Lagging behind the schedule of
the Diagnosis “syndrome of an arrest of development of a fruit“ (SADF) always disturbs future mothers. Why the kid develops slowly, and than doctors can help with such situation?A little physiology
of Long nine months the kid grows at
and gains strength, being going to be born. All this time he “lives“ in a stomach at mother, existing at the expense of resources of her organism.
until the birth respiratory organs of a fruit do not function. For the first time lungs of the kid “will earn“ during the first breath - right after birth. Up to this point supply of a fruit with oxygen is made through a placenta. Oxygen from blood of mother gets into fruit blood through placenta fibers. From fruit blood through a placenta carbon dioxide comes to blood of mother.to the Adult for saturation of cages and body tissues oxygen needs to make by
a breath. The oxygen which is contained in the inhaled air will fill lungs and through walls of the smallest element of respiratory system - an alveolus - the capillary will get in small blood sosudik. In the blood course of a molecule of oxygen “will take“ a carrier, hemoglobin, and will deliver a power source to each cage of an organism.
the Kid receives oxygen in “ready to the use“ a look - dissolved in blood. The breath and an exhalation, and also gas exchange at the level of lungs for it are carried out by mother. The placenta is responsible for quality and speed of gas exchange between mother and the kid. The fruit grows and the metabolism at it intensive, so, need for oxygen always high develops very quickly.
of Function of digestion of a fruit during pre-natal development is also replaced by a placenta. Through a placenta (as through customs) from an organism of mother nutrients for the kid are delivered. In a placenta the enzymes splitting nutrients are produced. The proteins, fats and carbohydrates which are in mother`s blood are taken placenta vorsinam, are exposed to enzymatic processing and are delivered to a fruit in the state suitable for assimilation by its organism. Some products of the proteolysis and carbohydrates (amino acids, glucose), and also inorganic salts and water get through a placenta by diffusion. From mother through a placenta pass the vitamins and minerals necessary for development and activity of the growing organism of the kid to a fruit.
Thus, development of a fruit completely depends on the nutrients arriving from mother`s organism. The breakfast, a lunch and a dinner of future mother is processed in her digestive tract, substances, useful to work of an organism, - proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins - are soaked up to the blood course and with current of blood are delivered in a placenta. The placenta finishes digestion and sends “the useful menu“ to the kid. It turns out that the placenta is responsible for delivery and quality of food too, eventually.Why the kid does not grow at
In the first half of pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, all nutrients and oxygen coming to an organism of the kid are used for “construction“ of bodies and systems of a fruit. After 20 - y weeks the intensive growth of a fruit, a weight increase begins. Criteria of speed and a proportion of an increase of weight and growth of the kid on each term of pregnancy are known to the doctors watching pre-natal development of the little person.
At insufficient intake of oxygen through a placenta the fruit has a hypoxia - oxygen starvation. The hypoxia slows down pre-natal development of a fruit and can even become the reason of his death. The conditions breaking delivery to an oxygen fruit along with it quite often cause a removal delay through a placenta of carbon dioxide. Pre-natal asphyxia (violation of respiratory function of a fruit) at which the kid suffers from a lack of oxygen and excess of carbonic acid of an organism results. If the reason of asphyxia not to eliminate, the fruit can die.
Violation of gas exchange of a fruit can arise at a number of diseases of mother, and also at various changes in a placenta and umbilical cord. Insufficient delivery of oxygen to a fruit can be an anemia consequence (the state which is characterized by shortage of hemoglobin - the main carrier of oxygen), heart diseases, pneumonia, feverish states (flu, a SARS with high temperature), toxicoses and other diseases of future mother.
To oxygen starvation of a fruit are led by such changes in a placenta which reduce the area of gas exchange between organisms of mother and kid - a so-called respiratory surface of a placenta. Hemorrhages in placenta fabrics, “white heart attacks“ - sites of the become lifeless placentary fabric belong to such changes. Hemorrhages and heart attacks in a placenta are quite often formed at heavy gestoza of pregnancy (these complications are shown more often by emergence of hypostases and increase of arterial pressure), diseases of kidneys and is warm - vascular system of mother.Gas exchange of a fruit is broken by
at a premature otsloyka of a placenta from a uterus wall. The more the size of the exfoliated placenta site, the conditions of gas exchange of a fruit become worse.
Violation of delivery of oxygen to a fruit and removal of carbon dioxide from its organism happens at violation of blood circulation in umbilical cord vessels.
Similar violations arise at a tightening of true knot of an umbilical cord, at a long sdavleniye of a site of an umbilical cord between parts of a fruit, a uterus wall.by
At any violations of a blood-groove in maternal vessels, a blood network of a placenta or veins of an umbilical cord along with gas exchange breaks supply of nutrients. The kid limited in oxygen and food begins to lag behind in development; than is longer “interruption“ in delivery of the food and gas exchange, especially lag is expressed in growth and development of the kid.the Majority of drugs is intravenously kapelno injected by
the Balanced diet during pregnancy also has huge value - not only for health of future mother, but also for growth of the kid. Monotonous or insufficient food can cause a delay or violation of development of a fruit. Not smaller value for the proportional growth and weight of the kid has presence of vitamins B the pregnant woman`s diet. The lack of vitamins and mineral substances of the menu of future mother can become the reason of a growth inhibition and development of pre-natal anomalies.
the Large role in development of pathology is played by influence adverse professional (harmful production), social (bad living conditions, insufficient food) and ecological factors, and also smoking, drug addiction and abuse of alcohol.
However the main and most common cause of insufficient receipt to a fruit of oxygen and nutrients is fetoplatsen - tare insufficiency. So the pathological condition of pregnancy which is characterized by violation of speed and level of a blood-groove in system “mother - a placenta - a fruit is called“. As a result of deterioration in blood circulation in a placenta both gas exchange, and an exchange of nutrients suffers, so, the kid suffers a systematic shortage of the vital products providing his normal development. Fetoplatsentarny insufficiency most often leads to the state called by a syndrome of an arrest of development of a fruit.
the Dangerous delay
the Syndrome of an Arrest of Development of a Fruit (SADF) is the pathological condition of the kid which is characterized by lag in growth and development concerning pregnancy term.
are Distinguished by two types of an arrest of development of a fruit - symmetric and asymmetric. The symmetric form is characterized by proportional (uniform) lag of length and weight of a fruit from the norm corresponding to pregnancy term. This form is observed in 10 - 30% of cases and more often develops in early terms of pregnancy (till 16 weeks). Chromosomal and genetic anomalies are the main reasons for a symmetric form of a delay of pre-natal development of a fruit (a Down syndrome, a fenilketonuriya - a congenital illness with violation of an exchange of amino acid of phenylalanine, etc.) congenital malformations of a fruit (heart diseases, blood and nervous system). Quite often the pre-natal infection leads to symmetric ZRP, is more often - virus (a rubella, herpes, a cytomegalovirus). Other reason of a uniform growth inhibition - starvation, avitaminosis, smoking, alcoholism or drug addiction of mother. At last, the diseases of future mother which are followed by a chronic hypoxia are of great importance: heart diseases, asthma, emphysema of lungs, bronkhoektatichesky illness, respiratory insufficiency.
the SZRP Asymmetric form is characterized by uneven development of a fruit, for example:
- lag of weight against the normal length of a fruit;
- lag in development of bodies of a thorax and an abdominal cavity at normal development of a head;
- combination of these two types.
in the second half of pregnancy (after 20 - y weeks) when the intensive growth of a fruit begins. This form makes 70 - 90% of all cases. The most frequent reasons of development of such SZRP form - a gestoza of pregnant women, diabetes and it is warm - vascular diseases of mother, anemia, placenta pathology, frequent bleedings during pregnancy, mnogoplody.
to Stop hunger strike!
signs on which the treating doctor and even future mother can suspect the deterioration in a condition of the kid connected with violation of supply of oxygen and nutrients Exist.characterize by
of the Movement of a fruit its state. Mother can suspect deterioration in a condition of a fruit at considerable permanent reduction of quantity and force of stirs. Normal the frequency of movements of a fruit in 32 weeks of pregnancy makes 90 - 100 in 12 hours, then it gradually decreases and by the end of pregnancy is reduced to 40 - 50 movements in 12 hours. The critical frequency allowing to suspect deterioration in health of a fruit owing to a hypoxia 10 - 20 movements in 12 hours are considered. Nature of the movements of the kid: long or short, single or multiple, weak or strong - will also help the doctor to define changes in a condition of a fruit. Mother can define change of nature of stirs and without calculations: she will just notice that stirs appear much less often or, on the contrary, more often. > Calculation of movements it is expedient to p to make
at the same time days within an hour (in the morning from 8 to 9 o`clock, with 9 to 10 etc.) . Sharp increase or an urezheniye of movements of a fruit and furthermore - total absence of movements in the course of supervision can confirm an unsuccessful state of health of the kid.
Other criterion of growth and development of a fruit is increase in the sizes of a uterus. To each term of pregnancy there corresponds a certain height of standing of a bottom of a uterus; in process of development of pregnancy also the stomach circle increases. Both of these indicators are fixed on each appointment. Lack of growth of a uterus in dynamics testifies to a pathological condition of a fruit (it especially important in 26 - 36 weeks of pregnancy).