Begin with a cradle. Part I
of Many parents does not satisfy if we so vaguely, the words which are taken out in heading, answer their quite specific question “When to begin musical education?“. And then we bring aphoristically - the capacious answer to the same question of the famous Hungarian teacher and the composer Zaltana Kodaly:“ In nine months prior to the child`s birth. And it is even better - in nine months prior to the birth of his mother“
The earlier, the better
It is not just beautiful aphorism. Quite so business also is. We ask to excuse if the similar answer broke your peace of mind a little. Many got used to consider that education of the child, including musical, it is necessary to begin much later. And to three - four grows healthy, and thank God. The latest the psychologist - pedagogical researches showed that it is difficult to fill time missed for education at preschool age. Loss of the first years has especially irreversible consequences. From the birth moment to 4 - x.
the Famous supporter of early active development of children of Masare Ibuk (Japan) arguing such point of view in the book “After Three Already Late“ as the proof gives examples of children (only in India several similar cases are known), which at infantile age were stolen by wolves, and in three - four years are found and restored to human life. Despite all attempts of scientists (Tarzan`s history - the fine fairy tale), these children could not rise from an animal level of development. They could not learn not read or consider, but even articulately to speak...
It, however, does not mean that we completely agree with maximalism of Masare Ibuk or his modern Russian follower Pavel Tyulenev too claiming that “after three late“. We think that everything is not so dramatically. There is a mass of examples when children in whose early musical education nobody was engaged became not only big fans of music, but also professional musicians subsequently. Including musicians of high level. By the way, the question of a ratio of genetic predisposition and environment is treated differently and still remains open.
I all - a lot of things speak well for the fact that the early period in life of the child is extraordinary important that at children to three - four years huge vital potential. Their consciousness - a blank sheet. It has no stereotypic ideas and actively absorbs all new. Learns world around. At this particular time cells of a brain strenuously develop. Children to 4 - x are ready to study years, want to study, derive pleasure from study. It is undoubted that this age phenomenon needs to be used.tells Masare Ibuk`s
about the experiment made in Japan in the center of early development which he headed. One group of children at the age of 1 - 2 years was given constantly, but in the small portions to listen to classical music (incidentally the choice fell on Beethoven`s music), and others were not given. Children in “betkhovensky“ group were more quick-witted and emotionally susceptible.
What turns out? To what children are more senior, as well as adults, study for years, slowly and difficult, tiny peanuts seize easily and effortlessly. A striking example - learning of foreign languages. In the seventies authors in Moscow had a familiar Afro-American. His five-year-old daughter spoke in four languages fluently - Russian, English, French and Spanish though she specially did not study any of languages. Just the father spoke with it in English, mother - in Russian, the grandmother living with them - in French, and what is especially surprising, other grandmother Spanish. Surprisingly because this hispanic grandmother came to the granddaughter only two once a week at several o`clock. Told above fully treats also musical education.
First year. A sound environment
So, at you is in a family big pleasure - the child was born. Sonny or daughter. How it is correct to create a musical environment of its dwelling? How to develop musical abilities at this age? How to pass between Stsilla of violent imposing of the representations and Haribda of full non-interference?
Since the birth the baby will get to the world of sounds. These are voices of relatives, poskripyvany beds, a ring of rattles, noise of cars behind a window and a set of other most various sounds - angry, gentle, sharp, loud, adult, children`s. The baby listens attentively to the world of sounds and tries to understand it. Already in two - three months at it appear some emotional perception of a sound environment. The kid turns the head towards sounds, fixes eyes a sound source, and from 7 - 8 months tries to imitate what hears - babbles, says separate sounds, sometimes even sings. The child begins to understand, as sounds which are made by him, cause reaction of people around.
by this time the kid, without catching still sense of words, thinly feels intonation, a melodics of the human speech. On tender tone - smiles, lasts handles. Tell the same angrily - it is frightened, cries. Try to fence whenever possible it from sounds loud, discording, too sharp. Sharp sound effects are contraindicated to weak nervous system of the kid. Having heard loud sounds, for example, noise of a drill behind a wall or, what is even worse, quarrels of parents, the peanut screws up the face, becomes angry, sometimes cries. If there is a lot of similar sounds and they repeat regularly, the child becomes nervous, excitable, badly eats and sleeps. Melodious, low and gentle sounds, on the contrary, affect it soothingly, give pleasure. Therefore it is important to create the sound environment sated with such sounds around the kid. Hand bells, rattles, musical toys are pertinent. Including such which hang over a bed and which he can reach. Especially beneficial influence on early musical development of the child is exerted by singing of mother.Let mother (and the father too) sings
With singing of mother connected the first important musical impressions. For centuries of mother sang the most gentle, most heart-felt songs at the child`s cradle. And the first memories of singing of mother or nurse (remember what kind words are written by Pushkin about Arina Rodionovna) at many of us are connected with feelings of happiness, love, tenderness.
Today the song, including at a cradle, leaves family life. Some hesitate of the voice. Others consider that it to anything when there is such huge number sounding and singing technicians and what to sing to the kid unmodernly. At many in our fussing life the head is stuffed to others, and them not to songs. And it is a pity. If you want that yours the son or the daughter fell in love with music, sing of Singing of mother, singing of other close people more often - the best to achieve that the child since the birth reacted to music as on something pleasant and joyful.
we Know a family in which parents, having noticed that 11 - the monthly child tries to imitate intonations of their voice and singing, began to play houses the whole opera scenes, addressing the peanut with the improvised melodic recitatives.
- Get up, little, beloved Sashenka, - they sang in the morning on different motives. - How to you it was fallen down, the sonny? Let`s put on. And where our shirt? Etc.Results turned out
amazing. By two years Sasha very much liked to sing, and to three sang many children`s songs: “Fir-tree“, “Gena`s Crocodile“, “We go, we go, we go...“, etc. Let`s add that examples when singing contact of parents and children helped musical development of the child, in our practice there is a lot of.Sometimes the father or mother ask
: “And how to be if I have no hearing, and I sing out of tune?“ Teachers in this respect have no consensus. The American psychologist, the specialist in early education Glen Doman, for example, considers that in this case it is undesirable to child as the ear for music of the child can deteriorate to sing. In our opinion, the main thing in singing of parents - not an exact intoning, but emotional contact, a musical orientation of communication, love to singing. And also, we will repeat once again, a personal example. It is necessary to add: representation that if parents have no hearing, then and at the child will not be, has under itself no sufficient reasons.
When music sounds from the first days
From the huge world of sounds especially musical sounds attract the kid. The outstanding Russian physiologist V. M. Bekhterev considered that for development of musicality it is necessary to allow to the baby to listen to music from the first days of life. But how to define whether this music suits your child? Bekhterev offered a way simple and reliable:“ Small children vividly react to music. One works cause crying and irritation. Others - joyful emotions and calm. Also it is necessary to be guided by these external reactions in the choice of pieces of music“.
However experience of families which we observed showed that Bekhterev`s recommendation works not always. Kids who react to music a little meet or react rather vaguely to draw some unambiguous conclusion. In these cases we advise to adhere to criteria, maybe, several more indistinct, than V. M. Bekhterev, but accepted for all children offers. Music to which you allow to listen to the most young listener has to be highly artistic. The best works of musical culture. You should not protect artificially little listeners from Bach, Tchaikovsky, Beethoven and to turn on for them only the music simple, elementary, written especially for children. But there are also some restrictions. Music for the smallest has to have a clear melody, light character, an accurate form. As in literature. At first Pushkin`s fairy tales, and only much later - the “Crime and punishment “ of Dostoyevsky.Music and the movement
Music and emotions are closely connected by
. Already in three - four months the kid not only listens to music, but also perceives it emotionally. At sounds of a lullaby lies quietly, quietly. Under live, cheerful music smiles, rejoices. Cheerful music induces the smallest to various manifestation of activity: exclamations, podpevaniye, movements of plyasovy character. Such activity should be maintained in every possible way. You will give great pleasure to the tiny, not able to sit yet child if you take it for hands and under cheerful music will make the various movements. All this not only promotes improvement of his mood, develops physical activity, but also creates important emotional connection: music is a pleasure and pleasure.
With a great interest the child about one year listens to music under which adults with a tag or a tambourine rhythmically move. With success the doll can replace the adult. Under march the doll marches, under a waltz does the dancing movements. Under the song the toy birdie “sings“. Also “departs“ as soon as music becomes silent.
So music is gradually included into the child`s life. He already calms down and attentively looks at a source of a sound which parents are going to include. He waits for music.
Experience of a family of Alferov
the Interesting example of early hearing of music described in pedagogical literature, experience of a family of Alferov. Both the father, and mother loved music, but had no music education. To Grisha allowed to listen to Bach`s music (the choice of the composer was casual) since one month. The boy liked to listen: he turned a head on a music sound, smiled. Since four months selective ability of the kid was shown. It had favourite works - Bach and Vivaldi`s violin concerts. It is curious that Grisha liked not all concerts of Vivaldi but only some. Parents went to other room, went about the own business and learned about the end of sounding of music on crying of the baby.Experience of a family of Alferov is exclusively successful
. In nine months Grisha with pleasure listened to songs, tried to sing. In a year he already purely sang several simple children`s songs. By four years the song repertoire of Grisha is considerable. In it both children`s, and adult songs. He likes to listen also to classical music. Among his favourite composers there is Bach, Vivaldi, Mussorgsky, Haydn. We do not consider Grisha as the child prodigy. Because we know many examples when correctly organized early hearing of music supported with interest of parents promoted active development of ear for music, memory, an emotional susceptibility.
So, we were defined to what music to allow to listen to the kid we approach the following question closer and closer.to organize
As hearing of music?
Without answer to it all previous reasonings lose meaning. There are several basic rules.
- Music, even the most remarkable, should not sound constantly. In this case it not only ceases to be perceived as pleasure and pleasure, but ceases to be perceived in general.
- Music should not sound too loudly.
- should not allow to listen to music to the child if for any reasons it is not located to it. You will feel it on reaction of the kid.At first duration of hearing of music should not exceed
2 - 3 minutes on 3 - 4 times a day. Gradually by 9 - 12 months this time can be increased till 15 - 20 minutes. By a year, and, earlier the child himself will sometimes show on a source of music and to ask it to include. To this age its reaction to music (it is pleasant / it is not pleasant) will become more certain.to
And here to us will be helped by game.
Game first. to the Kid already two - three months. At this time the kid begins to catch communication between a sound and its source. You ring a hand bell or knock on a rattle which are in sight of the child. Then you take a sound source aside that the kid saw it. He lasts a look and rejoices that found the sounding objects again.
Game second. In five - six months when the kid begins to creep, you hide with a hand bell in hands and call. The kid on a sound finds you. Gradually you can hide further and further.
Game third. At the same age in the form of game can construct also hearing of music. You include a sound source, put it on a floor and listen seconds 20 - 30. Then you cover it with light fabric and you speak to the little listener: “Where music? There is no music?“ The child with pleasure accepts game and, rejoicing that the situation is clear to it, creeps to a source of a sound and unveils. Then comes back and waits until you turn on the music again. After it “the mobile moment“ the kid listens to music with new interest.
From 1 to 4. Musical toys.We agree
with Nikitinymi that “one year - a launch pad for start of all opportunities of the child“. It is that age when further development of the kid is defined. Why? In - the first, from this age he begins not to creep, and to go. And therefore sees world around much better and more stoutly. In - the second, the baby begins to speak. Speech communication with relatives gives a considerable impetus to its development. And, at last, in - the third, after a year the kid can take objects in hand and study them. The important role at this age is got by musical toys.
of Such toys (singing dolls, children`s computers, machines losing melodies, etc.) the huge number is issued now. And it is worth to remember about them when you create for the child, according to Maria Montessori, “cultural space“. By what rules it is necessary to be guided, providing the kid with the sounding toys?
- Musical toys should not be hidden in a case. Let toys lie so that the kid without your help could use them. It gives the chance of the free choice of that toy which interests it at present. This phenomenon of the free choice is used in Israel when feeding children from eight - nine months and till two years. Before the child put on plateaus four - five various dishes, and he chooses what to him is more today to liking. li>
- Avoid the toys making sharp and loud sounds. should not be
- of Musical toys very much. If everything around the child sounds and sings - it is obvious search. There comes the sound satiation, and music is already perceived not as pleasure and pleasure, and as a certain sound background.