Exit to the world: where and with whom. Part I
Small children go beyond a home threshold only with adults: at first sitting in a carriage or on hands of parents, then - on shank`s mare. When the child already well goes and is quite independent, the adult tries to watch that the child on walk remained in the field of his reach all the time.
Usually small children are afraid to lose the adult from a look too. Adult is a stronghold of stability, a safety symbol, the major reference point in children`s system of coordinates. Many children are extremely frightened if this reference point suddenly disappears. For example, when the adult, playing with the child, hides for a thick tree and is not shown too long. For small it “too“ can be less than a minute. But also it is enough that in soul of the child there was a horror of loneliness and a condition of the panic paralyzing reason: mother was gone forever and any more will never return - what with me will be now? In general such catastrophic experiences are typical for absolutely tiny children whose intelligence works by the principle: what dropped out of my sight, that does not exist in my world any more. But mother or other adult satellite on walk is such significant person that his disappearance even for a short time can quickly awaken and the three-year-old child has infantile experiences of abandonment in this others and instantly becoming terrible world. Its internal panic usually breaks outside crying and shout which is an instinctive appeal to mother: find me!
Often to the child can be difficult to calm down, even when the adult left the shelter. Unfortunately, adults not always understand logic of children`s behavior. Happens that mother reproaches the child for inaction: “It was necessary not to stand and cry, and to look for me!“ It seems to the adult that the child badly played the role in the hide-and-seek offered him. But the child did not apprehend a situation as game because it for him was too similar to real. What was game for the adult in perception of the child unexpectedly coincided with others - situations of the early childhood, serious and painful for it: frequent absences of mother, a lack of attention from her party and fear of the child that mother will not return in general.we Will notice
, by the way, that at many animal species the kid who lost mother should stand still and send a mayday call. And mother has to search actively for a cub, being guided by his peep. Such quite practical form of permission of a critical situation of loss of each other was developed by the wild nature. But the child as the human being, wants bigger, than just to be found. He wants that were delighted to it! It is important to child to be convinced that he is for mother an outstanding figure against life, the figure identified, desired, required, not merging with this background: “Here where our Sashenka!“
Only the fact that the child fully lived in own experience (to be lost - to be found, to begin to cry - and to be consoled), it will be able to embody really then in the actions in relation to other people. Only if to it treated as value, he will make thrifty use of another.
Therefore hide-and-seek with the adult can become a source of the joyful approval by the kid of reliability of the and mother`s existence in this world if mother understands features of experience of the child. In an opposite case it can generate feeling of abandonment and fear of dissolution in this huge world, once the adult shifts accents in game.
In general this harmonious unity of interests of the adult and child - to be mutually visible and accessible in world space - it is characteristic of the first years of life of the child. The it becomes more senior, the more he wants to drop out of a field of vision of adults and, respectively, from - under their control.the Majority of the most interesting enterprises which the children`s domestic company of younger school age arranges are not intended to
for eyes of adults at all and will be organized contrary to their orders. It and visit of “terrible“ places like the cellar, an attic, the abandoned house, and the game “with adventures“ on building sites, both construction of “staffs“, and kindling of fires, and campaigns on a garbage can, and many other things.
However parents on whom responsibility for life and health of children, naturally, lies keep quite explainable desire to see and hear the younger offsprings when they walk. For children is more senior usually certain temporary and spatial restrictions, and also ways of control are introduced: an appearance in a certain hour etc.
the Researches conducted abroad showed that the consent of parents to release the child to play in the yard of one depends on many reasons. Three moments are especially significant: whether the playground is well visible from a window whether the child will hear call of the parent, the parent how fast will be able to go down if something happens. It turned out that in the families living on the ground, second, third floor, children, as a rule, use concerning independent walks bigger freedom, than those who live on the ninth or eleventh.
of Border of the territory on which it is authorized to child to be usually rigidly depend on that, he goes for a walk one or together with someone. Here we observe similarity in installations of parents of the different countries again. The city children living in apartment houses practically everywhere ask permissions of parents to go outside. In the families having own house, the child is allowed to walk without demand in the yard of the house fenced with a fence. The yard is perceived by parents as “house“ space.Usually parents release
to one places and do not release in others depending on the one who is the companion of the child. Somewhere let one, somewhere - only with peers (for example, to play on a glade between houses on the dacha), somewhere - if together with children there is a familiar and reliable adult (for example, to the wood for berries), and somewhere it is possible only with parents (we will tell, to bathe on the river if the child badly swims). All these permissions and bans strongly depend on age of the child, it is slightly less - from his half, and also features of the district where there lives the family. Of course, the factors defining extent of control over the child are also the relations in a family, with surrounding people, with peers of the child and many other privkhodyashchy circumstances.
So, children`s freedom of spatial movements and the choice of places of stay outdoors is always limited and controlled by adults. Nature of these restrictions in different cultures has natural similarity: parents in every spot on the globe do not let children in those places from where danger to their life and morality can proceed, and are afraid of foreign people who can do harm to the child. Most often children are forbidden to cross roads on which there go cars, to go to the river or a reservoir and to visit specifically “adult“ places. Usually territorial bans are imposed by mother.
we Will enter the concept “territorial behavior“ here. In ethology, science about behavior of animals, it is used for designation of those forms of activity of the living being which are connected with development, use and protection of the territory of dwelling. This term can equally belong to the description of behavior of a frog, dog or person as all of us, being corporal beings, surely somewhere live, we walk, we get food, we perceive this territory as the and we try in the different ways to approve the master`s situation.
From the biological point of view, each living being is closely connected with that ground which feeds it and is for it rendered habitable. The space within which there lives a certain biological community has to be rather extensive and rich with opportunities for satisfaction of basic needs of his members. Otherwise this community will not survive.
Not idle, but pedagogically important is the question of what territory is outdoors necessary to children that they had enough forces it to master, not to be lost and not to be dissolved in it, to satisfy the curiosity and to realize the desires.
Conversation on what space children of different age are capable to seize and that they do there, it is possible to begin with a summary of results of unique research of American Roger Hert.Hert began to teach
After the termination of university geography at school. In the course of the pedagogical activity Hert became interested in how geographical representations - but not according to school textbooks and cards are formed at children. He wanted to understand how children learn that real district in which they live. It became a subject of its thesis.he chose by
as object of research the small American town which children`s population made 87 people, and lodged there for the whole year. Soon all children of this town became his friends and at the same time examinees of the young graduate student. He participated in their games and walks, talked to their parents, finding out where children are released and where is not present where also in what children are engaged as the area of the territory developed by the child depends on his age and a floor. With it Hert was helped by a filling technique of “geographical diaries“.Having carried out by
aerial photography of the district and having multiplied the map of the town, Hert asked several groups of children of different age to fill in daily these maps, noting felt-tip pens routes of the movements during the day. By different color visits of school, on business or on walk, alone, with companions or with parents were designated.
the Processing of these cards which demanded laborious work allowed Hert to establish the most interesting facts.
In - the first, it turned out that at any age, from the youngest to teenage, the territory developed by boys in one and a half - two times are more than territory of girls. That is boyish existence is developed in space much more widely, than at girls. And it in spite of the fact that as Hert found out, on boys parents impose more rigid bans concerning walks, than on girls.
This fact corresponds to data which were collected and explained with the famous Soviet biologist V. A. Geodakyan. He considered any biological community as information system in which man`s and female individuals have the informative role.
of Research of Geodakyan was shown that, irrespective of a step which is occupied by a species on an evolutionary ladder “man`s“ tasks are similar everywhere. Man`s individuals are adapted in order that actively and to safely collect information in the outside world. It means: to seek to investigate this world, to appreciate novel, to try all new on own skin. Testing the world itself, through itself, the man`s individual either perishes, or comes back to the community in new quality, having acquired new knowledge, abilities, properties. Thus it brings biological information, important for a look survival.activity of boyish research of the territory the behavior biology corresponding to deep laws can recognize
In this sense. It turns out that it is by nature necessary to boys more, than to girls to climb where it is necessary and where it is not necessary, at full speed to direct there where interestingly, attractively, dangerously. What they with success also do, quite often paying for it with cones and bruises, sometimes - serious injuries, and most often parental punishments. It is known that the fast flea beetle of the first on a comb gets. For the curiosity leading to imprudence in fauna males, as well as boys, pay off too with the fact that more often than females get to a drag-net of hunters.
the “Female“ biological role, across Geodakyan, consists in that the obtained information to perceive, use, keep and transfer further. This “female“ task is carried out at the biological level through the choice of the father of future posterity, the father as carrier of those qualities which are worthy preservations and continuations in children. As females give birth, their quantity in population should not fall strongly. There will be no females - there will be no posterity. Survivability of females is a guarantee of further prosperity of a look therefore the feminine gravitates to dynamic stability more, than the man`s, and female behavior is stabler, more careful, more circumspectly.
It is possible therefore girls are not inclined, like boys, expansive to broaden the territory in the research purposes. But possession of girls, smaller in comparison with boyish, usually are more rendered habitable and psychologically experienced.
we Will return to R. Hert`s work. If detection of communication between a sex of the child and volume of the space mastered by it was its first opening, then the second concerned age features of children`s territorial behavior. Hert found out that the volume of the territory which is actively used by children slowly, but steadily grows in process of approach of children to school age. Receipt in school causes sharp, spasmodic increase in the developed territory. It occurs both at boys, and at girls not only because the school usually is on some, sometimes quite considerable, distance from the house. All tenor of life of the child and his social status changes: he is a school student now. Even more often parents send it with various instructions that expands at once the range of places which he visits, and respectively - the area of the space mastered by it.
About nine years in life of the child the bicycle begins to play a large role. Emergence of own teenage bicycle becomes a dedication symbol in new age. Children use in the most active way this remarkable vehicle for development of world around. Hobby during this period - group bicycle walks on vicinities.
Of seven years before end of teenage age the area of the territory developed by the child promptly extends. But, according to R. Hert, people usually on it also stop: having reached teenage age, they are not inclined to investigate new spaces any more, and live in limits known for it and do not look for another, occupied with the affairs. However, it is necessary to consider that all material described above was collected by Hert at research of residents of the tiny American provincial town. Of course, the territorial behavior of residents of the big city will have the features. Though as we will see later, there are many real bases to claim that River. Hert precisely caught important regularities of children`s territorial behavior.by
For the characteristic of the territory developed by animals or the person usually use three basic concepts: “borders“, “ways“ and “places“. The main aspects of territorial behavior are reflected in them.
the Concept “borders“ personifies opposition of “the“ space - “others“, “external“, to “another“. For an animal “the“ territory is a space on which it lives, is fed and removes posterity. Security of borders from encroachments of strangers is a survival problem. Therefore animals mark borders of the sites, most often leaving odorous tags there. For the newcomer they become a signal: do not go, others territory here! - something like plates:“ Private possession“ which can be met in the country district in the western countries.the vygorazhivaniye Subject the person of the limits in the space which is already inhabited by animals is remarkably described by
in the book of the famous Canadian zoologist Farley Mowat “Do not shout, wolves!“. It alone went to months-long travel to the wild Canadian tundra to study behavior of wolves. Having found the convenient place, Mowat began to grow roots - put tents for housing and for a warehouse of products and equipment. Soon he was convinced available at wolves of strongly developed feeling of property in relation to their territory which borders were clearly designated on wolf manners. Mowat, being an expert in behavior of animals, at once understood that it is necessary to live in others monastery under the charter adopted there. Therefore he decided to force wolves to admit the fact its existence. Somehow in the evening when wolves left on night hunting, he placed the order for own land plot. However it was more difficult to stake out it, than Mowat assumed. Having boiled a big teapot of water, he properly got drunk to tea and, having waited a little, went to mark borders of the site. On each large bunch of a grass, on hummocks and trees around camp it “undersigned“. On it the most part of night left: it was necessary to come back often to tent and to drink incredible amount of tea. One teapot was not enough.Work was finished by
only by the morning. Happy with himself, Mowat got into tent and began to observe. When the wolf was, he attentively bypassed and sniffed at all tags of the person and about each of them from outer side put the: I was here - I understood you! Business took 15 minutes. Since then all animals - neighbors respected the rights of the owner of a site and considered its borders (though each several weeks were necessary to update tags). The person left to animals the message in their language, and they took it into consideration.People of border of the territory are endured by
first of all as limits of possession and a zone of personal or group influence:“ mine“, “ours“. In human community the border conflicts often happen especially sharp and painful of - for the fact that they are more connected with collision of psychological motives, and not just with fight for material benefits. Psychological opposition often receives the symbolical expression in the form of fight for the territory.
The less mature is the personality, the weaker she feels own identity - definiteness, integrity, stability and sensibleness of herself. The lack of internal self-identity is usually compensated by a bigger support on external forms in which the personality materializes, approving the presence and the importance both for others, and for itself.the Statement of the “I“ through demonstration of master`s situation in a certain space is characteristic
of children. They are inclined to leave marks of the presence in the territory developed by them. They adjust relationship with this space, literally leaving particles of in obvious and undercover places. Let`s note also that the concepts “our yard“, “our street“, “our places“ are always important also for experience of self-identity of children`s and teenage groups. Them “collective I“ realize myself through the master`s possession of a certain territory too, and protection of the territory belonging to it against strangers becomes one of means of unity of such group.Continuation