Development of space of the house: materialization “I“. Part I
the Concept “house“ for the person makes a lot of sense, merged together and emotionally painted. It and a shelter, a shelter, protection against bad weather and misfortunes of the outside world, it is possible to take cover, hide, be fenced off here: “My house - my fortress“. It and the residence, the official address where the person can be found where it is possible to write letters, - a point in space of the social world where he is found: “Let`s exchange addresses, tell me the coordinates!“ It and a symbol of life of a family, a warm home - is sad when the house is empty when nobody waits for you; it is heavy to be the homeless orphan.
It embodies also idea of intimate, personal space, a dwelling human “I“. To come back home is to return to itself: “I at. Come to me, we will sit!“
the House as a symbol of the human person is present both at common cultural tradition, and at symbolics of mental life of the certain person. If dreams someone that he wanders about strange rooms familiarly - the unfamiliar house, then in the analysis of a dream often it is found out that it was travel on different internal spaces and back streets own “I“.the Body of the person can consider
as the carnal house of his soul too, and in everyday speech formulas the head often is represented the house of its mentality: “At this mind - chamber, and at that, probably, barmy, apparently, at it the roof went!“
the Final resting place of a body - the coffin - in national language is called “domovina“, also and the breathless dead corpse in national poetics is compared to the deserted house without owner.Can tell
that the house for the person is set of the different-sized spaces enclosed each other - from the sizes of own body to limits of the homeland, Earth and even Space:“ Our house - Russia “, “ the earth - our general house“. Not incidentally in national culture the house device as a microcosm reproduces structure of the universe.
Turns out that the psychological volume of idea of the house in experiences of the person has the pulsing borders extending to the Universe sizes which are gradually narrowed to limits own “I“. But in any case the house always remains the place where there is a person, the center of its spatial life.
we Will enter here the concept “place“ as it has the important, sated with contents value in children`s subculture. The speech formula, typical for children, is characteristic:“ Let`s go, I will show you one place“. Conversation on it can be begun with the fact that the category of the place is primary and the most important in children`s knowledge of the subject world. First the place is a point, a site, a space locus where there is something. For the child “to be existing“ - means to take a certain place in this world. If something is, then it surely takes the place in space. Existence of the place is a necessary and sufficient sign of existence for children.When the child is absolutely small
, he lives by the principle “what fell - that was gone“ that is that disappeared from the field of his sight, that does not exist any more. For the younger preschool child the place of a thing is its integral attribute. If the place is (it is specially left, it is somehow designated), and the subject temporarily is absent, it all - exists. If this place is taken by someone another, then this another begins to exist instead of absent, replacing it and, thus, forcing out it from life, depriving of an opportunity to be. Therefore the care of own place in the house, alarm and irritation which arise at the child when he sees that someone wants to take his place - it is attempt to provide the existence, to approve the fact of the presence at the current life.
Adults badly understand this children`s problem: happens, playing, purposely tease and frighten the child by the fact that will sit down on his stool or will lay down in its bed. In such cases children usually react very emotionally: are frightened, take offense, angry. Adults are made laugh that the child does not understand distinction in sizes: unless the big person in a small crib can be located? Really, the understanding of harmony of sizes of objects will become available to the child when he grows up. But at the same time the child accurately understands the main thing - that the adult applies for his lawful post in the home world and tries to push out the child it is unknown where, in a non-existence.
the Aspiration to designate, strengthen, “stake out“ the fact of own life in this world is present at behavior of the child very obviously. Early enough it becomes an important subject of personal efforts of the person and does not leave it during all life. For the child this problem has special sharpness. From - for the fact that undeveloped self-understanding will not give it sufficient certificates that “I - am“ for a long time the child constantly needs external confirmations of the fact of the existence. Therefore children so like to place on foregrounds signs of the presence - for example, to construct a tower of cubes in the middle of the room at all on the road. Or start game, literally getting under feet adults. Parents are surprised:“ Really you cannot go to play other place, you disturb here?!“ They do not understand that the child just also wants that all came across him. Thus he tries to attract attention adults, to remind of itself(himself) and to receive from them a ready response so necessary to it on the presence.
also the reason of why small children long enough cannot learn to play at hide-and-seek lies Here. The essence not that they do not understand the task facing them - quietly to sit and not to look out, and that psychologically cannot take out this situation. It seems to them that if they did not become visible to others, then thus ceased to exist for others. Then in soul the doubt begins to creep in: whether there are I in general, - which children right there resolve for themselves, having leaned out in several seconds of shelter to seem to the world. Let them for it be abused by more senior and skilled participants of game. All the same it is a way to receive desirable confirmation that is with them everything is all right:“ Time me is abused, so I am“.
Happens that adults, tenderly addressing the small child, tone of joyful recognition ask: “And who sits here? This is our Andryusha!“ “And who came? Tanya came!“. At first sight such questions can seem strange: unless the grandmother does not see who sits here or who came? Same her own grandsons! Why to ask such silly questions? And meanwhile awareness of their need speaks about keen pedagogical intuition of some adults. These questions for the sake of the child are set. The response of adults to its presence or emergence is very important for it: “I am, I exist, I was noticed and learned!“
Accommodation by the child of a problem of the place as confirmation of the fact of life happens not only in ordinary life, but also in the course of his communication with the traditional texts of maternal folklore addressed to small children. In this sense the tale of Masha and three bears gets a deep response in soul of the child, helping it to realize and experience this subject on others experience to which it is possible to come back repeatedly, to settle it, again and again listening to this fairy tale. Let`s remind it to the adult reader.
Having got lost in the wood, Masha got into an izba of three bears. In a room it sat in turn on Mikhaila Ivanycha`s chairs - a bear - the father and Nastasia Petrovna`s she-bear, having tried food from their cups. Then she climbed on little Mishutki`s stool and ate everything from his cup, and broke a stool. Came into a bedroom, lay down on Mikhaila Ivanycha and Nastasia Petrovna`s beds and crumpled them, and then settled in little Mishutki`s bed and there fell asleep. When bears came back home, they saw invasion traces at once. Adults angrily began to roar and began to roar because their places - a chair, the cup, a bed - were profaned by presence of the stranger. And little Mishutka inconsolably began to cry because his Masha deprived in total a cup him devastated, him broke a stool, it occupied a bed by itself, having forced out Mishutka completely. The benefit that the roar of bears woke her, and she jumped out in a window and escaped to herself home. So the situation, fortunately, was resolved by itself. Despite unpleasant experiences, Mishutka still got off light - he had not to enter with Masha fight for the place in a home. And many children who have younger brothers or sisters face this problem. She gives rise in soul of the child to acute senses of jealousy, envy, offense on mother, anger on the baby who partially forces out the senior from mother`s heart, deprives of former attention and even takes away the habitual place in the room, having occupied a small bed in which the senior child grew.
In independent creativity, for example in the world which the child creates in drawing he tries not to allow such injustice. If to draw, then everyone has to have the place, nobody will be blocked by anything on any space others will not encroach. For example, teachers of drawing like to put still lifes with difficult relationship of objects: the krynka blocks pumpkin, and in the foreground against a krynka two apples lie.the Preschool child in the drawing will try to arrange
“heroes“ of a still life so that they felt well - not restrained, independent, - that is separately, without blocking each other. The child tries that edges of each subject were outlined completely, and their contours were not crossed. Where in the image of the adult artist apples lie against a krynka, and a krynka against pumpkin, for the child apples in drawing aggressively intruded in a krynka, having snipped off a piece of its own space, they made it defective. Just as the krynka drove in pumpkin, and from poor pumpkin remained only sticking out from - for krynka a bit. The child wants that each subject represented by him kept constancy of the form both the integrity and, thus, the recognition. Because the child seeks to draw their full portraits. Research and transfer of difficult spatial relationship of objects are among themselves interesting to the adult artist. The child is inclined to replace them with simpler relation of a ryadopolozhennost according to the principles of early children`s logic which causes both specific actions, and outlook of the child. Therefore in the drawing the young artist will diligently list, having a row with each other, all heroes of the still life: there is a krynka, and it is big pumpkin, and these are apples, all of them live in an integrity and safety here, nobody interferes with each other, encroaches on others place, and all are completely visible, everyone can be recognized.Told above allows to understand
why the child so painfully reacts to some situations. For example, jealously preserves the bed, even when in it put only for one night of the young guest, having sent the little owner to other place, and he, alarmed, comes to check very early whether there will be no guest inadvertently forever, and tries to remove quicker it. Here it is important to parents to consider children`s psychology, to be very careful and diplomatically thinly to organize a situation that the child did not feel destitute and forced out from the lawful place.
the Children`s jealous relation to the place can be observed sometimes and at adults with unresolved personal problems. Three guests come home to the man of years forty and settle down in his office for conversation: who on a chair, who on a sofa, and one guest unintentionally sat down in the owner`s chair. The owner fell by a sofa, grew dark, sat, internally being more and more irritated, and then quite sharply drove the guest from the place with words: “Change from here when I not in this chair sit, I beside himself, cannot talk!“
the Employee having the free schedule and in principle especially not needing a separate table in the general room, can complain that it has no table and to demand it to put, first of all its presence as significant person was symbolically fixed by this table. The table sizes, its location in room space, in a force field of human relationship can also express the social status and a consequence of the owner and will carry out these functions even in his absence.
But also quite mature person knows how he important is in a social situation to designate the place, to record it the participation, the existence with which others have to reckon. Especially it is clear why the child so cares for that his place behind a table had its device: a cup with gnomes, a plate with mushrooms, a spoon with a bear cub. These objects not just the things having consumer value they an essence signs - deputies of the child, they help the child to designate the place, to fix it in consciousness of other people, to approve the egoism, to materialize the “I“.we Will make by
small digression to psychology history here. The famous American philosopher and the psychologist U. James at the end of the 19th century was the first who found out that for understanding of the personality it is important to estimate that in this world of people considers as “itself“. It turned out that it is quite often difficult to draw a line between what the person calls himself, and the fact that he designates the word mine. As Dzhems wrote, our reputation, children, creations of our hands can be so dear to us, as well as our own body, and infringement of them is endured as direct attack on ourselves. For the description of structure of the personality Dzhems I entered concepts “material“, “social I“ and “spiritual I“.
we Will consider the first of these concepts important for our narration now. In limits of own it is material - carnal “I“ many adults include not only own body as a soul receptacle, but also some objects (clothes, personal belongings, products of the creativity) and even people with whom they are internally identified. At the same time the same subject for different people can become both their integral part “I“, and a little significant appendage or object, absolutely foreign to them. There are people who even do not consider own body as themselves. And there are those for whom a circle their material “I“ enter also the house with all contents, and family members.
mothers for all life perceiving the child as inseparable part of Are:“ We already went to kindergarten“ “We well we study“ “We graduate from school soon“. It is heavy to them to recognize that their adult son or the daughter - the certain person also has the right for independent existence. And there are parents who are struck by the mysterious unique egoism which is present even at the newborn baby:“ This is our child, we gave birth to him, and at the same time such mysterious unclear being, absolutely special world“.to
Other large psychologist of the middle of the 20th century G. Olport, allocating aspects of development of “egoism“ of the person, too paid attention that the identification with own name, clothes, favourite things strengthens at the child feeling of identity - feeling of a continuity and constancy of existence of.However in general the problem of how the person learns himself and approves by
the existence, leaving the mark in this world, “opredmechivy“ itself in different types of symbolical activity, is very many-sided and still waits for the researchers.Continuation