Often you hear training programs of
: “We are engaged across Vinogradova...“ “And at us in a class learn across Zankov“. Unfortunately, most of parents can only call the author of the training program, others will tell “to us it praised“, the third, maybe, will tell about concrete pluses and minuses. But in general, the ordinary parent hardly understands, than all these programs differ. And it is not surprising. It is really difficult to make the way through scientific style and terminology of pedagogical texts.So let`s understand and try to understand
In - the first, the pedagogical system and the pedagogical program exists.
of Systems only three: Zankov`s system (developing), Elkonin`s system - Davydova (developing) and traditional (see the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation from 21. 10. 2004 N 93).
of Programs much more. Except officially recognized, there is a set of experimental systems, and also author`s, intra school which we will not consider in this article.it Will be schematical
to look approximately so:
All systems approved by Minobraz and programs meet the main requirements: they allow the pupil to acquire an obligatory minimum of knowledge. The authorship is shown in ways of supply of material, additional information, the organization of educational activity.
each system and the program has the author, so to speak, the ideological inspirer. But it does not mean that all textbooks in all objects are written only to them by one. Of course, the whole collective worked on drawing up UMK (Uchebno - a methodical set)! Therefore surnames on textbooks of your children, naturally, will be different. But, despite “collective creativity“, all textbooks within one program have uniform:
- the Purpose (i.e. that result which has to turn out those qualities which the graduates who studied according to this or that program as a result have to possess)
- of the Task (i.e. those steps by means of which the goal is achieved)
- the Principles (i.e. feature of the organization of training, supply of material, the choice of methods which distinguish one program from another).
- Contents (in fact - that training material which will be acquired by the child in the course of training. For example, the content of education on philology, on mathematics, on social science and on natural sciences. In this part of the program differ in the fact that one are limited to the state standard minimum, others include various additional knowledge, concepts, literature, and also rather giving of a training material which is inseparably linked with the principles.)
bad or good programs. All programs considered in article are approved by the Ministry of Education. And the developing system is not better and it is not worse traditional. Actually, each system is counted on a certain mentality, or, in other words, a way of perception and intellectual information processing. And these processes at each child are individual. As a metabolism, or we will tell, a hair color. Therefore we entered the section “Features Which Will Allow the Child to Study Successfully according to This Program“ where we will describe those qualities which it is desirable for child to possess to show good results into the description of each program, without being overstrained at the same time.
Below we will sometimes give examples of the schools training according to this or that program, but actually, different classes of the same school can study according to different programs, especially where the choice of the program is carried out by teachers. And it is even good. Different programs and systems demand from children of different initial knowledge and skills and in many respects depends on personal qualities of the teacher whether he will be able to realize the program in full. Therefore the teacher chooses the program which will allow it to work in the developed situation with this collective.the Education system of Zankov
In 1995 - 1996 L. V. Zankov`s system is recognized by
as parallel state system of elementary education.
Purpose: the general development of pupils which is understood as development of mind, will, school students and as a reliable basis assimilation by them of knowledge, abilities, and skills.
of the Task: one of the major tasks - education at the younger school student of the attitude towards as to value. Training has to be focused not so much on all class as a unit how many on each specific pupil. At the same time the purpose not to “bring up“ bad pupils to level strong, and to disclose identity and to develop optimum each school student is set irrespective of whether it is considered in a class “strong“ or “weak“.
Principles: independence of the pupil, creative comprehension of material. The teacher does not give out to school students of truth, and forces “to get to the bottom“ of them. Scheme the return traditional: at first examples are given, and pupils have to draw theoretical conclusions. The acquired material is also fixed by practical tasks. The new didactic principles of this system is a fast development of material, high level of difficulty, the leading role of theoretical knowledge. Comprehension of concepts has to happen in understanding of system interrelations.by
conducts systematic work on the general development of all pupils including strong, and weak. Understanding by school students of the process of the doctrine is considered important.
Contents: richer, providing variety of kinds of activity of pupils. The maintenance of the usual, standard objects at school - Russian and reading, mathematics and labor training is enriched. Independent activities of the pupil for knowledge acquisition are of great importance.
of Feature which will allow the child to study successfully according to this program: readiness to work at high speed, ability to a reflection, independent search and assimilation of information, readiness to show creative approach at the solution of an objective.More detailed information can be read to
- of zankov. ru/article. asp? edition=5 &heading=26 &article=26 - accurately is also fully described system, better and will not tell
- of zankov. ru /
- of keldysh. ru/UVK1690/zankov.
the Education system of Elkonin - Davydova
If Zankov teaches htm at great speed, then Davydov follows a saying “more haste less speed“.
Educational system of D. B. Elkonin - V. V. Davydova has already more than 40 - summer history of existence: at first in the form of developments and experiments, and in 1996 the Decision of Board of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation educational system of Elkonin - Davydova was recognized by one of three state systems, on an equal basis with traditional system and system of the developing L. V. Zankov`s training.
Purpose: formation of system of scientific concepts, educational independence and initiative. Unusually and deeply to think of development in the child of ability
of the Task:to create
- at graduates of elementary school of ability to a reflection which at younger school age finds itself through:
- knowledge of the ignorance, ability to distinguish known from the unknown;
- ability to specify in not predetermined situation what knowledge and abilities is not enough for a successful deystvovaniye;
- ability to consider and estimate own thoughts and actions “from outside“, apart from the point of view unique; ability is critical
- , but not categorically to estimate thoughts and actions of other people, addressing their bases.
the Formation of these abilities is found if:pupils can allocate to
- system of the problems of one class having the uniform principle of their construction, but differing in external features of conditions (the substantial analysis);
- pupils can mentally construct a chain of actions, and then together and unmistakably to execute them.
- to develop the creative potential, imagination of the pupil.
- the Basic principle of this system - to teach children to gain knowledge, to look for them independently, but not to learn school truth.
- the Subject of assimilation are the general ways of action - ways of the solution of a class of tasks. Development of a subject begins with them. Further the general way of action is concretized in relation to special cases. The program is arranged so that in each subsequent section already mastered way of action is concretized and develops. Development of the general way begins
- with in detail - practical action.
- Student`s work is based as search and test of cures of a task. Therefore the judgment of the pupil differing from standard is considered not as a mistake, and as test of thought.
Contents: developed textbooks in all objects studied in elementary, high and high school.
of Feature which will allow the child to study successfully according to this program: the same which were described for Zankov`s program. Exception: it is necessary to work at fast speed hardly. Rather validity, attention to trifles, ability to generalize is useful.School 2100 (School 2000, the program Peterson)
the Program is aimed by
, first of all, at the development and improvement of traditional content of education.
Purpose: to provide natural and effective integration of the child into society.
of the Task:
- to create readiness for productive work
- to create readiness for further training and - it is wider - in general to continuous education. > it is natural to li to grow up
- - scientific and all-humanitarian outlook. to provide to
- a certain level of common cultural development. Formation (cultivation) at the school student of abilities of adequate art perception at least of literature can be an example of
- to create the certain personal properties providing its successful socially - psychological adaptation in society, successful social activity and successful socially - personal development to give to
- the maximum opportunities for formation at the pupil of installation on creative activity and abilities of creative activity
- to create knowledge, installations and basic abilities of pedagogical activity.
Principle of adaptability. The school seeks to adapt, on the one hand, as much as possible to pupils with their specific features, with another - whenever possible flexibly to react to sociocultural changes of the environment.
Principle of development. The main objective of school is a development of the school student, and first of all - complete development of his personality and readiness of the personality for further development.
Principle of psychological comfort. Here belongs, in - the first, removal of all stressoobrazuyushchy factors of educational process. In - the second, this principle assumes creation in educational process unchained, stimulating creative activity of the school student.
Principle of an image of the world. Idea of the school student of the subject and social world has to be uniform and complete. As a result of the doctrine it has to have some kind of scheme of a world order, universe in which concrete, subject knowledge takes the certain place.
Principle of integrity of content of education. In other words, all “objects“ are interconnected among themselves.
Principle of systematicity. Education has to be systematic, correspond to regularities of personal and intellectual development of the child and teenager and to enter into the general system of continuous education.
Principle of the semantic relation to the world. The image of the world for the child is not abstract, cold knowledge of it. It not knowledge for me, and is my knowledge. It is not the world around me: it is the world which part I am and which anyway I endure and I comprehend for myself.
Principle of approximate function of knowledge. A problem of the general education - to help formation at the pupil of an approximate basis which he can and has to use in different types of the cognitive and productive activity.
Contents: programs and textbooks for all objects with 1 on 11 class, and also for kindergarten.
of Feature which will allow the child to study successfully according to this program: As the program, as envisioned by authors, has something in common with Elkonin`s system - Davydova, all those qualities which were described above will be useful. But as all this the traditional program calculated on “the average pupil“ practically any child will be able successfully to study according to it.More detailed information can be read to
of school2100. ru /
“School of Russia“ (Pleshakov)
Is that set for elementary school on which all of us studied, with some changes.
Purpose: education of school students as citizens of Russia. The school of Russia has to become school spiritually - moral development.
of the Task. the Main appointment of elementary school, according to authors - educational. From here and tasks:
- development in the child of the human qualities answering to ideas of true humanity: kindness, tolerance, responsibility, ability to empathize, readiness to help another
- training of the child in conscious reading, the letter and account, correct speech, to impart certain labor and health saving skills, to train in bases of safe activity
- formation of natural motivation of the doctrine
the Principles: fundamental nature, reliability, stability, openness to new.Problemno`s
- search approach. It provides creation of problem situations, promotion of assumptions, search of proofs, a formulation of conclusions, comparison of results to a standard.
Contents. the Textbooks for 1 - 4 classes published by Prosveshcheniye publishing house. Prosveshcheniye publishing house of. The set covers all educational areas.
of Feature which will allow the child to study successfully according to this program: No special qualities from the child are required. Of course, the more abilities it is developed at the child, the better. For example ability to a self-assessment, readiness to work in problem situations is useful. But according to this program even the most unprepared children to school study well.
Unfortunately, authors have the website of no this program.
“Harmony“ under N. B. Istomina`s edition
This system corresponds to the main ideas of the developing training and in particular to Zankov`s system in which Natalya Borisovna Istomina herself very long worked.
Purpose: multilateral development of the child, comfortable training, prepares the cogitative device of the child for further training. Overcoming of distinctions between the traditional and developing scheme of training.
of the Task: to provide understanding with the child of the studied questions, to create conditions for the harmonious relations of the teacher with the pupil and children with each other, to create for each pupil of a situation of success in cognitive activity.
Principles: the organization of educational activity of pupils connected with statement of an educational task with its decision, self-checking and a self-assessment; the organizations of productive communication which is a necessary condition of formation of educational activity; formation of the concepts providing at the level, available to younger school age, understanding prichinno - investigative communications, regularities and dependences.
Contents: textbooks on all subjects with 1 on 4 class. Many parents and teachers note very good giving of a course of Russian and literature.teaches
of Feature which will allow the child successfullysya according to this program: requirements to features of thought process of the child follow from the communication with Zankov`s system declared by the author. But as any traditional system, this program softens requirements imposed to the pupil by Zankov`s program.More detailed information can be read to
1september. ru/articlef. php? ID=200300905 - it is very good, with examples, information on the program is stated.
“Elementary school of 21 centuries“ (Vinogradova)
Purpose: the organization of educational activity of younger school students so that to provide comfortable conditions for development of the child in the course of assimilation of knowledge, skills.
of the Task:
- formation of the main components of educational activity (if to discuss the school student`s position, then it is the answer to the questions “why I study“, “what I have to do to solve this educational problem“, “in what way I carry out an educational task and as I it do“, “what my progress and that it is impossible to me“).
- the organization of educational process so that to provide a success situation for each pupil and an opportunity to be trained at individual speed.
Principles: the basic principle of training - elementary school has to be nature corresponding, that is correspond to needs of children of this age (in knowledge, communication, various productive activity), to consider typological and specific features of their cognitive activity and level of socialization. The school student - not just “viewer“, “listener“, and “researcher“.
Contents: according to the main principle (nature conformity) authors paid special attention to realization of function of “soft“ adaptation of children to new activity. The system of use of a role-playing game in training which gives the chance to develop various sides of role behavior, so imagination and creativity of the pupil is developed. Additional educational contents is provided in all textbooks, having given the chance to everyone to work according to the opportunities (for example, introduction to the textbook from the very beginning of training of interesting texts at material of the full alphabet for well reading children).
of Feature which will allow the child to study successfully according to this program: proceeding from the principles, it is possible to assume what according to this program will be comfortably trained in children who need soft adaptation to all new to them, whether it be collective or a kind of activity. The long preparatory period is provided in all courses.
the Choice for us. I hope, to us was succeeded to understand at least approximately “what for an animal such“ - the program. And now we will be able to approach the choice of school, a class, the teacher consciously. Approximately we imagine what questions to ask to estimate whether this teacher at this school fully will be able to realize the principles of the chosen program... We will be able correctly to prepare the child for the beginning of school lessons, whenever possible considering tendencies and character our small, but persons.