Rus Articles Journal

Without surprises! Analyses before conception of

Many women consider, to walk and drink that for the birth of the healthy kid is enough to be forgotten about addictions much vitamins. However there is more to come. To all who plan the child`s birth even in the absence of complaints to health, it is recommended to pass several laboratory researches. There is a number of analyses which need to be handed over to both future parents, the therapist or the doctor of any specialty whom you saw concerning pregnancy planning can Estimate results of researches.

the General clinical blood test

Is one of the most widespread analyses, and it happened to hand over it, for certain, to each person. The analysis gives the chance to learn relative quantity of blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, eosinophils, etc.) a leykotsitarny formula (a ratio of kinds of leukocytes in blood), a blood saturation hemoglobin, the SOE level etc.

the procedure Course

needs to Come to laboratory on an empty stomach (as a rule, in the morning) as the breakfast causes blood change (a ratio of elements of blood), and the result of the analysis will turn out not absolutely true. The analysis undertakes from a finger or from a vein.

Possible changes

Decrease in content of hemoglobin and, as a rule, erythrocytes tells

to

about anemia. Anemia - the state which is characterized by decrease in hemoglobin (men have less than 130 g/l and women have 120 g/l). Usually at the same time there is also a decrease in quantity of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Most often anemia is connected with a lack of iron of food or its bad assimilation from - for chronic diseases zheludochno - an intestinal path, at women - with plentiful blood loss at the periods caused by gynecologic diseases.

Platelets play an important role in the course of fibrillation. Decrease in platelets (thrombocytopenia) in blood test can be caused by the increased consumption of platelets (chronic bleeding) or immune violations, from - for whom platelets partially cease to be developed or have the wrong structure, the form. Increase of quantity of platelets is most often caused by the general condensation of blood (dehydration from - for vomitings or a frequent liquid chair, a small water consumption).

Increase of level of leukocytes can tell

about an inflammation. Substantial increase of level of leukocytes (in 10 and more times) can be a symptom of a leukosis (a malignant disease of blood).

Decrease in the level of leukocytes in blood test can be a sign of oppression of blood formation, exhaustion of an organism, an immunodeficiency.

Change of a leykotsitarny formula (a percentage ratio among themselves various kinds of leukocytes - neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophiles, monocytes etc.) if in an organism there is an infection center, gives the chance to specify, chronic or sharp it is an infection, allows to assume existence of allergic states etc. For example, substantial increase of neutrophils in blood test usually speaks about an acute inflammation. Decrease in quantity of neutrophils in blood test can be an immunodeficiency sign. Increase of level of eosinophils in blood test - a symptom of an allergy, existence of parasites (worms or lyambliya) in an organism.

Change SSE (speed of subsidence of erythrocytes) also tells

about a chronic or acute inflammation in an organism.

What to consider as norm?

blood test of the adult Is normal of

looks so:

Hemoglobin (Hb)
Husband: 130 - 160 G/l
of wives: 120 - 140 g/l
of Erythrocytes
muzh:4kh10 12 - 5. 1ő10 12 / l
of wives: 3. 7 x 10 12 - 4,7 x 10 12 / l
of Leukocytes 4,0 - 9. 0 x 10 9

of Leykotsitarnaya formula:

  • Neutrophils: norm - 60 - 75% of total number of leukocytes, palochkoyaderny - to 6.
  • Eosinophils: norm - 1 - 5% of total number of leukocytes.
  • Lymphocytes: norm - 18 - 37% of total number of leukocytes.
  • Basophiles: norm - 0 - 1% of total number of leukocytes.
  • Monocytes: norm - 6 - 8% of total number of leukocytes.

Platelets: normal content in blood - 180 - 360 thousand/ml.

of SOE - 2 to 15 mm/h

the General analysis of urine

Is the obligatory analysis for those who plan pregnancy. It shows quality of functioning of secretory system (kidneys, a bladder, mochetochnik), and at pregnancy on them huge loading will lay down.

the procedure Course

Before collecting urine on the analysis needs to carry out by

a careful toilet of genitals. For the analysis use the average portion of urine gathered in pure ware. It is necessary to deliver urine to the analysis no later than 2 hours after collecting urine, otherwise results will be doubtful.

Possible changes

In urine of the healthy person of protein should not be

. Its emergence usually testifies to a disease of kidneys, an exacerbation of chronic diseases of kidneys.

Existence of bacteria in urine - a symptom of chronic or sharp diseases of kidneys, urinary tract. Especially dangerous phenomenon - an asymptomatic bakteriuriya, that is existence of changes in analyses in the absence of complaints of the patient. Dangerously it from - for what can proceed is as much as long without the corresponding treatment and supervision, during pregnancy at the same time inflammatory diseases of an urinary system develop that exerts negative impact on the course of pregnancy, on a condition of a fruit. An exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritises (an inflammation of the urinary device of kidneys) during pregnancy - one of the reasons of spontaneous abortions.

Leukocytes in urine, and also cylinders (the specific cages covering a wall of urinogenital ways and strenuously peeling at an inflammation), erythrocytes - a symptom of pyelonephritis and other infectious diseases of kidneys.

urine Is normal of

it is transparent - muddy urine means availability of impurity of salts in it (phosphates, urat, calcium oxalates), bacteria, erythrocytes, leukocytes that can speak about an inflammatory disease of kidneys.

Acidity of urine (rn) the person depends on nature of food. If you love meat food, then in the analysis of urine sour reaction of urine will be observed if you the vegetarian or adhere to a milk diet, then reaction of urine will be alkaline.

Specific weight
urine (specific density of urine) characterizes by

the filtering function of kidneys and depends on amount of the emitted organic compounds (urea, uric acid, salts) and chlorine, sodium, potassium, and also on amount of the emitted water. Changes of specific weight of urine towards decrease can testify to a chronic renal failure (a state at which kidneys do not cope with the function, at the raised water consumption and some other states). Increase of specific weight of urine speaks about inflammatory diseases of kidneys (glomerulonefrita), possible diabetes, big losses of liquid or its small use.

Once revealed changes of urine are not the diagnosis yet. For specification of a situation by the doctor additional inspection, for example the analysis of urine across Nechiporenko, bacteriological crops of urine and many others is appointed.

What to consider as norm?

At the healthy person the general analysis of urine has to look so: protein normal is not defined, leukocytes - 0 - 5 under review, erythrocytes, cylinders, bacteria - 0 - 1 under review. Urine transparent, sour, specific weight 1010 - 1030.

Biochemical blood test

This analysis allows the doctor to judge

a condition of internals and their enzymatic function. At biochemical blood test the doctor defines protein content, glucose, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, salts, carries out hepatic tests.

the procedure Course

needs to Come to laboratory on an empty stomach (as a rule, in the morning), as well as at the general blood test. Blood undertakes from a vein, sometimes - along with the general blood test.

Possible changes

Glucose is a universal power source for cages - the main substance from which any cage of a human body receives energy for life. Digestion of glucose cages requires the normal content of insulin - pancreas hormone. Decrease in glucose speaks about starvation, a hypoglycemia (the decrease in level of glucose in blood appearing, for example, at badly picked up treatment of diabetes). Increase of level of glucose can testify to diabetes. However it can be and physiological - after meal.

Both partners have to take a blood test for definition of a blood type and a Rhesus factor - a factor.

the General protein is a part of all anatomical structures (a muscle, cellular membranes), transfers substances by birth and to cages, accelerates the course of biochemical reactions in an organism, distinguishes substances - or others - and protects from strangers, regulates a metabolism, holds liquid in blood vessels and does not allow it to go to fabrics. The general protein of blood consists of two fractions: albumine and globulins, - which also find the reflection in biochemical blood test. Reduction of amount of the general protein happens at diseases of kidneys, starvation, long inflammatory diseases. Increase of level of the general protein can take place at some diseases of blood, at system diseases of connecting fabric, at cirrhosis (a chronic disease at which there is a replacement of functional tissue of liver connecting), at the states and diseases which are followed by organism dehydration. Albumine - the most important fraction of the general protein. Falling of level of albumine can speak about serious illnesses of a liver, kidneys. Usually this indicator is lowered at diabetes, a heavy allergy, starvation, burns, nagnoitelny processes. Globulins are presented more by protective proteins - scale - globulins. The scale - globulins tells increase of level about existence in an organism of an infection and an inflammation, decrease can testify to an immunodeficiency.

Bilirubin the general - the bile component, consists of two fractions - indirect (untied), formed at disintegration of blood cells (erythrocytes), and direct connected), formed from indirect in a liver and removed through bilious channels in intestines. High figures of bilirubin can appear after 24 - 48 hours of starvation, at a long low-calorie diet, at liver diseases.

Urea - the product of an exchange of proteins which is removed kidneys. Its increase speaks about violation of secretory function of kidneys.

Creatinine - the product of an exchange of proteins which is removed kidneys. Its increase also speaks about violation of secretory function of kidneys.

Uric acid - the product of an exchange of nucleinic acids which is brought out of an organism kidneys. Healthy people have its level in blood and urine can increase at the high content of chemical compounds of purin in food (they contain in meat, especially fat, to fault) and to decrease at the diet rich with carbohydrates and fats. Increase of content of uric acid happens at gout (the illness of adjournment of crystals of urat in joints and other fabrics developing from - for violations of an exchange), leukoses (malignant diseases of blood), sharp infections, liver diseases, a severe form of diabetes, chronic eczema, psoriasis, diseases of kidneys.

of Alaninaminotransferaz (ALAT or ALT) - the liver enzyme participating in an exchange of amino acids. In a healthy organism the maintenance of an indicator of ALT in blood is insignificant. Increase of enzyme is possible at dysfunction of a liver or bodies where ALT collects normal (heart, muscular tissue).

of Aspartataminotransferaz (ASAT or ACT) - the liver enzyme participating in an exchange of amino acids. Increase of enzyme is possible at dysfunction of a liver or bodies where ALT collects normal (heart, skeletal muscles, nervous tissue, kidneys).

Amylase - the enzyme produced by cages pancreatic and parotid salivary glands. Increase of its level speaks about pancreas diseases. And decrease in level of amylase in blood can testify to hepatitis, increase of level of hormones of a thyroid gland.

Potassium, sodium, chlorides
provide to

electric properties of cellular membranes, are a part of internal liquid of an organism (cytoplasm in cages, extracellular liquid in fabrics, blood, gastric juice). Change of their quantity is possible at starvation, dehydration, dysfunction of kidneys and bark of adrenal glands.

Calcium - the element which is participating in carrying out a nervous impulse, fibrillation and being a part of a bone tissue and enamel of teeth. Increase of calcium can be connected with increase of function of a parathyroid gland, excess of vitamin D, tumors, and decrease - with decrease in function of a thyroid gland, deficiency of vitamin D, dysfunction of kidneys (calcium it is superfluous it is brought out of an organism),

Phosphorus inorganic - the element which is a part of nucleinic acids, a bone tissue and the main systems of power supply of a cage - ATP. It is regulated in parallel with calcium level, in this regard the reasons of its increase and decrease - the same.

Magnesium & mdash; the element which is a part of a number of the enzymes necessary for functioning of heart, nervous and muscular tissue. Many processes of activity of an organism depend on the content of magnesium. Increase of its level is possible at dysfunction of kidneys, adrenal glands, and decrease - at dysfunction of parathyroid glands.

Phosphatase alkaline - the enzyme which is formed in a bone tissue, a liver, intestines, a placenta, lungs. Serves for the general assessment of these bodies. For example, its increase is possible at a disease of bones, a liver,

of Holinesteraz - the enzyme which is formed in a liver. The main use - for an assessment of function of a liver.

the General cholesterol - the substance both arriving from the outside, and which is synthesized in an organism. With its participation sex and some other hormones are formed, vitamins, bilious acids, the Level of cholesterol increases at diabetes, atherosclerosis (a chronic disease of arteries with formation of the single and multiple centers of characteristic plaques on an internal vystilka of vessels), chronic diseases of kidneys, decrease `functions of a thyroid gland, cholesterol level at increase of function of a thyroid gland, chronic heart failure, some types of anemia Decreases.

Triglycerides - other class of lipids which is not to cholesterol derivatives. On the level of triglycerides it is possible to judge features of food. It can raise at the use of a large amount of animal fats and decrease at a vegetarian diet. High figures are characteristic of some diseases of kidneys, the reduced function of a thyroid gland.

Iron - the substance which is a part of hemoglobin and participating in blood oxygen transfer. The main state interesting the doctor - decrease in level of iron - says about anemia.

What to consider as norm?

in the absence of problems with health biochemical blood test has to look so:

Glucose - from 3,3 to 5,5 mmol/l.
the General protein - 65 - 85 g/l.
Albumine - not less than 54%.
the General bilirubin - no more than 20,5 mmol/l.
Direct bilirubin - 0 - 5,1 µmol/l or 0 - 3,4 µmol/l (G)
Urea - 4. 2 - 8,3 mmol/l or 2,1 - 7,1 mmol/l (G).
Creatinine - 44 - 150 µmol/l.
Uric acid - from 179 - 476 µmol/l.
of ALT of a tstorm of ALAT) - to 31 Piece/l.
of nuclear heating plant - do31ed/l.
Amylase - from 0. 8 to 3. 2 ME/l.
of KAliya - 2. 23 - 2. 57 mmol/l.
Sodium - 135 - 145 mmol/l.
Chlorides - 97 - 110 mmol/l.
Kalpy in blood - 2. 15 - 2,50 mmol/l.
Phosphorus - 0,87 - 1,45 mmol/l.
Magnesium - 0. 65 - 1. 05 mmol/l.
Alkaline phosphatase - 38 - 126 ME/l. Holinesteraz`s
- 5300 - 12900 Pieces/l.
Cholesterol - from 3 - 6 to 6. 7 mmol/l.
Triglycerides - from 0. 43 to 1. 81 mmol/l.
Iron - 9. 0 - 31. 1 µmol/l.

the Blood type and a Rhesus factor - a factor

Both partners have to take a blood test for definition of a blood type and a Rhesus factor - a factor.

the procedure Course

Blood undertakes from a vein, it is possible - along with clinically and biochemical analysis, then it needs also to be handed over on an empty stomach.

Possible options

If at the woman are a positive Rhesus factor - a factor, then problems any are not expected. And if negative, and at the husband - positive, then it is necessary to make blood test on antibodies to a Rhesus factor - to a factor (even if future father of the child has a Rhesus factor - a factor negative too). If the woman has the I blood type, and at the man - any other, incompatibility on blood types is possible. By results of these analyses it is impossible to take any actions before pregnancy - these researches are necessary for elaboration of tactics of conducting pregnancy.

Other analyses

Besides, it makes sense to be examined on existence in an organism of future parents of causative agents of such infections as hepatitises B and C, the human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis - for this purpose is also taken a blood test from a vein.