The reading and not reading teenagers: in what a difference?
In 2006 - 2007 the Russian state children`s library conducted complex research “Reading and not reading. The factors influencing reading younger teenagers“.
the Research objective identification of the factors influencing reading modern sixth-graders (a role in it such social institutes as library, a family, school) was em>; carrying out the comparative analysis of the personal and reader`s features which are actively reading and is not enough reading teenagers (specification of the fact that gives reading the developing personality). Research was conducted in six regions of the Russian Federation (apart from Moscow), and also in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In each of participating in experiment the region by experts previously two schools were selected: strong where children actively read, and usual where, according to teachers, most of children did not read.
the Set of techniques consisted of the following documents:
- of the instruction and the questionnaire for the expert;
- of the questionnaire for the school librarian;
- of the questionnaire for the teacher (for all teachers of the surveyed school);
- of the questionnaire for parents of children of the surveyed class;
- of the questionnaire - the block of diagnostic techniques for sixth-graders (diagnostics was carried out during one lesson).
of All it was captured by research of 337 sixth-graders in regions and 61 in Moscow.
What showed our research? In - the first, it recorded the fact of domination of not book culture in modern society. According to regional data (i.e. apart from Moscow), 83,1% of teenagers have no need and skills of orientation structure literaturno - the art text, a narrative (“narrative“ - from armor. arrate - the language act, a verbal statement): the video series (constructed under laws of so-called “clip culture“) is closer, more habitual to them. Only 18,7% of school students were ready to adequate perception difficult literaturno - art texts. That children began to read less, also the fact that the answer in the column “Reader`s Development of Your Child“ (in the questionnaire for parents) “does not differ from peers“, earlier, quarter of the century back demonstrates, meant the average level of reader`s development, and now, according to a number of parents, corresponds to the columns “reads insufficiently“ and even “does not like to read at all“ because peers ceased to read much. Reading (“ahead of the peers“) the child (14%) became “visible“ to parents because definition “reading“ is what allocates it from a circle of peers, this individual hobby, but not the standard, ordinary activity peculiar to all teenagers.
the Second conclusion from research: a role of a family and school as heads of children`s reading it appeared it is impossible to overestimate. Such social institutes as family, school and library are still important for education of need for reading younger generation. Unfortunately, the library appeared on the last place on extent of influence on reader`s qualification of the teenager. It is possible to carry to positive impacts, for example, the fact that good and excellent school librarians have pupils twice more often possess high esthetic installations, in comparison with their peers having contact with low-skill school librarians. However so it is not enough teenagers having the high level of esthetic installations - only 2,7%!influence of teachers is More considerable
. So, at the teacher - the nonprofessional teaching to sixth-graders Russian languages literature (i.e. not having defined, developed pedagogical installations, style of the relations with pupils), teenagers considerably less than at the teacher - the professional (every eighteenth against every fourth), are capable to be guided in structure of a narrative, preferring it to a “clip“ row, i.e. do not belong to book culture. This ability rare nowadays is influenced also by total installations of all pedagogical staff of school: if at school the authoritative pedagogics concerning children`s reading prevails, teenagers are even less often inclined to book culture, than their age-mates from schools where other forms of relationship between children and adults are taken. (Fortunately, at modern school democratic style of communication with children - 79% prevails.)
in general the reader`s level of teachers can be characterized as low: on the first place (37%) - the teachers focused on “reading matter“, an easy genre. It is interesting that if the teacher`s staff of school is inclined to “pantophagy“ in the field of reading (a variety of tastes), then teenagers of this school have positive public orientation more often, but not uzkoegoistichesky in comparison with their peers having in mentors of fans of easy “reading matter“ and a fashionable postmodernism.
So are broadcast to teenagers by democratically spirited teachers in the weight, i.e. having good personal contact with pupils? Unfortunately, “reading matter“. Paradox: the merit (democratism) conducts to negative results: to decrease of reader`s taste of pupils.also the family role in formation of the reader is Not less significant
. So, and/or practice in families where parents practiced in elementary school two three and more forms of work with the book now (reading aloud, discussion, games concerning read and so forth), the level of esthetic installations and literaturno - art creativity of the teenager is higher, than at his peer who was not receiving and not receiving such various pedagogical influences in a family. Alas, only 36% of parents of teenagers continue to use two and more forms of work with the book in family pedagogics of reading. And/or practice in families where parents practiced in elementary school two now - three and more forms of work with the book (reading aloud, discussion, games concerning read and so forth) the level of esthetic installations and literaturno - art creativity of the teenager is higher, than at his peer who was not receiving and not receiving such various pedagogical influences in a family.where parents consider for themselves pedagogics of children`s reading as interesting creative occupation, at the teenager level literaturno - creative abilities more opportunities for self-change, psychotherapy in the course of creativity is higher than
I, than at his peers where the management of reading in a family is conducted formally, on coercion. If at parents literary tastes are traditional for last era (i.e. the love to the Soviet and pre-revolutionary classics takes the central place), then their children possess the high and average level of development literaturno more often - creative abilities whereas children of the parents reading everything or inclined to easy reading matter, on the contrary, possess a low level of development literaturno more often - creative abilities. (But, unfortunately, on the first place (48%) the parents showing pantophagy of literary taste.) In general 59% of parents recognize what their children read insufficiently or do not like to read at all. Here entered as the parents who are actively going in for pedagogics of children`s reading, and mother and father, neglecting the parental responsibilities in this sphere. Interested us whether the teenagers recognized as their parents the good readers (who are ahead of the peers in reader`s development) differ, on a level of development of the literary and reader`s abilities, and, the main thing, on the personal qualities, from them not reading or is not enough reading peers. >
it Turned out p that this is true! And the block of “personal qualities“ and the block of “actually reader`s abilities“ directly depends on reader`s qualification, a level of development of reader`s activity of the teenager. The sixth-grader reading much has higher level reader`s and literaturno - creative development, than his peer reading a little: he deeper perceives literaturno - works of art, is guided in structure of a narrative better, possesses more developed esthetic taste, composes art texts better. Its valuable installations also more humanistic, and ability to solve the psychological problems with the help literaturno - art creativity is better developed, than at not reading teenager. In turn, installations of the first (literary) and the last (personal) “blocks“ are interconnected.
So, for example, orientation of the teenager in a problem moral situation, in the relations of people depends also on development of perception difficult literaturno - art texts, and on development literaturno - creative activity, and on orientation in structure of a narrative, and on a level of development of valuable installations of teenagers, and on their ability to solve the psychological problems with the help of literary creativity. Only one of qualities - ability to be guided in problem, ethical in character, situations - does not depend outright on whether the teenager reads much. (Here that example of moral behavior which is seen by the teenager at school and at home is important, probably.) But here present adults, alas, are not examples of reader`s behavior! Level of reader`s qualification and teachers, and parents in regions leaves much to be desired. Only at the best elite Moscow schools the writer and other teachers were capable to show to the teenager an image of the ideal reader - the intellectual. Together with ability to communicate with teenagers as equals, ability to involve them in interesting joint activity, creation of a cult of the book and reading at school by efforts of all teachers of school. It provides achievement by the teenager - the sixth-grader of high level both literary (reader`s), and personal development. At the “reading“ schools and classes teenagers - readers really possess others, than their not reading peers, valuable installations and consciousness - in a different way define themselves in the world. They are entered in world Culture and (at the extramental level) accept for themselves mission of a kulturtregerstvo. It gives hope.