Children - bilinguals: how they develop?
Some modern parents dream of the English-speaking nurse: let the kid since the birth will acquire two languages. And other parents have problems - the child appeared in the natural way “between two languages“, and it gives a reason for concern: whether he will well know both languages or plainly will not master any? Whether such situation badly will affect its development?we Will tell
at once: everything, as for bilingval - namely so call dvuyazyky children - still a Terra incognito. Researchers unite the supervision and write monographs, however they quite often contradict each other or cause criticism from people who got into a bilingualism situation in own life. And all because the speech belongs to higher nervous activity of the person and as all in this sphere, still is considered business mysterious. In spite of the fact that any student of medical school can show the site responsible for the speech on the scheme of a brain, all - up to the end is not clear, how exactly the person seizes it. Why different people with other things being equal it is more or less “are capable to languages“, it is no secret, that the little poet composing verses in two languages, and his brother from whom on native - that language you will not extend more than two words can grow in one family.
the bilingualism Situation first of all depends on for what reasons it arose. Quite often the family will emigrate, and the child begins to master language of the new homeland. The bilingualism also arises at mixed marriages. And sometimes the mixed marriage plus emigration give a situation a troyazychiya!
the Family in emigration
Quite often parents in connection with work or on the social reasons change the country of accommodation. As a result the child gets into a situation which it is possible to call conditionally “house language against social language“. That if houses all talk, for example, on - Armenian, and in kindergarten, on the street, at school - in Russian. How in this situation there is a formation of languages at the child? Aged from the birth till about three years the child spends the most part of time in the bosom of the family - here its main interests, are satisfied its basic needs here. With peers it is possible and to take for a drive on the platform without words of the machine, in shop social contacts which are coming the child at this age do not demand active communication to hide for mother - by means of the speech. Respectively, the children who were born in the country, new to their parents, and the children who arrived to this country at the age of 3 - 4 years are almost on an equal footing: their native house language and almost only.it would Seem to
, the child will master not so much in this situation. However the fact that besides words the kid absorbs still a thoughtway, the concepts, accents peculiar to language and the mentality belonging to it is important. For example, in Ukrainian there are two verbs which are translated into Russian how “to love“.“ I love “and“ I kokhat“ are different concepts for the Ukrainian. It will express tender and strong feelings with the help “kokhannya“. There is a hypothesis that house language which spoke to the child the first words of love and tenderness influences a reflection of feelings, the thinnest and gentle matters in consciousness of the person. To express deep feelings and will test them from words of people by means of house language. The second language will be “language of communication with the world“, more informative and developed, but much less intimate.with
of Parents in this situation the question concerns: whether it is necessary to train intentionally the kid in language of its new homeland? The most part of psychologists considers what is not necessary. In - the first, at the age of early socialization (3 - 5 years) the child is able to master the second language as native, it is quite easy if gets on language Wednesday. In - the second, family communication in language, foreign for parents, is considered quite misleading to carry out first of all communication with the child has to be natural, intimate; on the second place of the reasons - lack of need and own problems with the second language at parents. >
As it is correct to p to behave when to the child the time comes “to leave to the new language world“? First of all, to stock up with patience and not to be nervous. Rub - four years - good time to plunge into the second language. At the age of 5 - 7 years it is slightly more difficult, but it is quite possible without special support. However, in the USA there is the whole program for adaptation to language of children of migrants, and in our country they have to cope somehow independently. And it does the majority quite successfully.When he will exorcise
? When catches up with peers? It is unambiguous to give the answer to this question quite difficult as everything depends on age of the child, a situation in collective, individual abilities. A task of parents - not to overload the kid, to try to perceive process as natural, not to force an event.“a family in emigration“ are connected by
of the Problem of a situation at all not with the fact that the child will not master the second language, and with the fact that he will worse know house language. In - the first, and it is felt by all emigrants, it becomes obvious how many children acquire out of a family - and it is natural. The reference group is friends, cognitive interests, it occupations with teachers, communication, television. And all this in country language.
In - the second, language cannot develop in a separation from culture, and artificially create an environment in which the child would get so much language experience as in the homeland, in the conditions of his escalating informative requirements, it is simply unreal. The child just does not know the mass of realities, new and compound words which are not necessary to him to communicate to parents. And in life we use a minimum of the huge speech stock. All the rest is necessary for us, by and large, for reading and intellectual communication, namely it in the native language at children practically does not occur. By and large, it is possible to keep the native language only to those who live in national diasporas and actively is engaged in intellectual development of children in the native language. But in this case language is nevertheless a little preserved, torn off from live processes which in it happen in the homeland. And at the same time gains new lines: the words connected with concepts of the country of accommodation will get into it.
Thus, the main problem - “How to keep the native language?“ The first: to communicate at home as much as possible, to touch upon as much as possible difficult subjects, to try to interest the child in literature, movies, written communication in house language. To try to avoid merge of languages. For example, from living in America it is possible to hear Russified English words: to poslaysit (to cut with thin pieces), morgidzh (mortgage), etc. The second: not to be overzealous. You should not organize house lessons, to abuse the child for mistakes, to take offense for “renunciation of culture“. The third: to communicate whenever possible with other carriers of house language, to go home - in a word, to provide to the child a practical work of the live speech.
I all the same to be ready to the fact that the native language will be not so well acquired. Our citizens who moved to the PERMANENT RESIDENCE to Israel perfectly know about it. In spite of the fact that there the huge Russian-speaking diaspora, is the mass of opportunities for communication in Russian not only in kitchen, but also within cultural programs, there are no problems with purchase of books and movies, the problem of Russian exists. Children who were born in Israel or arrived with parents aged to 8 years lose Russian, express in Hebrew better.by
One of parents - the foreigner
the situation when one of parents the foreigner, the carrier of the language and culture, and another lives in the country of the native language is Quite extended. In this situation the child can plunge on bilingual Wednesday since the birth. Most of experts recommend the principle “Everyone speaks the language“. What is such approach proved by? First of all, the same idea that the speech is not just a set of the sounds ordered by grammar. As it was established experimentally, children do not learn to speak even if they constantly hear the speech in record. That is the child can master the speech only in personal contact when it is turned to it. Respectively, turned speech of mother or father will help it to master language. And only in the native language the speech can be followed by the maximum quantity of energy, emotion. To Nezhnichat with the baby, hardly being at loss for words, it is an artificial situation.
As process of development in this situation happens? As a rule, in bilingual families children begin to speak much later peers. Then they begin to be confused, as if to speak on mixture of two languages. Some household phrases, exclamations, type: “give!“, “on!“, “mine!“ - most likely, will be borrowed from language of that person who will see off time with the baby more. Gradually languages are divided, and through some time the child begins to speak in two languages, quite easily switching from one to another.
What happens to its development further? As soon as the child gets to society, environment language becomes the leading language, and it begins to develop better and quicker. The second language remains at that level which is required for communication with the parent. Whether it is possible to support him? Yes, but for this purpose it is necessary to expand borders of use of language the same as we spoke in the previous chapter.
an Important role is played also by in what language parents communicate among themselves. For example, Spanish-speaking mother lives with the Russian husband in Russia. If she does not know Russian, and houses communicate in Spanish, Spanish will become language of house communication and will be developed quite well. The better Spanish is known by the father, the more often it sounds houses, the child will be better to know it. If mother speaks in Russian, Spanish will remain mainly language of intimate communication with the child if specially not to develop it. In this situation quite often children refuse to speak in Spanish with mother, if she understands Russian which is given to the child better. Psychologists consider that here knacks of the child play a role: if the bilingualism comes to it easily, he without problems will jump from language on language if to it it is difficult, can persistently assert the right for odnoyazychy. The main thing, you should not write off in this situation difficulties for psychology: a pier, the child rejects me, time does not want to speak my language. The solution of a question lies in other plane.Troyazychiye`s
. And it is possible
the Most difficult situations are dvuyazyky families in the country of the third language. And yes it happens in our open world. It turns out that at the age of early socialization the child who already two-language, has to acquire also language for communication with society. Psychologists recommend to postpone this acquaintance until age of six years not to overload the child. Further it is expected by the difficult period which will be easier for those, than it is more than similarity at the third language to one of parental: that is to learn German to the child whose parents the Russian and the Frenchman, are simpler, than Chinese. The situation anyway difficult also demands support of experts though many children and cope with this problem.
In multilingual families always the question rises: and whether the child will be fluent in languages? What is language? It is not just a lexicon. This ability to use its means of expression to express, including, shades of feelings, to joke, etc. Language proficiency is not possible without detailed knowledge of culture to which it belongs. For example, to claim that you know English if never were in Great Britain and you do not know many small details of life, you do not know proverbs, familiar expressions - quotes from movies, you have no idea of children`s books, etc. - mistakenly. It turns out that really freely the child will know only language of culture in which it is. It is possible to combine two cultural backgrounds though it is extremely complex challenge.