at whom it is so pleasant to sit on a lap, both his leather chair, and its desk which is filled up with books, and its cup with the blue ship, both a sound of its voice, and a set of other things and events, to it relating.

Each family member usually has houses the “zones of influence“, is inclined to take certain places and is presented by the things - symbols.

For understanding the child of social space of a family very important event are joint meals. All-family breakfasts, lunches and dinners begin with a table nakryvaniye. The child often takes feasible part in this action: recalculates all family members, displays spoons, forks etc. (At the same time can miss himself because to itself it is not visible.) The space of the laid table, in fact, is the field of the opredmechenny relations of all family members. The placed plates and devices designate the place and personal space allocated for each participant of a meal.

the Plate is a zone of a personal responsibility of her owner. It is filled with food about which “mine“ is told. Here for many children the subject of fair sharing - in this case sharing of total amount of food between eaters, sharing of space at a table, etc. - and idea of an individual share of everyone for the first time appears. At the same time the certain person is a participant (that is part) that company that gathered at a table and represents something whole, influencing everyone. The material embodiment of this community will be also the uniform space of a table around which all sit and the general objects - a salad bowl, a bread box, a saltcellar, a sugar bowl where what is required to all lies.

Need of use of the general objects at a table puts before the child a cooperation problem generally in detail at once - social space of a feast: whether to reach most the necessary objects, whether to resort to the help of other person. But how? Here it is important that parents realized pedagogical sense of this situation.

parents ingenuously - materialistic Are. They understand food as physiological process of saturation and turn attention to relationship at a table a little.

the parents considering a duty Are to teach children to formal etiquette of behavior behind food: not to champ, be able to use a knife and a fork, to know necessary formulas of politeness (“Report, please, bread“).

But the parents understanding that the family meal behind a table d`hote is one of the major house situations where the child studies understanding of in the general space of interactions with other people are. Here the understanding of such basic relations as mine - your, the general - personal, understanding of the place in group of people and the relations of a taxonomy is put at the child (who are more main in this situation as who can do and that - it is impossible). Here it gets acquainted with a problem of submission and equality, justice of distribution something, ratios of own desires and limitation of opportunities, gets used to consider the family members who both are present, and absent.

the fact that all these rather abstract concepts are visually presented to the child sitting at a table in how the table is laid and as participants of a feast behave is important For the tutor. In roughly material sense for satisfaction of hunger all the same - whether to drink to soup directly from a pan whether to carry away it in a plate to the room or to eat the same to soup at the general family table.

From the psychological point of view, three of these options are essentially various on internal installation in the relation of and other people. Each of them forms a certain type of the interpersonal relations.

Equally it is visible to

also in a set of other situations. For example, the child does not love the carrot floating in soup, catches it, and... one puts it on edge of own plate, and another alloys everything that is not pleasant to it, in a plate to mother who eats up, “that the product did not vanish“. But at the same time mother unconsciously strengthens in the child confidence that if something is not pleasant to him, then it is possible to get rid of it in vital space of other person, having shifted to it responsibility for unpleasant.


For the psychologist the space of the laid table with the family members sitting around in something is similar to a chessboard with the figures placed in a certain position. As the skilled chess player instantly reads out alignment of forces on a board, and the good psychologist will feel spirit of a family, feature of relationship of her members and position of everyone in family group at a table.

In traditional culture, both country, and noble, merchant, petty-bourgeois, the behavior of family members at a table was rigidly regulated. Then well realized that an order of seating of people at a table, the sequence of giving of dishes, behavior during food symbolically embody situation and the importance of each family member, fix a certain type of the relations between them, approve firmness of family structure. It was especially essential to big families where there is always a problem of the organization and management so important for full cooperation at joint life.

As the family sat down usually to a table not less than three times a day, the table situation repeatedly was reproduced, and representation about structurally - the role device of a family was visually fixed in consciousness of younger generation. It became a basis for future the relation outdoors - in the world.

In life of a traditional family the table was the social center of the dwelling - the place where people tasted the bread on which existence their physical life, and at the same time the place around which the structure of a family as model of human society was built depended. Therefore the relation to a table as to the place sacred in the Russian tradition was comprehensively regulated. It was impossible to put on it foreign objects and elbows, to talk smut at a table. On it bread that it was not translated in the house, etc. had to lie always. In general the table was perceived as God`s palm stretched to people, and somewhat as a house throne.

It is known that the internal device of the country dwelling reflected national ideas of the device of the outside world - Space. In national consciousness the human house was the reduced copy of the universe - the microcosm reproducing the most essential structural elements of the big world.

Now times were changed by

. What was sacral earlier - sacred full of world outlook sense, symbolically significant, - now became sold, that is lost the semantic height, fallen to the level of the vneshnebytovy phenomena. Family life is left by concept of sacred objects and places of the house (for example, icons in a place of honor). Many people have no family relics. They are replaced valuable (in sense - expensive) things, decoration of an interior, souvenirs and personally memorable objects.


democratize the relations in a family, and their structure changes up to that mother and the father lose the special positions. In a lexicon of some children there are no words “mother“ and “father“. They call parents on names, doing them in a sense equal to all other people. Family life often loses important elements of rituality which were before structure-forming in a family community. For example, instead of family lunches, dinners, evening tea everyone eats one by one - when comes or will want.

Pseudo-democratic representations of parents, momentary convenience, absence of understanding of a family as the slozhnosostavny integrity giving to the child the first model of human society - all this leads to simplification and spiritual decrease in many parties of family life.


However in soul of each person, especially the child, always conceal a possibility of reverse motion - from plainly - household to glubinno - significant. This opportunity is put in the history of development of individual mentality. For the small child the parental house is always that first and main world to which it comes, having been born on light where it finds to itself(himself) the place and learns to live in it.

the World of the house is closed and steady

. This protected space in which it is possible to feel safe. The house is always definitely the space organized by people with a constant set of the things standing on the places and permanent residents - family members.

the Home world, as well as the world terrestrial, has the time daily cycle. However, for the child circulation of daily events is defined not by the movement of the sun on a firmament, and a day regimen of his family - time of a morning rising, meals, changes of occupations, withdrawal to a dream. Not the sun as in national culture, and electric light which is switched on and off by parents, defines - when light-and people are awake and work and when it is dark and all go to bed.

But anyway, a house order - way - as existence of the internal principles of the organization of the world, house has huge value for mentality of the child. Parents understand it or not, but psychologically the house all the same becomes subconsciously apprehended world order sample for the child. It is some kind of primary cultural space with which the child gets acquainted and intuitively absorbs in itself his way, and does the principles of its device by the. They remain for it coordinates in which system the child is inclined to think and act. Becoming is more senior, facing variety of events of the outside world, and also inner world of the soul, the child often tries to order them according to those principles of outlook which acquired houses.

By the way, formation of an inner world of the identity of the child at some stages of his development literally is followed by flashes of desire to build lodges for itself. Their device, starting with the elementary minks under a blanket in a bed and finishing “staffs“ of younger school students or registration of the room by the teenager, brightly reflects stages of construction of the Toy Store “I“.

the Home world for the child is always an alloy in detail - the spatial environment of the house, the relations in a family and own experiences and imaginations attached to things and the people inhabiting the house. Never it is impossible to assume in advance what in the world of the house will turn out the most important for the child that will remain in his memory and will affect further life. Sometimes it are, apparently, purely external signs of the dwelling. But if they contact deep experiences of personal and world outlook character, then begin to predetermine vital elections.

Peter I who grew up in the Moscow palace towers with low ceilings all life demanded to do to

low ceilings in the rooms. During its travel across Europe in rooms where it stopped, pulled low linen bed curtains. It reduced space volume on height and did the room psychologically comfortable for Pyotr.

the Teenager F. M. Dostoyevsky, the pupil Voyenno - engineering school, lived in an angular bedroom of the company on the second floor of high Engineers` Castle in St. Petersburg. Since then he always chose to himself the rooms located at the corner of the house, as if - on a life rostrum, on an edge.

the Writer V. V. Nabokov of young men was forced to emigrate with a parental family after revolution from Russia. It could nevermore return to own house which is hotly loved by it on Big Sea in St. Petersburg and in the manor of Vyr. He felt all life as the king expelled from the kingdom of own childhood and wanted nevermore to have other house. Removed housing, spent the last years with a family in the room of the hotel in Switzerland. On the journalist`s question why did not get own dwelling, means allowed, - answered that present houses, such as in the childhood, any more not to create, and another - is not necessary.

As we already told

, in the parental house for the child everything can be significant. The floor on which there lives the family is important. It defines degree of proximity to the earth, width of the opening panorama, difficulties of rise to the apartment, some fears of children and adults.

also openness of the house in communication with the outside world Is important

that it can be expressed as in quantity and degree of a zanaveshennost of windows, and in a possibility of arrival of friends and guests.

But all - on the first place on the importance should deliver to

house way. He helps the child to learn to organize space around himself and the time, creates prerequisites for development of internal mental structures. In a good family the child receives it through stability of a day regimen, stability of the relations between house, consistency of the requirements turned to it, rituality of some parties of house life (nightly reading the fairy tale, a maternal kiss before going to bed, etc.).

All this

helps the child to feel borders of situations, personal borders and egoism - own and other people. And, above all - gives to the child the soil under legs. For the child, especially small, it is vital to feel firmness and reliable durability of the home world. The home for the person, by and large, has to be what in psychology is called “the resource place“, that is to give an internal support of the personality, to be a source of her self-confidence and sincere force. Then the person will be able to cope with unpredictability and accident of many events and will not tremble because knows on what whales the world sticks to him.