Methods of overcoming of protective mechanisms for people with different temperaments of
In this publication we will consider the most significant strategy which should be owned to representatives of each temperament optimum to cope with problems, standard for this temperament.by
Protective mechanisms, being imposed on specifics of temperament, substantially define formation of prepotent protection.
At the sanguine person protection differs in prevalence of denial and rationalization. Denial allows it to reorient attention and not to assume what could worsen its idea of itself. Rationalization is used for interpretation of all doubtful situations in own favor for the purpose of preservation of spirit and aplomb.to
At the choleric person in protection especially expressed replacement and replacement. Replacement provides it a high-speed exception of consciousness of everything that does not suit it, and replacement creates optimum conditions of switching of vigorous temperament from the object not suitable for a discharge of aggressive impulses, on the safe target allowing an active muscular discharge.to
At the phlegmatic person in forms of protection allocate suppression and sublimation. Only long summation allows the phlegmatic person or to block (to suppress) unpleasant information, or to readdress it from the sphere of the actions which are socially not approved to socially approved course (to sublimate).by
At the melancholiac notes domination of avoiding, a projection and identification. Avoiding joins when in connection with its aggravated keenness the situation is assessed as uncontrollable. The projection allows to shift responsibility for the failures to other people and by that to maintain unstable internal balance, and identification provides empathy, a step and sensitivity to new trends.
the Sanguine person
Level influence it is superfluous an optimistic emotional background.
- Correct the tendency to the positive forecast. In a situation when everything goes perfectly and it seems what so will be always, vigilance is necessary. In high spirits people are inclined to perceive information noncritically. (On the contrary, the bad mood induces the person to the exaggerated criticality and even fault-finding.) Being overwhelming time in high spirits, the sanguine person should not forget to do amendments on the carelessness, excess belief in the forces and tendency to danger underestimation. Besides, sanguine persons, with their inescapable optimism, have to fight against tendency to overestimate controllability of a situation (“we Will cope!“) and variability of stressful events (“Itself will resolve!“).
- Imagine fine prospects and close awards. When affairs do not move ahead or progress too slowly, for overcoming of boredom when performing uninteresting tasks the sanguine person needs periodic encouragement. As such support social recognition, glory, money, etc. are essential to it. He is always interested: “And why it is necessary for me?“ If the Nobel Prize already comes nearer, he is inspired and is capable optimum and of distances bigger, than the choleric person to use the natural power reserve. Without timely encouragement its fuse runs low, and it can switch to something another. In this case the tasks which are a little exceeding its usual level act as successful encouragement (“Nobody will be able, except me!“ ). Then at the sanguine person idea of own importance becomes stronger and the level of boredom decreases. Besides, for an exception of premature switching off of a task it is desirable to remember periodically the prospects arising after its successful decision, convincing itself of a fast and grandiose victory. do not allow itself to be switched by
- to other task, having replaced criteria. In a stressful situation at detection of essential obstacles the sanguine person can find out with surprise that he thinks already over other task. It has to serve for it as a signal to the emergency return. It is necessary, having replaced values, having reduced the price of estimated benefits from achievement of the former purpose and only then to switch to other task. In this situation it is useless to appeal to gravity, it is necessary to understand that difficulties are surmountable especially as the considerable part of a way is taken already place, it is a pity to lose reached. One more breakthrough - and remuneration in a pocket.
Level influence of speed of dynamics of switching.
- Impose yourself a fixed plan of performance of a task. This strategy is good in a situation when inclusion in the solution of several tasks at the same time is required. As the sanguine person is almost incapable of versatile activity, attempt to force it to participate at once in several works can cause about his parties or aggression, or switching - automatic invasion of protection as denial. To avoid such succession of events, it is necessary to organize performance of tasks serially. For this purpose usually independently establish sequence on the importance. If it is difficult as any of tasks is not represented personally especially important, then it is possible to address for consultation, the help. Without fixed plan at emergence of the conditions favorable for revision of positions, there is either an outburst of indignation, or derivation from the initial purpose and, as a result, the probability not to return to its achievement increases.
- Break a distance to the purpose into optimum pieces. If so long task that it is opposite to watch in the end of this prospect, it is useful, having sawn it on part, to turn it into several charm simple problems. The mental organization of the sanguine person such is that long efforts in one direction for it are morally difficult. Division of a distance into stages helps to weigh: whether I am capable to pass all way at once entirely or only in parts? For simplification of advance it is useful to present all distance as several separate achievements. Then the way to the purpose becomes the movement from success to success.
- Control yourself in focal points of the plan. In a situation when the plan of the decision is imposed from the outside, it is useful to assume that its nodal stages include the increased difficulties. In this case for optimization of the work the sanguine person should control the accuracy of the direction of attack in these knots. If it is sites of the increased difficulty, then the easy otvlekayemost and a pereklyuchayemost increase probability in these points to deviate from a course.
- Load yourself the following task without pause. The sanguine person hardly transfers inaction, it needs to be something busy constantly. Therefore when one work is complete, it needs to switch to following immediately. The problem consists that if the new task does not turn up in due time, he all the same will think up to himself occupation and when there is a need again to get into gear, he will be completely busy, and the serious argument and considerable time will be required to return it to business.
- do not undertake several tasks at the same time. As the sanguine person is not frightened by difficulty of development of new tasks and he switches with ease, the management always has a temptation to offer it at once several problems. It is by default supposed what he will choose the most acceptable or personally interesting. However the sanguine person perceives it differently, begins to be irritated and loses enthusiasm. Preferring the serial solution of tasks, the sanguine person at simultaneous acquaintance to them or will choose one for the further application of efforts, or against irritation and aggression in general will be engaged in something in the. Therefore it is better for it to get acquainted with set of actual tasks consistently and to join in their decision serially.
the Choleric person
Level influence of specifics of emotions - irascibility.
- Find an obstacle for activization of the efforts. As the trigger mechanism of excitement for the choleric person the barrier on the way to action acts. At collision with it it reacts like a volcanic eruption. However at all the power this eruption quickly runs low. The following barrier has to be ahead visible to continuing efforts. Exclude
- monotony of work, splitting up it for parts. As the choleric person of people very mobile, and sometimes and fussy, the monotonous kinds of activity demanding patience and systematicity of efforts are contraindicated to him. For optimization of the working capacity and mental stability it needs to break all volume of work into pieces and each piece to present as a separate task which can be solved in a special way. A variety of strategy prevents inevitable falling of working capacity and allows to cope with a situation.
- Be exacting to yourself. In a situation of defeat it is useful to organize for the aid to himself brainstorming of employees and to encourage critical remarks from all directions. Advantage of the choleric person is that, unlike representatives of other temperaments, his positive self-assessment does not decrease from substantial and even sharp criticism. In a normal situation he considers useful to himself discussion and analysis of the mistakes even if such discussion is impartial. He is capable to use effectively tough remarks and a negative assessment if he considers that the criticism brings benefit, improving results of his behavior or work.
Level influence of speed of switching.When passions were tensed by
- , recede and wait. In a situation of the running high scandal it is necessary to think up for himself a signal of danger and a way of fast “cooling“. The choleric person has to remember the feature to be brought about a floor - a turn and in stressful situations not to control the emotions. Therefore it is useful for it to train in himself restraint. To avoid unfair sanctions in a critical situation, he has to cool down. It is not so difficult for it as in his anger there is no hatred, and he loves another the stronger, than rather that concedes to it. Therefore, ostyv, the choleric person with pleasure will meet halfway conceded, and scandal will die away. whether you Do to
- that it is necessary, seeking to finish rather? Before showing result of work, it is useful to wonder once again: Whether “In that the direction I moved ahead?“ As the choleric person is impulsive, is not inclined to end of begun, is spontaneous, does not love restrictions and fixed plans, it seldom does precisely what was required. Therefore it is necessary to be ready to what when checking will appear - it is made absolutely not that it was supposed. At the same time checks have to be organized rather tactfully as the choleric person badly transfers disciplinary restrictions. Regulations and methodical instructions can cause the explosive reaction excluding a possibility of further interaction. Therefore it is more convenient to realize control on written materials, out of contact with the performer, meaning that he is inclined to start with checking disputes, at the same time gets excited, interrupts the interlocutor and “asks for trouble“.
- Finish begun. The choleric person reaches the last boundary not always. It is difficult for it to see the remote consequences of the actions or ideas as he is incapable to wait long. Without seeing fast positive results of the efforts, he can be limited to what begins business, and then leaves it or sells. In most cases it loses on it reputation, time or money, and the following owner, having finished business, the capital can acquire on it. Also the choleric person often invents, but is not capable to take anything from the invention. Therefore he should learn to be proud of the fact that he saw the end result of the plans. Remember
- : not all are capable to extreme efforts. The choleric person always has to mean that he treat those people who well feel in uncertainty as they are not irritated by need to work on a situation. Therefore it especially is in great need in strong incentives and experiences. It is no wonder that choleric persons develop all new and more and more dangerous forms of an extreme. However for people with other temperament such loadings can be ultraboundary.
the Phlegmatic person
Level influence of specifics of emotions - excess slowness.Consider
- : emotions, a time trouble and authority - arguments for others. The phlegmatic person has to remember that his behavior in an extreme situation can be for people around and unclear, and even unacceptable. Really, at any form of the argument and pressing (“We will not manage to hand over work“, “You slow down work of all others“, “The head of firm is dissatisfied with your delay!“ ) the phlegmatic person performs work only this way soon as he got used, and does only what he was told in advance, and what was designated in the instruction is better. It infuriates colleagues especially as even in a stressful situation to push, threaten or discharge it is useless. Understanding the reasons of such conflict situation, the phlegmatic person has to explain what everything understands and will patiently wait for objective, it is better than the written argument (“If you please - provide documents when which receiving - as soon as then! Otherwise I, unfortunately, will be able to change nothing“).
- Comprehend skills of empathy and tactful communication. Reacting too in a slowed-up way to feel the interlocutor and to show a step in communication, the phlegmatic person quite often is trapped. It needs professional training of communication and even some habitual and tested schemes of its organization.
Level influence of speed of dynamics of switching.
- Ensure time sufficient for assimilation of information. When other employees already understood everything and get to work, the phlegmatic person only begins to understand that he should be specified and what questions to ask to begin creation of the action plan. To it it is necessary “to digest“ quietly and deliberately the argument. Prevention of invasion of suppression and sublimation, protection forms, typical for it, demands rather long temporary accumulation and summation of the corresponding signals they surpassed a personal threshold. Therefore he has to reserve to himself time for accurate planning and structuring the actions. However it is not obligatory to show the aspiration to work only after development of the planned program as similar systematicity can be presented to people around unreasonable and irritate.
- Imagine a new task as development of old, be engaged in construction, the column of the subtasks. The phlegmatic person is convinced that in a hurry cannot be thought up and made nothing essential. He considers that the task long has to grow from within and only then it can be apprehended as answering to serious internal inquiries and promoting inspiration. At such position he badly transfers parting with each previous task and need of switching on new, demanding to build anew all planning. But quite another matter, when the task not essentially another, and related previous also demands only some updating of plans. Therefore for the phlegmatic person it is so useful to present a situation as development or continuation of old.
- Consider a role of age of partners in communication. By an old age representatives of all temperaments move from choleric persons to phlegmatic persons a little. Due to the age delay of reactions also the past interval considered at creation of strategy of behavior increases. Thereof there is an opportunity to synthesize events of longer temporary periods, than in youth. Prolonging a bigger interval of the past, even elderly choleric persons are capable to glance in farther future. Therefore, counting possible behavior of the personality, it is necessary to consider not only temperament, but also age.
Level influence of specifics of depressive emotions.
- do not exaggerate information on weight of a situation. To keep peace of mind, it is useful to apply tactics of a protection from the disturbing information. It is not necessary to get stuck on the weaknesses. It is necessary to remember that you are most fruitful when work in pleasure and is not present fear of future difficulties. Do not lose sight that than is more persistent to a podchaconnection of the performed task with check of abilities rkivatsya, efficiency of the melancholiac is lower than subjects (and that is higher at the sanguine person).
- Move ahead to necessary actions, encouraging itself. For the person with it is raised by disturbing character in a difficult situation strategy is most probable - to postpone reaction. At the same time the increased vulnerability and isolation is only aggravated under adverse conditions. Therefore for transition to action the benevolent background and support are necessary. Trust
- to the ideas, do not wait for the exhaustive argument. Hypersensibility of weak nervous system and high level of empathy allow the melancholiac to the first to feel, “where wind blows“, and to see the direction of perspective development of that area in which it works. It seldom gushes forth ideas as it is insufficiently self-assured. However in the having conditions can present absolutely new activity and, having got support, even to tell several words in its justification. But without support he will be silent as, without trusting itself, the correctness of the ideas which is not able to prove. Therefore the melancholiac should show consideration more for the ideas and not to demand from himself neither their profound justification, nor especially the independent embodiment.
- Train an exit from catalepsy. If for the choleric person in an extreme situation the motor storm, vanity and shout, then for the melancholiac typical reaction - a stupor and catalepsy is more probable. However it can be very dangerous. For example, the pilot needs to catapult, and he fell catalepsy. In one of real episodes only at the height of one thousand meters it managed to leave this state and to escape. There are special trainings facilitating management of an exit at the first signs of catalepsy.
Level influence of speed of dynamics of switching.
- do not fear fast changes of a situation. Fast changes are capable to cast the melancholiac into despondency and to sharply reduce activity in overcoming of difficulties. Therefore at hit in such situation it is important not to be frightened, not to assure himself of own insolvency, and, on the contrary, in every possible way to convince itself that the situation rather simple and is the mass of chances to cope with it. Even medical misinformation increases confidence of the melancholiac in recovery and will mobilize its vital forces. The melancholiac as the person who is constantly afraid of possible failure at the intermediate stages of work has to support himself by memories of the last progress even if insignificant.
- Develop skills of behavior in a time trouble. The melancholiac is capable to learn not to be exposed to a stress in a condition of a time trouble. It can much better, than the sanguine person and the choleric person to be prepared for work more carefully, considering all range of the possible reasons of emergence of an adverse situation and in advance thinking over the behavior.
- Best is oftentimes the enemy of the good. The lowered self-assessment generates uncertainty in the professionalism, and the aspiration of the melancholiac to make everything in the best way influences a date of completion of work. It is important to remember: it is more important to achieve result, than to infinitely improve it therefore it is necessary to reduce the overestimated criteria of quality and just to finish work.